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THE LABOR FORCE
JOSEPH M. FINERTY, EDITOR
KATHRYN D. HOYLE, ASSOCIATE EDITOR
MARCH 1968 VOL. 14 NO. 9
A timely article by Paul Ryscavage and Hazel Willacy reviews recent developments in manufacturing (page 11).
Darrell Nelson explains the BLS earnings series as a guide for
users in escalation agreements (page 18).
Final 1967 averages for establishment-based data are shown in all tables containing national series in sections B, C and D. Additional tables of revised seasonally adjusted labor force series appear in this issue (page 22).
Employment data for the Salem, Oregon, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, are shown for the first time in table B-7 (page 88).
A list of articles published in Employment and Earnings and Monthly Report on the Labor Force since January 1966 is shown on page 140.
4 Summary Employment and Unemployment Developments, February 1968
Recent Developments in Manufacturing
BLS Earnings Statistics for Use in Escalation Agreements
SECTION A-LABOR FORCE, EMPLOYMENT, AND
38 A- 1: Employment status of the noninstitutional population, 1929 to date A- 2: Employment status of the noninstitutional population 16 years and over by sex, 1947 to date
A- 3: Employment status of the noninstitutional population by age, sex, and color
Labor force by age, sex, and color
Employment status of persons 16-21 years of age in the noninstitutional population by color and sex
A- 6: Employment status of the noninstitutional population 16 years and over by color, age, and sex
A- 7: Full- and part-time status of the civilian labor force by age and sex
Characteristics of the Unemployed
A- 8: Unemployed persons by age and sex
A- 9: Unemployed persons by marital status, age, sex, and color
A-11: Unemployed persons by industry of last job and sex
Seasonally Adjusted Data
A-27: Employment status of the noninstitutional population by age and sex, seasonally adjusted
A-28: Employment status by color, sex, and age, seasonally adjusted 62 A-29: Major unemployment indicators, seasonally adjusted
A-13: Unemployed persons by duration, sex, age, color, and marital status
Characteristics of the Employed
A-15: Employed persons by age and sex
A-16: Employed persons by occupation group, age, and sex
A-17: Employed persons by major occupation group, color, and sex
A-18: Employed persons by class of worker, age, and sex
A-19: Employed persons with a job but not at work by reason, pay status, and sex
A-20: Persons at work by type of industry and hours of work
A-21: Persons at work 1-34 hours by usual status and reason working
A-22: Nonagricultural workers by full- or part-time status
A-23: Persons at work in nonagricultural industries by full- or part-time status, age, sex, color, and marital status
A-24: Persons at work in nonfarm occupations by full- or part-time status and sex
Data on 14 and 15 Year-olds
A-25: Employment status of 14-15 year-olds by sex and color
Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment, seasonally
A-31: Rates of unemployment by age and sex, seasonally adjusted
State and Area
82 B-7: Employees on nonagricultural payrolls for States and selected areas, by industry division
SECTION C-HOURS AND EARNINGS ESTABLISHMENT DATA
B-1: Employees on nonagricultural payrolls, by industry division, 1919 to
B-2: Employees on nonagricultural payrolls, by industry
B-4: Indexes of employment on nonagricultural payrolls, by industry
B-6: Production workers on manufacturing payrolls, by industry,
State and Area
C-9: Gross hours and earnings of production workers on manufacturing payrolls, by State and selected areas SECTION D-LABOR TURNOVER - ESTABLISHMENT DATA
C-1: Gross hours and earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonagricultural payrolls, 1947 to date
Gross hours and earnings of production workers, by industry Employment, hours, and indexes of earnings in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government
C-4: Average hourly earnings excluding overtime of production workers on manufacturing payrolls, by industry
C-5: Gross and spendable average weekly earnings of production or nonsupervisory workers on private nonagricultural payrolls, in
current and 1957-59 dollars
Indexes of aggregate weekly man-hours and payrolls in industrial and
Average weekly hours of production or nonsupervisory workers
State and Area
D-5: Labor turnover rates in manufacturing for selected States and areas SECTION E-UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE DATA
D-1: Labor turnover rates in manufacturing, 1958 to date
D-2: Labor turnover rates, by industry
D-3: Labor turnover rates in manufacturing, by sex and major industry'
E-1: Insured unemployment under State programs
Employment advanced in February while the unemployment rate rose to 3.7 percent. In January, employment gains were held down by bad weather, but total unemployment dropped more than seasonally because of a reduction in teenage unemployment.
DEVELOPMENTS, FEBRUARY 1968
Although a substantial expansion in employment has occurred over the past year, the unemployment situation this winter is essentially unchanged from last winter. The pace of the employment increase has been just rapid enough to absorb the number of additional people entering the labor force and seeking employment, but not rapid enough to drop unemployment below the levels of a year ago. Both the labor force and employment rose by 1.5 million between last winter and this winter (December-February averages), with men and women sharing about equally in the rise. Unemployment averaged 3.0 million in each period and there were no major improvements for any of the major age-sex-color groups. Unemployment rates were also unchanged over this period.
major age-sex groups had significant employment increases between January and February. The largest increases were recorded by women and teenagers.
Nonfarm payroll employment rose to 67.7 million (seasonally adjusted). The gain was broadly based, with increases in both the goods-producing and service-producing
Nearly half of the increase in nonfarm payroll employment was centered in contract construction, where employment increased by 250,000 (seasonally adjusted), reaching a record high of 3.5 million. The February increase was, in part, the result of a return of workers to construction jobs after a period of bad weather in January. Except for January, employment in contract construction has picked up substantially since October, after showing little growth during most of 1967.
In manufacturing, employment rose by 65,000 (seasonally adjusted) in February, despite a 35,000 increase in the number of workers off payrolls because of strikes. At 19.6 million (seasonally adjusted), manufacturing employment edged above the previous record high established in January 1967. Manufacturing employment fell
20 and over
Women, aged 20 and over
*These data are based on December to February averages.
16 to 19 year-olds
August, however, it has risen by 250,000.
The manufacturing industries showing large gains in February were transportation equipment (19,000), electrical machinery industries (13,000), apparel (13,000), and textiles (10,000).
The service-producing industries continued to register sizable job gains in February. The most significant increases (seasonally adjusted) were in trade (100,000), State and local government (55,000), and miscellaneous service industries (45,000).
Hours and Earnings
The workweek (seasonally adjusted) for factory production workers rose by 0.5 hour in February to 40.7 hours, after declining. by the same amount a month earlier. The increase included 0.1 hour of additional overtime; overtime averaged 3.6 hours in February. Most of the increase in the factory workweek took place in the nondurables sector.
Average hourly earnings for rank and file workers rose by 1 cent over the month to $2.76. Declines in hourly earnings in mining and contract construction were more than offset by increases in trade and finance. Compared with February 1967, hourly earnings were up 14 cents (or 5.3 percent). Weekly earnings averaged $104.33 in February--$1.20 more than in January and $5.03 more than a year ago (5.1 percent).
Unemployment in February totaled 3.3 million, the same as in December, after allowance for seasonal changes. The seasonally adjusted unemployment rate, after declining to 3.5 percent in January, moved up to 3.7 percent, the same as December 1967 and a year ago. The rise was primarily due to an increase in teenage jobseekers, with three-fourths of these additional teenagers looking for part-time jobs. Teenagers had also accounted for the bulk of the unemployment decline in January. At 12.6 percent (seasonally adjusted), the February teenage jobless rate was virtually the same as in December 1967 and a year ago. February unemployment rates for adult men (2.3 percent), adult women (4.0 percent), married men (1.7 percent), full-time workers (3.4 percent), nonwhite workers (7.2 percent), and blue-collar workers (4.3 percent) were nearly identical to the rates of February 1967.
With the exception of a sharp but shortlived rise last fall, the national unemployment rate has exhibited stability since early 1966, averaging about 3.8 percent. Unemployment rates for adult men, married men, and full-time workers have been comparatively stable over the entire period, whereas he rates for women and teenagers have fluctuated in response to changing economic conditions and work preferences.
State insured unemployment declined more than seasonally in mid-February, the rate falling from 2.4 to 2.3 percent.