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2. The report of the manager, Maj. Lenox R. Lohr, as of December 31, 1930.
I. A CENTURY OF PROGRESS CHICAGO INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION OF 1933
THEME OF EXPOSITION
A Century of Progress is a corporation, not for profit, organized under the laws of the State of Illinois. Its function is to conduct an international exposition to be held in Chicago in 1933, in celebration of the centennial anniversary of the granting of the charter organizing the inhabitants of the little settlement on the shores of Lake Michigan into a corporate village.
The century which has encompassed the life of Chicago is the century in which man has made his greatest progress toward understanding the laws of nature and using its force for his own purposes. It has witnessed the general introduction of steam and electricity and all those modern conveniences that have ministered to human comfort. The distinctive character of the century to be celebrated has suggested the name "A Century of Progress" and has required that the central idea or theme of the exposition should be to attempt to demonstrate to an international audience the nature and significance of scientific discoveries, the methods of achieving them, and the changes which their application has wrought in industry and in living conditions.
AN INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION
The international character of the exposition is indicated by the fact that on February 5, 1929, a joint resolution of Congress was approved authorizing the President, on assurance that $5,000,000 had been raised by the corporation, to invite the nations of the world to participate in the exposition. This assurance having been given to the President the invitation was sent through our diplomatic officers to all nations on January 10, 1930.
The Century of Progress, held in connection with the completion of the first century of Chicago's life as a municipality is not a local matter. The announcement of its plans has attracted national and even world-wide interest. Its objects and aims are of such a nature as to have induced Congress to recognize that national support is in all respects desirable and could not, in justice to Federal activities, be withheld. The exposition is therefore in every sense an international one sponsored by the Federal Government.
The exposition has secured, by negotiation with the South Park commissioners in Chicago, the right to use for exhibition purposes as much as may be necessary of some six or seven hundred acres of newly made land destined to become an important link in the park system of Chicago. This land lies along the lake front opposite the very heart of the city and only two or three city blocks therefrom; in fact, the main business section of Chicago is separated from Lake Michigan only by the park system itself.
To be included within the grounds of the exposition, and already in full operation, are the Adler Planetarium and a great stadium known as Soldier Field having a seating capacity of over 100,000. At the gates of the exposition are the Field Museum of Natural History and the Shedd Aquarium, and a few blocks to the north is the Art Institute of Chicago, an art center of international reputation. The features above enumerated are permanent structures, which could not be duplicated without the expenditure of enormous sums of money.
PROGRESS OF CONSTRUCTION
Through the collaboration of a committee composed of some of the most eminent architects in the United States, representing various sections of the country, a unified and harmonious plan of the buildings and grounds has been evolved. The work of preparing the ground and erecting some of the more important exposition buildings is well advanced. The Administration Building is completed and is now occupied by the administrative staff of the exposition;
the Transportation Building constructed of steel, with a floor area of approximately 8 acres, with its dominating feature a departure from ordinary engineering practice consisting of a steel dome 200 feet in diameter suspended from a catenary system of cables, is practically finished; and an exact replica of old Fort Dearborn, destroyed by the Indians in 1812, with its palisades and log-walled blockhouse and barracks is now available for use.
CONVENIENCE OF LOCATION
All transportation lines in and to the city, both land and water, converge at or near the site of the exposition, thus affording ample facilities to a population in the city of Chicago of 3,400,000 with approximately 4,700,000, in what may be called the metropolitan district, and with nearly half the population of the United States within a night's ride. It is believed that no exposition has ever been favored with a site so easily accessible to such a large number of people.
COLLABORATION OF SCIENTISTS
In order to carry out the theme of the exposition as previously outlined, the cooperation of the National Research Council of the United States was obtained. Under its guidance and assisted by over 400 of the leading scientists of the country a general plan of exhibits has been formulated.
BASIC SCIENCE EXHIBITS
The central feature of the exposition will be the exhibits in the basic sciences. These will demonstrate, in a readily understandable manner, those fundamental discoveries in pure science which now form the basis of human progress.
The aim of the exposition is to put these results before the public in words of one syllable, so to speak. Here the visitor will be able to see those electric and magnetic phenomena which have proved so valuable to the engineer. Here he will be shown the new fields of chemistry opened up by the easy production of liquid air and by the discovery of radioactivity. Those biological discoveries which have made possible the recent advances in medicine and public health will also here be seen.
APPLIED SCIENCE OR COLLECTIVE EXHIBITS
This central feature will be supplemented by exhibits showing the development, especially during the last 100 years, of various industries, resulting from the application of scientific discoveries. These exhibits are to be made through the cooperative effort of each industry as a whole, presenting for each industry shown a picture of its origin or genesis, development, service, and needs.
Since each industry in its present stage of development must necessarily be presented in order that a true picture of that industry may be obtained, producers will be permitted to make individual exhibits, which will be shown in as close proximity to the applied science or collective exhibit or the particular industry as conditions permit.
SOCIAL SCIENCE EXHIBITS
In so far as may be practical the general plan for industrial exhibits will be applied to others demonstrating the changes in social relations which have been the natural consequence of the discoveries in science and which have culminated in our present civilization, together with the changes which present trends indicate may logically be anticipated in the near future.
The past century has witnessed nearly the entire development of popular education, the progress made in the prolongation of human life, the planning of modern cities, and the realization of the vast importance of providing for the welfare of the child.
Chicago is the center of one of the largest agricultural sections of the country and is indeed itself largely the product of the farm. It is therefore the intention that this branch of industry on which the life and welfare of our people depend shall receive special recognition, with particular attention to science and its past and future application to agriculture.
There will be an art exhibit, for which it is desired to secure the best works o art from public and private collections in this country and throughout the world
A housing exhibit is in course of preparation which will demonstrate the best methods and means of securing attractive homes for people of moderate and small means.
Concessions will be granted for various services, for amusements, and other sources of comfort and entertainment.
The program of the exposition also includes congresses and conventions, music, sports, pageants, and other features of general interest.
On June 20, 1930, a joint resolution was approved under the terms of which the President was authorized to appoint a committee, consisting of a representative each of the Department of State, Agriculture, and Commerce, to investigate and report to the President, for transmission to the Senate and the House of Representatives at the next session of the Congress, their conclusions and recommendations with reference to suitable representation at, and participation in A Century of Progress Exposition by the Government of the United States.
As a result of the presentation of the plans and purposes of the 1933 exposition, several foreign nations have indicated an interest which promises hearty cooperation. An evidence of this is the promise of Great Britain to send the first successful locomotive, the Rocket, and her pledge to assist in obtaining from government and other sources the loan of other objects which mark definite steps in human progress. Similar assurances have been received from other nations.
One of the important features in which foreign participation is to be invited is the creation of a series of villages in which the national atmosphere of the various countries will be reproduced. These buildings will be grouped along streets and waterways and will, in most cases, surround a central plaza in which national fetes, dances, and other entertainments may be held. These villages may be utilized not only to illustrate living conditions as they were in the old towns, but also as a means of exhibiting the arts and handicrafts of the different nations, and for the display of such other products and activities as the nation concerned may desire to make. They will, in general, consist of the reproduction of medieval buildings or at least be themselves the reproduction of the atmosphere of medieval towns.
In similar enterprises heretofore held in this country it was felt that the aspect of a national participation could be shown only by a separate building for each of the States of the Union. This has resulted in some useless expenditure of funds and in participation on an elaborate scale by some, by a scanty representation by others, and by no participation at all in the case of many States. In some instances this participation has been largely a gesture of good will without compensating advantages to the State itself.
The exposition feels that it will truly record the changes in the last half of the past century if it arranges for the participation of all the States to be in one building, possibly surrounding a central section or structure occupied by the Federal Government, thus typifying the increased feeling of loyalty of the citizens to the Union. The various States will not be invited to construct separate buildings.
A State building, in which each State or Territory could rent such space as it might desire, will be constructed by the exposition in such form and architectural treatment as will harmonize with the other exposition structures, thus permitting
as dignified a housing for its activities on the part of the State with a limited appropriation as for those which might desire a more elaborate display, and rendering it possible for each State to devote the greater part of its appropriation to exhibits rather than to building a temporary structure.
STATE PARTICIPATION INVITED
The participation of the States and Territories of the United States is therefore urgently invited, and the suggestion is made that the exhibit of each State be of such a nature as to instruct its own citizens, as well as others, and to support the pride they feel in the part they have played in the progress of the Nation.
It is felt that the appeal offered by the theme of the exposition warrants the belief that further solicitation on the part of the exposition is not necessary. On the other hand, State representatives or commissions will be cordially wel comed and will be given such information and assistance as may be desired.
SUGGESTIONS AS TO STATE PARTICIPATION
While it is thought that the most satisfactory ways and methods of participation can best be developed through conferences between the individual representatives or commissions appointed by each State and Territory and the officials of the exposition, the following are offered merely as suggestions which may lead to concrete and definite plans:
(a) Many of our States are greatly concerned in dealing with matters that most vitally affect the conditions of living, and the administration of the laws controlling such efforts is of interest not only to the residents of the State itself, but to all the people of the Nation and the world, for these problems confront all States and nations. It would be of interest and value if the various States could make some demonstration of their methods of education, their treatment of criminology, their efforts toward better housing conditions, the care of dependents, particularly the children, the improvement of roads and waterways in the interest of better transportation, the result of efforts to diminish the excessive cost of distributing the necessaries of life, and the steps taken toward the conservation of natural resources, beauty, and animal life.
(b) In order that a complete presentation may be made of past and present methods in agricultural research development, it is suggested that State experimental stations, agricultural colleges, and other similar State agencies work in close association with the United States Department of Agriculture in such a way as to impress upon the visitor the great amount of attention that is being paid by the Federal and State Governments to the needs of the farmer, and, while emphasizing the particular scientific contributions that each State has made to agriculture during the past century to show also the close cooperation between the Federal and the State agencies in this work.
(c) States which are largely industrial in character might demonstrate the result of their advantage and development in this field. Others may portray their facilities for recreation, sport, tourism, or residence.
(d) A judicious selection of matters to be shown will also serve the purpose of informing the general public of the State as to the uses being made of the funds raised by taxation, thereby gaining support for the maintenance of these funds for the purpose of carrying forward those activities which are for the interest and general welfare of its citizens.
(e) A group of States having an historic or an economic association or which by their geographical location have a community of interest along certain lines might readily combine their exhibits in these particular activities, thus forming a coordinated picture of much more value to them and interest to the general public than would be the case with separate or possibly unrelated exhibits. Adjacent sections in a General States Building would greatly facilitate such coordinated exhibits.
All communications concerning exhibit matters should be addressed to the Director of Exhibits, A Century of Progress, Administration Building, Burnham Park, Chicago, Ill.
RUFUS C. DAWES, President.
II. REPORT OF MANAGER LEnox R. Lohr, “A CENTURY OF PROGRESS," TO PRESIDENT RUFUS C. DAWES
The following report of exposition activities, as of December 31, 1930, is respectfully submitted.
Personnel has been added to the organization under the manager to meet the requirements of the work. On December 27 the force on our pay rolls was 148 in the Chicago office, 5 in New York in connection with the science advisory committee of the National Research Council, and 10 in London engaged in our contact work with European countries, making a total of 163.
In order to relieve the manager from a multitude of detail so that he may be able to devote his time to the larger problems, duties of a similar or a related nature will be segregated and assigned to departments, each under the immediate supervision of one individual who will be responsible to the manager for the proper operation of his organization. Those departments, charged, respectively, with construction, exhibits, and financial matters, are now operating in this manner with satisfactory results. Other departments will be established as the needs demand, the functions which will ultimately be assigned to them being at present performed by individuals or groups under the direct supervision of the manager's office.
With the assistance of the Business Research Corporation, under Mr. Stanley P. Farwell, many of the forms and methods for handling financial matters and for developing orderly and economical procedure in the various branches of the organization have been perfected and are now in operation.
On November 22 the Chicago force, which had been occupying rented quarters in the city, was moved to the administration building of the exposition in Burnham Park.
SOUTH PARK COMMISSION
The interest of the South Park Commission in our enterprise is evidenced by their continued cordial cooperation. By expediting certain bulkhead work along the water front near Twenty-sixth Street the commission saved the exposition from the expenditure of several thousand dollars, which would have been necessary for the protection of the replica of Fort Dearborn. By diverting "free-fill" they have constructed a service road on the island, necessary in the building of the electrical group, effecting a saving of $8,000.
Negotiations are now under way with the commissioners which it is felt will lead to the prompt construction by them of an extension to the existing island. This additional land is directly in line with their plans for South Park, and if the work is done in the near future it will enable us to complete a second lagoon. This will permit an architectural development of our grounds which will add much to their attractiveness.
THE SCIENCE ADVISORY COMMITTEE OF THE NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Your report of last May to the board of trustees contains such a complete statement of the organization and work of the science advisory committee of the National Research Council that any further elaboration of their activities to that date is unnecessary. The reports of its 34 subcommittees have been carefully studied by those on the manager's staff having charge of exhibits and will form the basis of our scientific and industrial displays, due attention being given to selecting from the wealth of material thus placed at our disposal those items which will best represent the theme of the exposition, taking into consideration economy and good showmanship. In carrying out this work frequent calls are made for advice and suggestions on the members of the advisory committee, especially the chairmen of subcommittees, and it is gratifying to be able to report that responses to these calls are promptly and cheerfully made, thus showing a continued interest in our work on the part of those who have already devoted much of their time to our interests.
A report of the science advisory committee as a whole was submitted to you in April and though designated as a preliminary report, it appears that no further recommendations are contemplated and therefore it may be considered as final.