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MONTHLY REPORT O THE LABOR FORCE
The data in this publication are collected by the But of the Census (Department of Commerce), the Bur of Employment Security, State Employment Sec Agencies, and State Departments of Labor. A b description of the cooperative statistical programs of BLS with these agencies is presented in the Techn Note. The State agencies are listed on the ins back cover.
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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABO Willard Wirtz, Secretary
96 Quarterly Averages 102
4 Summary Employment and Unemployment Developments, March 1968 Charts
SECTION A-LABOR FORCE, EMPLOYMENT, AND
25 A-15: Employed persons by age and sex
A-16: Employed persons by occupation group, age, and sex 27 A-17: Employed persons by major occupation group, color, and sex 28 A-18: Employed persons by class of worker, age, and sex
A-19: Employed persons with a job but not at work by reason, pay status, and sex
A-20: Persons at work by type of industry and hours of work
30 A-21: Persons at work 1-34 hours by usual status and reason working
A-22: Nonagricultural workers by full- or part-time status
A-23: Persons at work in nonagricultural industries by full- or part-time status, age, sex, color, and marital status 33 A-24: Persons at work in nonfarm occupations by full- or part-time status and sex
A- 1: Employment status of the noninstitutional population, 1929 to date A- 2: Employment status of the noninstitutional population 16 years and over by sex, 1947 to date
A- 3: Employment status of the noninstitutional population by age, sex, and color
A- 4: Labor force by age, sex, and color
A- 5: Employment status of persons 16-21 years of age in the noninstitutional population by color and sex
A- 6: Employment status of the noninstitutional population 16 years and over by color, age, and sex
A- 7: Full- and part-time status of the civilian labor force by age and sex
Characteristics of the Unemployed
A- 8: Unemployed persons by age and sex
A- 9: Unemployed persons by marital status, age, sex, and color
A-11: Unemployed persons by industry of last job and sex
A-13: Unemployed persons by duration, sex, age, color, and marital status
Characteristics of the Employed
Data on 14 and 15 Year-olds
A-25: Employment status of 14-15 year-olds by sex and color
class of worker
Seasonally Adjusted Data
Employment status of the noninstitutional population by age and sex,
A-28: Employment status by color, sex, and age, seasonally adjusted
A-31: Rates of unemployment by age and sex, seasonally adjusted
State and Area
B-7: Employees on nonagricultural payrolls for States and selected areas, by industry division
SECTION C-HOURS AND EARNINGS - ESTABLISHMENT DATA
B-1: Employees on nonagricultural payrolls, by industry division, 1919 to date
B-2: Employees on nonagricultural payrolls, by industry
B-3: Women employees on nonagricultural payrolls, by industry
Production workers on manufacturing payrolls, by industry,
State and Area
C-9: Gross hours and earnings of production workers on manufacturing payrolls, by State and selected areas SECTION D-LABOR TURNOVER - ESTABLISHMENT DATA
C-1: Gross hours and earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers
C-2: Gross hours and earnings of production workers, by industry
C-4: Average hourly earnings excluding overtime of production workers on manufacturing payrolls, by industry
C-5: Gross and spendable average weekly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonagricultural payrolls, in current and 1957-59 dollars
C-6: Indexes of aggregate weekly man-hours and payrolls in industrial and
C-7: Average weekly hours of production or nonsupervisory workers
State and Area
D-5: Labor turnover rates in manufacturing for selected States and areas SECTION E-UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE DATA
D-1: Labor turnover rates in manufacturing, 1958 to date
D-3: Labor turnover rates in manufacturing, by sex and major industry'
E-1: Insured unemployment under State programs
E-2: Insured unemployment in 150 major labor areas
SUMMARY EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT DEVELOPMENTS, MARCH 1968
Employment gains continued in March and the unemployment rate edged down to 3.6 percent. Payroll employment rose 350,000 to a March high of 66.8 million. The increase was 143,000 larger than seasonal, with the bulk of improvement in the service-producing industries.
Unemployment rates moved down to 2.2 percent for adult men and 3.7 percent for adult women, while the teenage rate rose slightly to 13.0 percent. These rates were little changed from March 1967 or from the averages for 1967 as a whole. Since January 1966, the national unemployment rate has moved narrowly in a range from 3.5 to 3.9 percent, with the exception of a sharp but short-lived rise between August and October 1967.
Total employment reached a record high of 75.8 million in March (seasonally adjusted). An increase of 180,000 in nonagricultural employment was partially offset by a seasonally adjusted decline in agricultural employment. The pickup in nonagricultural employment was concentrated among adult women and teenage boys.
Over the year, nonagricultural employment was up by 1.8 million, while agricultural employment fell by 125,000. The drop in farm employment reflects the continuing decline in farming jobs, which have fallen by 35 percent over the last decade. At the same time nonagricultural employment rose by more than 18 percent.
The increase in nonfarm payroll employment was concentrated in trade (64,000), State and local government (57,000), and services (27,000). After adjustment for seasonal changes, employment in manufactur
ing and transportation was virtually unchanged over the month. Increased strike activity in the glass containers industry accounted for a seasonally adjusted decline of 13,000 in the stone, clay and glass industry,
Recent trends illustrate the Nation's continuing employment shift from goodsproducing industries (mining, construction and manufacturing) to service-producing industries (transportation, trade, finance, services, and government). From March 1967 to March 1968, State and local government employment rose by 620,000, services by 480,000, trade by 445,000 and finance by 150,000. In contrast, employment in construction rose by 115,000 and manufacturing by only 80,000. Over the past decade employment in the service-producing industries has risen three times as fast as employment in the goods-producing industries.
Hours and Earnings
The workweek for rank and file workers on private payrolls was unchanged between February and March at 37.7 hours. Their weekly earnings, at $104.43, were up 38 cents over the month and $4.87 over the year.
The average workweek of manufacturing production workers was unchanged over the month at 40.7 hours (seasonally adjusted). With the exception of a sharp weatherrelated dip in January, the seasonally adjusted factory workweek has held comparatively stable since August 1967.
The average weekly earnings of factory production workers, $120.18, were up by $7.74 from March 1967. The largest sha of the rise was due to higher hourly earnings