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tries of Europe; the wars in South America, Afghanistan, the Transvaal, and Turkistan; the revolutionary upheaval in Russia and the terrible murder of the Czar; the persecutions of the Jews in Germany and Russia ; the developments of the still unsolved Eastern question; the social reforms in Germany; the rapid political changes in republican France; the liberal movements in Italy and Spain—are a few of the subjects of which an account is given, together with all the latest statistical information, under the names of the different countries, or dealt with in special articles, such as “ Jews, Persecutions of”; “Islam, the Future of”; “Brahmo Somaj”; “Land Tenure in Europe”; “Opium-Trade of India and China”; “Russian Government, its Features.”
Religious and denominational information is given under the names of the denominations, and a special article on the “New Testament Revision."
There are biographical articles on numerous distinguished persons who have died during the year.
The progress of science, particularly of its useful applications, and the achievements of inventive genius, are described with comprehensive complete
Of the long list of special articles and new subjects may be mentioned as examples, the progress of “Medical Science and Practice,” the article on “ Eye-sight Deterioration,” the one on the progress of “Mechanical Engineering," the recent developments in “Physiology”; the account of the “Exhibition of Electrical Inventions at Paris, the article discussing “Technical Education," the account of the improvement in “ Photography,” the articles on “Glucose”; “Germs, Vaccination with Disease”; “Fertilizers” by Professor W.O. Atwater; “Chlorophyl”; “Oysters, Deterioration of”; “Nutritive Elements of Food”; and the merits and demerits of “Silo, or Ensilage,” by L. B. Arnold.
The subject of the United States census is treated in the volume with great fullness in its various departments, and the population is given of every county in each State, and also of all the principal cities, and compared with the statistics of the former census of 1870. The returns of the recent census in Great Britain, in France, in Italy, Switzerland, and other European countries, are presented to the latest dates practicable. Large and very finely colored maps accompany the United States census, and illustrate the comparative density of the population in 1830 and 1880; the center of population at the end of each decade since 1800; and also the comparative density and the location of the foreign and the colored population.
Fine steel portraits of President Arthur, ex-Secretary Blaine, the lately deceased poet Longfellow, and the distinguished French citizen Gambetta, embellish the volume, together with maps and cuts in various articles.
ADVENTISTS. The several denominations ing churches and a declaration of principles." of Adventists in the United States trace their The convention met April 6th, and was atorigin to the preaching of William Miller, who tended by ninety-three delegates from the predicted about 1840, as the result of his stud- New England States, New York, Pennsylvaies of the prophecies of Scripture and the cal- nia, and Canada. A declaration of principles culations deduced therefrom, that the second respecting creed and church organization and coming of Christ should be looked for in 1843 a form of “advisory covenant were adoptor 1844. They agree in the expression of the ed. The first four articles of the declarabelief that the visible personal second coming tion state the commonly received “orthodox” of Christ is near at hand, but are divided, on doctrine of the Scriptures and the Trinity. other points of doctrine, into four branches. The fifth article declares that Christ died to the most numerous of which are the Second save men from eternal death, the penalty of Advent Christians, numbering about fifty thou- violated law; that the redemption he provided sand members. The distinctive features of is twofold — “redemption of all men from their belief are “the doctrine of the immediate the penalty of Adam's sin, by the resurrection personal coming and reign of Christ on the of the dead ; second, the redemption of beearth ; holiness of heart; the unconscious state lievers from personal sin and its consequences." of the dead; their literal resurrection ; and the The sixth, seventh, and eighth articles treat of final destruction of the wicked.” The Evan- repentance, of baptism (concerning which it is gelical Adventists, numbering about nine thou- said that pardoned believers should be “buried sand members, differ froin these, in holding to with Christ in baptism," to show their belief the conscious state of the dead, and the eternal in the resurrection of Christ and the dead), of conscious suffering of the wicked. The Sev- the Lord's Supper, and the personal return of enth-Day Adventists, who have about fifteen Christ. The tenth article expresses belief in thousand five hundred members, hold that the the everlasting destruction of the finally imsanctuary to be cleansed is not the earth, but penitent, and the final extinction of all evil. the heavenly sanctuary; that Christ will come The eleventh article declares that the coming as soon as he completes his “investigative of Christ is near at hand. The twelfth and judgment" to ascertain who of the dead are thirteenth articles express the belief that the worthy of the first resurrection, and who of earth will be made over to be the future abode the living of translation. Satan is then to of the saints, and that all church action should reign in the earth a thousand years, after which point to the personal coming of Christ. In the earth will be redeemed and fitted to be the the "advisory covenant” the Bible is accepted dwelling-place of the saints. The Life and as the only rule of faith, and liberty of thought Advent Union holds to the life in Christ only, is permitted, with a reservation, for the protecand the non-resurrection of the wicked dead. tion of the privilege of a refusal of sanction
Second Advent CHRISTIAN AssociATION. to the “persistent urging of doctrinal themes" The Second Advent Christians have, until the not “ essential to salvation." The articles on last year, been represented by two distinct or- the subject of church organization approve ganizations, one for the East and one for the the congregational system. West. Representatives of both branches of A conference of Second Advent Christians the denomination were invited by the Eastern representing six States, met at Foreston, IlliAssociation to meet at Worcester, Massachu- nois, in June, and adopted resolutions on setts, in a National Convention, "for the pur- church organization; a declaration of principose of considering a proper system of organiz- ples in harmony with that set forth at Wor
VOL. XXI.--1 A
cester; and a basis of union between Eastern abandonment of the military domination of the and Western Adventists.
country had produced a state of anarchy, and The twenty-second annual meeting of the that the final retirement from Candahar would Second Advent Christian Association—the first give full license to military adventurers ambiregular meeting of the united organization- tious of empire. was held at Chelsea, Massachusetts, August The nature of the negotiations between 16th. The following conferences were repre- Shere Ali and the Russian authorities were resented: Maine, New Hampshire, Massachu- vealed in a secret correspondence which was setts, Vermont, Connecticut, Rhode Island, captured at Cabool. The menacing preparations Hoosick Valley, New York, Ohio, Michigan, of Lord Lytton for the invasion of AfghanisPhiladelphia, Illinois, Wisconsin,' Northern tan had led Shere Ali to appeal to Russia for Central Missouri and Southern Central Iowa, aid, and an offensive and defensive alliance was Southwestern Missouri and Northwestern in negotiation while hostilities between EnIowa, Minnesota, Kansas, California, Alabama, gland and Russia were imminent; but after the and South Carolina. E. A. Stockman presided. signature of the Treaty of Berlin, the Russian The most important business transacted was envoy at Cabool, Colonel Stoletoff
, only sought the adoption of the constitution for the united by equivocations, and by counseling the Ameer organization. This statute declares that the to remain at peace, to extricate his government society shall be known as the
from the position to which it was committed. “ Second Advent Christian Association of America,” The history of the Afghan war shows the imand that its object shall be " the promulgation of Bi- possibility of either power occupying the Afble truth, especially the fulfillment of prophecy rela- ghan country as a military base. The indomitive to the immediate second personal advent of our table mountain tribes are only bound together Lord, and a preparation for the event, through the by a loose feudal league. The Ameer is little Advent Christian Publication Society and all other laudable means."
more than a titular sovereign, and there is no
habitual and disciplined submission to a cenThe association was divided into two districts, tral organized government. Their fierce spirit the Eastern and the Western districts, having of independence will not brook the thought of the western boundary of the State of New foreign ascendency. An ameer would lose the York and Pennsylvania as the line of division allegiance of his subjects who should succumb between them; the annual meetings to be held to any European influence. The threatened alternately in either section. Each conference advance of the English was all that made dealin the United States and Canada is entitled to ings with Russia possible. The adherence one delegate as a member of the association, given to Ayoob Khan by wide sections of the with one additional delegate for every three country was mainly owing to the fact that hundred members of churches; and single Abdurrahman had been the choice of the churches, where there are no conferences, may British conquerors. send delegates. Provision is made for the The Liberal party in England, adhering to representation of distant conferences by proxy; the conviction that a strong, friendly, and and a committee of six delegates consti- independent Afghanistan " is the best bulwark tuted in either section to represent all such against the Russian advance toward India, repart of that section as may not be otherwise corded a solid vote in the House of Commons represented, when the annual meeting is held against a motion to retain Candabar, promptin the other section.
ed by the intelligence of the capture of Geok The Advent Christian Publication Society Tepe by the Russians. The evacuation of returned a capital of $14,438, and reported Candahar and Southern Afghanistan was still that its receipts for the year had been $20,480. delayed, in the hope that the Ameer would It had handled during the year $4,339 worth gather the political strength to occupy the of books and tracts, and had published 4,333,- country and cope with his adversary and En072 pages. The sales amounted to $4,803, and gland's foe, Ayoob Khan. The son of Shere gifts bad been made through the tract fund to Ali had seemingly better chances of uniting Afthe amount of $1,820.
ghanistan under his rule than Abdurrahman. AFGHANISTAN. A British garrison occu He was the candidate of the numerous Duranis, pied Candahar at the beginning of the year. with a considerable following among the GhilIn the Queen's speech at the opening of Par- zais, and with partisans in all the valleys of liament in January, the incoming British Cab- Afghanistan. His rule was established in inet announced its intention of withdrawing llerat, and his pretensions acknowledged the troops from the country. Lord Beacons throughout Western and Southern Afghanisfield, in criticising the sudden reversal of his tan. He was raising treasure and recruiting policy, protested against the impairment of the bis army from the bravest elements of all parts imperial prestige and renown in the Orient by of Afghanistan, in strenuous preparation for the course of the Government in “ doing every a struggle with Abdurrahman. The feudathing they could to inform every being in tory sirdars who embraced his cause with Central Asia, and in every other part of Asia, their bold and turbulent followers, however, that they meant to cut and run from the scene possessed their share of the proverbial jealof a splendid conquest,” and declared that the ous, rebellious, and faithless spirit of the Af
ghans. His yoke was hard on the country miles nearer Candahar, encamped in a strong around Herat. Treasure could only be raised position on ascending ground. Gholam Hyder by harsh exactions, and Ayoob's own imperi- attacked him vigorously, and gained some adous, jealous, and vindictive character was calcu- vantage at first; but the desertion of a regilated to raise up many enemies. In March, an ment of Ghilzais and his own bad generalship insurrection of the neighboring tribes, joined lost him the day. The Cabooli troops took to by mutineers from the army, Candahari and flight, and many of them came in and surrenHerati soldiery, nearly put an end to his am dered to Ayoob. The battle, which was fought bitious plans. His position in the country July 27th, lasted only an hour; eighteen guns at large seemed, nevertheless, to be growing and a considerable treasure fell into the hands stronger. The prolonged occupation of Can- of Ayoob's general. The Ameer's Governor of dabar by the British visibly injured the pros- Candahar and his staff fled, and Ayoob's forces pects of Abdurrahman by ranging the patri- quietly took possession of the city on the 30th. otic and religious sentiment of the country on Gholam Hyder Khan retreated with the remAyoob's side. The Ameer's rule extended only nant of his army to Kelat-i-Ghilzai. Here, over Caboolistan, Balkh, and Badakshan, and finding re-enforcements from Cabool, he made a was not exercised farther west than Gbazni. stand. The Ameer's position improved from
After waiting until April for Abdurrah- week to week. Dissensions broke out in Ayoob man to become strong enough to hold Canda Khan's army, and many of the Cabooli soldiers har, the British authorities sent word to him who had joined him after the battle at Karez-ito bring a force to succeed them. A deputa- Atta redeserted to Gholam Hyder. The Ameer tion from Ayoob Khan asking that the city be issued a proclamation to the people of Northern resigned to him and his pretensions recognized, Afghanistan, announcing that he would take on the ground that the people were attached to the field in person. Mahomed Jan, his former his cause, was disinissed with a refusal. The general-in-chief, whom he had long feared and Ameer dispatched a body of troops, who mistrusted, he cast ioto prison with other susslowly made their way from Cabool through the pected individuals. Both he and Ayoob Khan unfriendly Durani country. On the 21st, after had been hampered in their movements by furnishing the Afghan troops with some artil- signs of treachery and disaffection in their lery and small-arms, the last detachment of capitals and among their troops. British soldiers marched out of Candahar, leav The Duranis did not flock to Ayoob Khan's ing the deputed governor of Abdurrahman in standard, as he had hoped, upon his appearance command.
in Southern Afghanistan. Before the capture The British did not, however, withdraw to of Candahar had made him master of the countheir former boundary, but only to the valley try, but few partisans joined bis ranks. Here, of Pishin, where they remained, gnarding the as at Herat, his rule was felt to be oppressive. Khojak pass and garrisoning the city of Quetta, His financial straits and military necessities quietly looking on during the ensuing struggle compelled him to make requisitions for arms between the two claimants for the Afghan and supplies and to exact transport service, and throne. The Indian official world insisted upon his extortions of treasure acted like a blight on holding on to this last, poor trophy of the con- commercial traffic. The murder of a popular quest; and the army clique and Russophobists chief, and other events which excited tribal never ceased to cry for a return to the “for- hatred and revenge, had estranged the Herati ward” policy, for interference between the more than all his exactions, and were among combatants, and the ostablishment of a British the main causes of his future disasters. Race protectorate in Afghanistan.
feeling, which is one of the deepest passions After the evacuation of Candahar the Ameer of the Afghan breast, was aroused in his favor increased his fighting strength, and posted among the Southern Afghans by the appeals troops on the IIelmand to defend his acquisi- made by Abdurrahman to the race pride of tion. Three of Ayoob's cousins and generals the Ghilzai nation in his energetic preparations advanced with a small force, hoping to incite for a final struggle with the Ghilzai leader of a the Durani chiefs to rise, but with little suc- Durani horde who disputed his throne. The cess. A skirmish near Girishk opened hos- Duranis of the south, who had held back apatilities on the 30th of June. On the 11th an- thetically at Ayoob Khan's first coming, passionother engagement took place, resulting in the ately filled with the traditional jealousy of the dispersion of Ayoob's force. In July Ayoob ad- Ghilzai race, now rallied vigorously around the vanced from Herat to the Helmand River with banner of their national chief. Abdurrahman all his forces. Several days were gained by during his struggle with Ayoob Khan was freehim in pretended negotiations for peace. Gho- ly provided with British silver. The liberal use lam Hyder, the commander of the Ameer's of his abundant cash gave him a great advanforce on the Helmand, finally crossed the river tage over Ayoob. Instead of drying up the to attack Ayoob Khan, but only to find that the fountains of commerce, and spreading distress wily prince had himself forded the Helmand and poverty in his path, his approach brought and slipped in between him and Candahar. unexampled prosperity and comfort to every Gholam Hyder recrossed the river at Girishk, community which he visited. and caught up with Ayoob at Karez-i-Atta, six Abdurrahman reached Kelat-i-Ghilzai on the
1st of August. Definite proposals for peace from After several severe repulses of the British, Ayoob Khan were rejected, and the Ameer ad- public opinion in England became outspoken vanced to join battle with his rival on the against the further continuance of the war, and road to Candahar. For many days the armies negotiations were entered into by the Liberal lay encamped opposite each other; and Abdur- Government with the Boers, which resulted in rahman offered battle daily, but could not draw the restoration of virtual independence. (See out the enemy. The Ameer was then obliged Cape Colony.) to change his camp to a position nine miles to At the biennial election held in Liberia on the west, in order to be near flour-mills. Ayoob May 3d, Anthony W. Gardner was elected took a position opposite in the village of Chil- President, and Rev. A. F. Russell, Vice-Presizina. Here the decisive battle was finally dent of the republic, the successful candidates fought on the 22d of September, and was lost receiving a majority in every county. This through the treachery and desertion of the Ca- will be Mr. Gardner's third term. The contest boolis, who had gone over to Ayoob after the is described as independent of party lines. The defeat of Gholam Hyder, and of the disaffected successful candidates have pledged themselves Herati soldiery. The encounter with Abdur- to the education of the masses, the incorporarahman, for which Ayoob Khan had been so tion of the native tribes into the body-politic, long preparing, would probably have resulted in favor of temperance, the honest settlement otherwise in the overthrow of the Ameer. In of foreign indebtedness, and the frugal adthe battle of Chilzina Ayoob Khan occupied a ministration of the Government. position of superior strength, behind the ram A small native war arose for the British on parts, ditch, and buildings of the old city of the West Coast of Africa. A native, who Candahar, protected on the right by a rocky styled himself King of the Denkera tribe, bad ridge. Ayoob's army was also more numerous. taken refuge within the limits of the British After three hours or so of fighting, the Ci- protectorate of the Fantee and other tribes; booli and Herati regiments, which Ayoob Khan but King Koffee, of Ashantee, claimed that probably mistrusted and therefore kept in the the Denkeras were subjects of the Ashantees, rear, commenced to fire upon the Ghazi and and demanded that he be given up. As the Candahari men who formed the pretender's British refused to comply with this request, battle-front. This treacherous act broke the King Koffee declared war in February. The line, and soon the army was in full rout. affair was settled in May, after a short and deAyoob Khan and his confederate chiefs escaped cisive campaign, by the payment of a penalty to Herat, leaving his artillery, consisting of of 2,000 ounces of gold, and an apology from twenty-two guns, in the hands of the enemy. King Koffee to Queen Victoria. At the final
Abdurrahman did not follow up his victory, interview of the Ashantee embassadors with but returned to Cabool after sacking Candabar, Sir Samuel Rowe, the Governor, the latter inwhich opened its gates to him without resist- structed them to inform the King that the ance, and pillaging the surrounding country, in British would not consent to the conclusion of revenge for their adherence to Ayoob's cause. any treaty with him so long as he permitted Abdurrahman leisurely made his preparations the practice of human sacrifice to continue. to advance on Herat. Meanwhile Abdul Ku The German traveler, Nachtigal, has made dus Khan had set out with a small force from a computation of the surface and population Cabool and was making his way toward Herat of the countries and districts of the Continent through Northern Afghanistan and Turkestan. of Africa, as follows in kilometres (23 kiloHe was joined by a large force of auxiliary vol- metres = 1 square mile): unteers from the local tribesmen, who were hostile to Ayoob. This formidable force menaced
Population. Herat from behind at the same time that Ayoob Morocco.
812,832 7,829,000 was obliged to draw his forces from the city to Algeria.
111,348 2,100,000 meet the army of Abdurrahman. After three
1,083,849 1,010,000 engagements, the last one fought at Shaflan, Desert of Sahara.
6,180,426 2,850,000 thirty miles east of Herat, October 2, in all of Egypt..,
2,986,915 17,420,000 Boodan, Central.
1,714,983 81,770,000 which Abdul Kudus and his local allies were Soodan, Western, and Upper Guinea. 1,993,046 48,600,000 successful, Herat surrendered without further Harar.
Central Africa north of the equator... 2,254,980 27,000,000 resistance on the 4th. Ayoob Khan, after the Central Africa south of the equator... 1,717,900 20,000,000 capture of his stronghold and capital, and his Portuguese possessions, eastern..
1,000,000 sole military base, prudently made his escape Orange Free State..
Portuguese possessions, western.
75,000 to Persia.
British South Africa..
968,418 1,966,000 AFRICA. An important change in the map
626,054 8,982,400 of Africa occurred during 1881. The Trans
29,283,390 205,166,976 vaal Republic, which had been annexed by the British in 1877, regained its independence and AKKAS, a dwarf race dwelling in the valassumed the name of the South African Repub- ley of the White Nile, in about the third delic. A strong agitation against British rule was gree of north latitude. Reports of dwarf peokept up in the annexed district, which finally ples in equatorial Africa have been made by resulted in a declaration of war by the Boers. travelers in all ages. The pygiies of the an.