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ports of Buenaventura, Tumaco, Guayaquil, upper and lower Magdalena. The Colombian Payta, connecting at Callao with their line to Guard, by their energy in forwarding these Valparaiso, and calling at eighteen different works, have increased their already numerous ports along the coast. The line from Panama claims to national recognition. They can justto Guayaquil runs one steamer per month, ly boast that their sappers are the best roadeach way, calling at Ballenita, Manta Bahia, makers in the country; five hundred and sixty Esmeraldas, Tumaco, Buenaventura.
of these are now working on the Girardot and The port of Aspinwall is visited by steamers Cauca lines. Engineers are now surveying the making seventeen regular monthly arrivals and railways of Subachoque, Samacá, and Pacho, as many departures, as follows:
in the valley of the Andes, and the reports al1. The Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, ready furnished on the first two are highly from Southampton ; nine steamers; four arri- satisfactory. That of Samacá, which is the month.
joint work of the national and of the local 2. The West India and Pacific Steamship government of Boyacá, is spoken of as “an Company, from Liverpool; twelve steamers; honor to America.” The Scientific Exploratwo arrivals per month.
tion Commission, instituted by legal appoint3. The Compagnie Générale Transatlantique, ment, is now fully organized, and will shortly from St. Nazaire and Havre; three steamers initiate its valuable investigations. The dredgper month.
ing and deepening of the river Magdalena are 4. Hamburg American Line, from Hamburg; progressing rapidly under the favorable auspices seven steamers; two arrivals per month. of scientific organization and ample funds.
5. Harrison Line, from Liverpool; sixteen The national elections for the renewal of the steamers; one arrival per month.
legislative and executive staff, as well as those 6. Atlas Steamship Company, from New for the partial renewal of a part of the staff of York; two arrivals per month.
government officials in some of the States, 7. Pacific Mail Steamship Company (Amer- have now taken place, and have been characican); three steamers per month from New terized throughout the republic by perfect York.
freedom of expression and tranquillity. Dr. Of the seven lines but one is American. Zaldua is the Federal President-elect of the
The shipping movements at the port of Car Congress, and he will be supported by able tagena for the year ending August 31, 1879, representatives of every shade of political were as follows:
opinion. The result of the elections may be regarded as highly favorable to the existing national policy of the present Government. This sketch of political consolidation, and of slow but sure industrial and scientific develop
ment, is not without its draw backs. The in148,667
153,673 145,667 5,006 153,678 habitants of the towns south of the Tolima,
and some in the center of Cundinamarca, are The number of passengers carried by the experiencing the ravages of small-pox; while Panama Railway in 1876 was 22,940 ; in 1877, the locusts, which have not yet abandoned the 22,110; in 1878, 24,921; and in 1879, 23,729. Atlantic coast, still desolate the Cauca, and
There were, in 1880, 1,850 miles of telegraph have appeared on the other side of Chicamocha, in the republic, the number of dispatches hav- in the State of Santander. The seaport town ing been 150,204. The post-office returns for of Buenaventura was almost completely de1879-'80 were as follows: Letters, 463,832 ; stroyed by fire in April, 1881. printed matter, 413,350 packets.
COLORADO. The Legislature met on JanIn the department of public instruction the uary 4th and adjourned on February 15th. In spirit of reform persists with its characteris- his inaugural address Governor Pitkin called tic energy. An industrial feature has of late attention to the mistaken policy of mining been imparted to the educational system, for corporations in issuing an excessive amount of the development of knowledge in the direction capital stock, that practice having a tendency of technical professions; and the conversion to create a prejudice against mining investof all the higher schools into schools of mines, ments. Upon the subject of Chinese immigracommerce, and agriculture is seriously talked tion and the Chinese residents of Colorado he of in the right places.
spoke at considerable length and with much The construction of the four national rail- earnestness, dwelling upon the unwholesome ways is being assiduously carried on, writes a social and personal habits of the Chinese, and native journalist. The Honda and Girardot upon the evil consequences of bringing their lines are far advanced. The Honda section labor into competition with American labor. avoids the falls of Magdalena River, and will He deprecated violent outbreaks, such as ocbe the first whose valuable services will be curred in Denver in the fall of 1880, but deavailable. The link line which has been run clared that the State, through its Legislature, along the east bank of the Magdalena is now should unite with the Pacific coast States in completed, and is already rendering important demanding congressional action prohibiting aid as a means of communication between the further Chinese immigration. He referred to
the death of Lieutenant-Governor George B. the people. The Constitution of 1876 contained Robinson, who died on November 29, 1880, a provision that the capital should be at Denhaving been shot by mistake by one of the ver until the first general election of 1881, when armed guards stationed at his mine, as sug- the electors of the State should by ballot desiggesting the propriety of some legislative re nate their choice for the permanent seat of striction upon the power of private corpora- government. The total vote on the capital tions to employ armed guards for the defense question was 45,497, of which 695 were cast of their property. He thought it would be for Salida, 2,788 for Canton City, 4,790 for wise to impose a severer penalty upon persons Colorado Springs, 6,047 for Pueblo, and 30,guilty of " mine-jumping,” which would in 248 for Denver, which city, having thus repart remove the necessity for armed guards. ceived a majority of all the votes cast, became llo recommended the establishment of a re- the permanent seat of the State government. form school for boys in connection with a The vote for Governor in the election of 1880, State farm.
as officially declared in the Legislature, was: Very few important bills were passed by the Frederick W. Pitkin (Republican), 28,465; Legislature. Some local feeling was excited Hough (Democrat), 23,547. Owing to the over a new apportionment law passed near death before his inauguration of the Lieutenthe close of the session, in which the ratio of ant-Governor-elect, George B. Robinson, the representation in the State Legislature was Lientenant-Governor of the previous adminisfixed as set forth in the following sections: tration, II. A. W. Tabor, continues to fill that
Section 2. The ratios for the senatorial apportion- position. In 1880 the vote for Garfield was ment shall be : First, one Senator for the first 5,000 27,450, Hancock, 24,647; Garfield's majority, population ; second, one Senator for each 9,000 popu- 1,368. lation thereafter, with one Senator for fractions over By the removal of the Utes and the Uncom7,000 population.
Sko. 3. The ratios for representative apportionment pahgre Indians from the Colorado reservation shall be : First, one Representative for the first 1,000
to Utah the State is rid of several thousand population ; second, one Representative for each 5,000 very undesirable denizens, and vast tracts of population thereafter, with one Representative for frac- the most fertile lands in Colorado are made tions over 3,000 population.
available for settlers. By the terms of the The representation of certain counties was far- agreement between the United States and the ther specifically prescribed in the bill. Ara- confederated bands of the Utes, as set forth in pahoe County was allowed eight Representa- the act of Congress approved June 15, 1880, it tives and Lake County four, the former having is provided that “the Southern Ctes agree to a population of 38,607, and the latter 23,787. remove and settle upon the uroccupied agriIn behalf of these counties there were many cultural lands on the La Plata River in Coloprotests against the reapportionment. A law rado, and if there should not be a sufficiency ot was passed forbidding, under severe penalties, such lands on the La Plata River and in its any person to engage in, promote, or aid any vicinity in Colorado, then upon such other unlottery, gift-enterprise, or any similar scheme occupied agricultural lands as may be found on in the State, or to advertise in a newspaper or the La Plata River or in its vicinity in New otherwise any matter relating to a lottery. A Mexico.” As no such quantity of lands as was law was also passed authorizing the Governor contemplated in this agreeinent could be found to appoint a State Fish Commissioner, with a in the locality indicated, its terms were changed salary of $500 per annum, holding office for and the Indians were induced to consent to a two years, and the sum of $2,500 was appro- transfer to equally fertile and desirable lands priated to purchase grounds and erect a build- in the Uintah reservation in the Territory of ing for a fish-hatchery. For the expenses of Utah. The Ute Indian Commissioners, Messrs. maintaining the hatchery during the year end- Mears, Russell, and MeMorris, had several paring June 1, 1882, the further sum of $3,500 leys with the braves in the course of the sumwas appropriated, and for the second year mer, and found them not disposed to keep their $3,000. Under this law the Governor appoint- agreement. The commissioners named the 25th ed Wilson E. Sisty to be Fish Commissioner. of August as the day for removal. The White A fish-hatchery was erected on the river Platte, River Ctes went peaceably enough, but the about three fourths of a mile from Denver. Uncompahgres were inclined to fight. Under It was opened on the 14th of December and the orders of the Secretary of the Interior, the stocked with 400,000 brook-trout eggs from assistance of General McKenzie and a force of the Old Colony trout-ponds at Plymouth, Mas- 800 troops was invoked by the commissioners. sachusetts. The hatchery has fifteen troughs, Though they outnumbered the white troops with a capacity of 1,000,000 eggs.
and were equally well armed, the Indians deThere were no political conventions held cided to obey, and on the 28th they started for during the year, and no general election took the Utah reservation. During the autumn place, the balloting on November 8th being months there was a good deal of complaint that for district judges, district attorneys, and in the Indians returned to the valleys of the La one district (the sixth) for State Senator. At Plata and Uncompahgre Rivers to hunt, and this election the question of the permanent lo- that they annoyed settlers and interfered with cation of the State capital was submitted to the surveys of the Utah extension of the
Denver and Rio Grande Railroad then going view to a production within reasonable limits, forward. This matter was the subject of a but constant, rather than in the foolish hope correspondence between Governor Pitkin and of sudden and enormous gains. Instead of isSecretary Kirkwood. The Secretary called at- suing an excessive amount of capital stock and tention to the fact that as yet settlers have no trying to pay a dividend on the first batch of rights upon the old reservation lands, for the ore smelted, mine-owners are now beginning protection of which they can properly invoke to put faith in the wiser policy of moderate the aid of the Government, as those lands have capitalization, with a sufficient amount paid not yet been formally opened for settlement. up to develop the mine and put it in order Nevertheless, white settlers flocked upon them for uninterrupted and productive working. In as soon as the Indians retired, and for the most fissure-mining, for instance, experience bas part the issuing of patents will be subsequent proved that a manager can not undertake to to taking possession. In the valleys of the pay dividends before the shaft has been sunk streams on the reservation there is land enough 500 feet, with four or five levels at intervals of for 1,500 ranchmen and stockinen, and the from 75 to 100 feet; and, until adequate boistgreat fertility of the soil, the mildness of the ing and pumping machinery has been provided, climate, the abundance of fruit, vegetables, for- and a large reserve of ore is on hand or in age, fish and game of all kinds, will cause the sight, no prudent manager will attempt to diwhole region to be rapidly peopled. But few vide any money among the share-holders. It Indians now remain in Colorado, and these are was through following the old, reckless inethin such close proximity to the whites, in the ods of mining development that the state of extreme southwestern portion of the State, that things described in the following paragraph there is very little fear of any disturbance from from an article in a Denver newspaper was them. The Uintahs and White River and Un- brought about: compahgre Utes are now located together along
The records of each mining county, and those of the Vintah River in Utah.
the Secretary of State, are burdened with mining corIn the annual report of the Director of the porations with capital' stocks ranging from ten thouMint, Colorado is credited with a production of sand to twenty million dollars. Outside of Leadville $3,400,000 in gold and $15,000,000 in silver for very few of these have paid any dividends at all. It
is safe to estimate that ninety-five hundredths of them the fiscal year ending June 30, 1881, a total of
never will pay dividends as at present organized and $18,400,000. The production of the previous conducted. A large proportion of them are conceived fiscal year was somewhat larger, being $3,200,- in fraud and full of iniquity from top to bottom. A 000 in gold and $17,000,000 in silver, a total of great many are dangerous schemes, to be avoided by
honest men. $20,200,000. Local estimates put the total bullion product of the calendar year 1881 at The horizontal veins in the vicinity of Lead$23,500,000, of which more than half, or $13,- ville have thus far yielded large returns. It is 170,576, was turned out by the smelting-works the opinion of the State Geologist that upright in and about Leadville. There was more hard, or inclined fissures will ultimately be found in intelligent, and well-directed work done in the the granite formation beneath the volcanic mines of Colorado in 1881 than in any previous rocks in which ores are now being mined. year. The falling off in the out-put was due This theory is confirmed by discoveries lately to failure of one or two leading mines pre- made in various parts of the State. Some of viously yielding large amounts of ore, and the the telluride veins are of enormous richness. closing of half a dozen others through the in- One mine yielded ores which, for nearly two cessant flow of water in their best workings. years, gave an average of over five thousand Some new mines were opened, but nothing in dollars per ton in gold, and some ores yield as the nature of a “bonanza” was brought to high as eighty dollars per pound. light. A more serious falling off in the aggre Coal, iron, and petroleum are now among gate production was prevented only by a bet- the products of Colorado, the two former beter system of working existing mines, the avoid- ing turned out in considerable quantities. At ance of wasteful methods, and a more careful Rico, coking coal of a high quality is found in attention to small results. By the use of bet- great abundance. A valuable lignite is proter machinery the cost of treatment was in duced at Como, in the South Park; and nnmany cases materially reduced; grades of ore limited quantities of anthracite and bituminous which were formerly considered worthless, and coal are found at Gothic, Irwin, and Rugby were thrown into the waste-dumps or left in mining-camps. The lignitic coals, found in heaps in the mines, were taken out and treated the northern part of the State, are very dense, with fair profits. Not only in and around jet-black in color, of a high luster, and without Leadville but thronghout the mining districts any fibrous or woody structure. They have an there was evidence ihat the era of wild specu- average specific gravity of 1.33, are remarkably lation and extravagant expectations is rapidly free from sulphur, the average admixture not passing away. There is a growing disposition exceeding one per cent; and they burn readily to take a more sober and sensible view of the and freely, with a high heating power, and a business of mining, to be content with returns small residuum of ash. Some of the mines which would be recognized as liberal in any from which these coals are obtained have been other business, and to manage a mine with a worked continuously for twenty years. None
418 820 979 781
998 4.259 8,863 2,162 2.946 6,718
112 688 541 508
88 266 402
of them are exhausted, and only one or two show signs of a failing supply. Large deposits of excellent iron-ore are being worked at Sa
194,649 154,869 89,870 lida, in Chaffee County; and in the San Luis Valley, in Las Animas, Boulder, Jefferson, El Arapahoe..
9,292 Paso, and Arapahoe Counties, there are im
1,654 measurable stores of the metal awaiting future Chatfee
9,746 7,974 1,772
6,510 6,247 1,263 demand. Even in the Leadville silver-mines, Clear Creek
5,605 4,720 iron-ore is yielded, as an incidental product, in Conejos..
2,879 2,740 sufficient quantities to supply a large part of Custer..
8,082 7,009 1,073 the demand of the Pueblo Iron and Steel Works. Douglas..
1,709 Of oil-wells the State has at present but three
7,952 6,978 -one, nine miles south of Cañon City, 1,448 Fremont.
4,785 4,004 feet deep; one, six miles north of the same
8,774 2,715 city, now only eighty-five feet deep; and one
8,287 6,690 1,347 other, in the same vicinity, which was bored
4,124 to the depth of 1,200 feet, and then abandoned, Jefferson.:
6,810 0,560 1,250 though not until oil was obtained in small quan- Lake,
28,814 16,645 7,169 tities. It is the opinion of experts that great Larimer
4,892 oil discoveries are yet in store for Colorado.
8,901 The State is growing rapidly in agricultural Paray
1,024 importance. The soil is naturally of high fer- Pueblo.
7,615 tility, and, through the cheap and effective Rio Grande
1,664 method of irrigation by which the farmer is
1,978 1,707 able to make a stream of water follow the plow San Juan almost at will, the risk of damage from long
5,459 4,026 1,483
5,646 4,918 droughts is reduced to a minimum. The wheatlands are made to yield twenty-five bushels to The population of the principal cities in 1880 the acre, and the luxuriantly growing native is here given: grasses furnish an abundance of excellent hay Denver
2,226 and forage. The extremely cold weather of Leadville.
15,185 Buena Vista the winter of 1880–81 caused an unprece Colorado Springs. 4,279 Canon City..
1,848 dented mortality among the herds of cattle on
8,817 Breckenridge the plains. Herdsmen estimate the loss at
8,176 Greeley. nearly thirty-three per cent of the total stock Golden
1,004 in the State. The tax-list of 1880 showed a
2,626 total of 541,563 head of cattle in the State, The records of the Auditor of State show but, as it is well known that about one third the assessed valuation of Colorado for the year of the herds escape the assessor, the actual 1881 to be $96,059,985.48. The valuation of number was probably quite 850,000. The 1878 was $43,072,648.26; for 1879, $59,590,number at the close of the year 1881 was es- 761.30; for 1880, $73,050,761.89, showing a timated at not over 600,000, with a valuation steady annual increase of about thirty per cent. of $16,000,000. The early spring and fine The number of acres of assessable land in the summer enabled the stock-raisers to make up State is 2,155,340, which, with improvements, for their winter losses in the year's sales, which is valued at $15,168,790. The State Board of surpassed those of any previous year, the price Equalization, in April, increased the assessbeing from eight to twelve dollars higher per ment-rate on the main lines of railroads runhead than in 1880. Sheep also suffered se- ning through the State by $500 per mile. verely in the storms of March and April, from This makes the rate $6,500 per mile on broadforty to seventy-five per cent of the flocks gauge and $5,000 per mile on narrow-gauge perishing, according to location and the degree roads. With 1,584 miles of railroad in the of exposure. The estimated number of sleep State, this gives a valuation of $11,638,055. in the State is now 1,000,000, and their value The other items of the tax-list are as follows: is $3,000,000.
Merchandise, $6,674,322; capital and manuIt was believed that 100,000 buffalo skins factories, $865,626; town and city lots, $32,would come from the Yellowstone region in 910,993 ; horses, numbering 70,133, $2,732,568; 1881. This is without precedent in the fur mules, $458,128; asses, $6,558; cattle, numtrade. The last season_30,000 were received bering 411,970, $4,611,359; sheep, numbering from the same region. The winter of 1880-'81 634,542, which is far below the real number, having been very severe and long, immense $1,000,041; swine, $19,102; goats, $5,277; all herds of bison concentrated in the fow valleys other animals, $30,247; musical instruments, where they could find subsistence. Their de- $239,230; watches and clocks, $250,513; jewstruction continued during several months. elry, gold and silver plate, $106,866; money
The population of the State, by counties, and credits, $3,473,847; carriages and vehicles, with the native and foreign distinguished, as $767,753; household property, $607,138 ; all returned by the census of 1880, is as follows: other property, $13,354,120; bank and other
3,210 South Pueblo
1.628 1,443 1,803
shares, $882,780; insurance premiums, $186, The railroad system and railroad business of 669. The number of business failures was 107, the State developed with surprising rapidity against 78 in 1880. The total liabilities were during the year. In the ten months ending $763,000, and the assets $502,000, a net in- November 30th, the Denver and Rio Grande crease in loss sustained of $57,000 over the road, the most important line in the State, laid preceding year. The increase in the number 629 miles of steel rails, and built 374 miles of of dealers was about one fourth, The total new road. In that period its net earnings State debt on November 30, 1881, was $330,- were $2,158,693, against $1,372,468 in the cor185.78, against which there was a balance in responding ten months of the preceding year. the Treasury of $45,064.97.
The Union Pacific Railroad's Omaha and DepThe following is a statement of the opera ver Short Line was completed, bringing the tions of the State Treasury for the year ending two cities fifty miles nearer together than by November 30th, showing receipts amounting any other route. The wheat-crop of the State to $373,302.31, exclusive of cash in the Treas- was about 1,600,000 bushels, against 1,425,104 ury, and an expenditure of $395,384.33: in 1880, and 258,474 in 1870. Congress, by
various acts, has granted to the State of ColoBalance in Treasury on November 80, 1880.. $67,146 99 rado 713,322 acres of land, divided as follows: Receipts of general revenue (four-mill tax).. 245, 650 26 For internal improvement, 500,000 acres; for Agricultural College (one-fifth mill tax).. Insane Asylum (one-fifth mill tax)..
11,843 69 public buildings, 32,000; State penitentiary, Mute and Blind one-fifth mill tax).
12,34 48 32,000; State University, 46,080; miscellaneSchool of Mines (one-fifth mill tax).
12,580 58 Round-up and inspection, one mill on value, neat
ous, including salt springs, 46,080; school lands,
8,737 20 57,152. For 420,596 acres of these lands the University of Colorado (one-fifth mill tax).
State has already received patents from the Military poll-tax (fifty cents per capita)..
6,710 63 Penitentiary labor.
17,303 69 United States, and is in possession. State Board of Medical Examiners
Colorado is becoming a favorite resort for Secretary of State, otfice-fees.. Sale of printed laws.....
1,119 90 invalids, its many mineral springs and exAgricultural College receipts.
174 35 tremely salubrious atmosphere giving it a high Fines for violating fish law..
73 98 reputation among the world's sanitaria. The Sale of school lands. Sale of lands for internal improvement.
847 00 subjoined table gives the elevation above the Lease of lands for internal improvement.. 2,350 95 level of the sea of some of the prominent towns Lease of land, interest on sales and interest on
in the State: school investments.
15,597 14 Lease of other State lands.
845 55 (Colorado Land and Mineral Association.
11,044 Hot Sulphur Springs.. 7,715 Black Hawk 7,975 Idaho Springs.
10,205 Cañon City... 5,260 Magnolia..
6,500 Agricultural College...
$12,928 26 Caribou..
6,297 Agricultural College (special)
174 85 Central.
10,295 Insane Asylumn..
16,502 18 Cheyenne..
5,922 Mute and Blind. *2,617 18 Chicago Lakes. 11.500 | Nederland
8,263 School of Mines
12,388 00 Colorado Springs..
5,028 Oro City.
10,217 University of Colorado...
12,500 00 Del Norte..
7.640 Military poll-tax..
6.752 33 Denver,
4.679 Cattle round-up and inspection..
4,196 39 Divide.
8,500 Penitentiary labor.
1.950 09 Estes Park.
7,745 School-fund apportioned..
13,569 96 Fairplay
9,405 Interest on warrants paid.
17,840 92 Garland.
2,835 50 . Georgetown...
4,875 50 Golden..
0,729 Twin Lakes..
49 75 Greeley.
4,776 Paid on account for general revenue and appropriations..
276,443 98 A system of sewerage, on what is known as Cash now in Treasury.
43,061 97 the Waring plan, has been begun in Denver, Total.
8440,449 30 and is being rapidly pushed forward. The The following arrests were made by the Unit
death-rate of the city for the year was only ed States Marshal at Denver during the year :
17.50 per thousand; the total number of deaths Violation of internal revenue laws
was 698, divided, in respect to diseases and Robbing United States mails..
3 causes, as follows: zymotic diseases, 213; conObstructing United States mails..
stitutional, 148; local, 223; developmental, 27; Embezzling Post-Office funds... Embezzling letters...
4 violence, 57. Forging signatures to money-orders..
COMMERCE AND FINANCE, AMERIOpening mail-bags.. Sending obscene circulars through mails..
CAN, IN 1881. The grandeur of the present Breaking into United States Post-Office.
epoch of American commerce and production Larceny on Indian reservation...
can be measured by the magnitude of the agriMurder on Indian reservation... Embezzlement from army department.,
cultural exports which are its chief cause and Embezzlement as Indian agent...
i characteristic. The total value of the exports of Perjury before United States Receiver of Land-Oflice. Bigamy
breadstuffs for the three years ending June 30, Counterfeiting.
1881, was $749,470,445, having been $265,Cutting timber on United States mineral lands..
561,328 in 1881, $282,132,168 in 1880, and Total........
108 $201,776,499 in 1879. The exports of wheat
2 1 1
1 1 4