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In pursuance of the joint resolution, President Hoover, November 6, 1929, issued a proclamation in which he stated that it had been shown to his satisfaction that the requisite sum of $5,000,000 had been raised and made available to the corporation, whose name had been changed to "A Century of Progress," and that the board of trustees had "obtained the assistance of men eminent in science and industry to aid in presenting those historic inventions and symbols which demonstrate the progress and the modern spirit underlying industry and agriculture, and in general to present exhibits showing advancement in the industrial and fine arts."
The President further expressed his belief that "the people of many nations would be pleased to unite with the people of the United States in the celebration of a century of progress and of the centenary of Chicago, itself an outstanding example of the great and rapid changes this century has produced." The President, therefore, in compliance with the joint resolution of Congress, invited "the participation of the nations in this exposition of a century of progress, to the end that there may be shown in Chicago examples of contributions made to that progress by the peoples of many nations; and in order that the achievements and inventions of the great men of the world in science, in art, in drama, and in sport as well as in industry and agriculture, may be fittingly acknowledged and acclaimed."
In response to this invitation of our Government, great interest was shown among the nations of the world and among the States of the Union to take part in the exposition. It became clear, however, that an exposition of the world's progress during the last hundred years in art, science, industry, agriculture, transportation, drama, sport, and other activities would not be complete without a demonstration of the contributions of our National Government and an exhibition of many articles in its possession showing the vast participation of that Government itself in all the things that have made the last century one of marvelous advancement.
It was felt by the management of the Chicago exposition that the nature and extent of the representation and participation of the Federal Government should be determined by that Government itself. Congress accordingly passed, and the President, June 20, 1930, approved Public Resolution No. 92, Seventy-first Congress, reading as follows:
JOINT RESOLUTION Providing for an investigation and report, by a committee to be appointed by the President, with reference to the representation at and participation in the Chicago World's Fair Centennial Celebration, known as the Century of Progress Exposition, on the part of the Government of the United States and its various departments and activities
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the President be, and he is hereby, authorized and requested to appoint a committee, consisting of one representative of each of the Departments of State, Agriculture, and Commerce, who shall investigate and report to the President, for transmission by him to the Senate and the House of Representatives at the opening of the second regular session of the present Congress, in December, 1930, their conclusions and recommendations with reference to the suitable representation at and participation in the Chicago World's Fair Centennial Celebration, known as the Century of Progress Exposition, at Chicago, Illinois, in the year 1933, on the part of the Government of the United States and its various departments and activities.
In reporting this resolution, the Committee on Ways and Means gave the following additional information regarding the progress of the plans for the exposition:
A CENTURY OF PROGRESS'
The Century of Progress Exposition at Chicago, as the proposed world's fair is now called, will cover an area of approximately 1,000 acres, including a lagoon of 200 acres. It is located on the shore of Lake Michigan in the heart of the city. Already included in this area are such outstanding institutions as the Chicago Art Institute, the Field Museum, the Adler Planetarium, the Shedd Aquarium, and the Soldiers Field Stadium, all of which will be utilized for purposes of the exposition.
The plans for the selection and grouping of exhibits have been committed to the National Research Council, which for that purpose has appointed a general advisory committee of 57 members divided into three groups, consisting of the executive committee of 7 members, 34 technical and professional members who have the responsibility of preparing the programs in their respective fields, and 16 members at large who are advisors in general. Each of the 34 technical and professional members is chairman of a subcommittee, assigned to a particular subject, thus, for instance, the subcommittee on anthropology has a membership of 4, while the subcommittee on electrical engineering has a membership of 49. The total membership of the subcommittees at this time is 409. Agriculture and transportation have been placed in the foreground in the plans for exhibits. Numerous congresses and conventions, of great interest to the Federal Government, as well as to the general public, will be held during the exposition, and an elaborate program is being arranged for the exhibition of sports and games.
The physical work of the preparation of the grounds and the erection of buildings for the exposition is well under way, and it is expected that most of the buildings will be available for occupancy a half year before the opening of the fair.
It is expected that the reports of the general advisory committee and its subcommittees of the National Research Council, together with all the plans of the exposition corporation, will be submitted to the committee whose appointment is provided in the pending resolution, and that the proposed investigation will in every way be facilitated.
In compliance with the aforesaid Public Resolution No. 92, Seventy-first Congress, the President appointed as members of the committee in question the Hon. W. R. Castle, jr., Assistant Secretary of State; the Hon. R. W. Dunlap, Assistant Secretary of Agriculture; and the Hon. Clarence M. Young, Assistant Secretary of Commerce; and on December 19, 1930, the President submitted to the House of Representatives a message, together with a copy of the report of said committee, as follows:
To the Congress of the United States:
I transmit herewith a report of the committee which I was authorized to appoint (Pub. Res. No. 92, 71st Cong., 2d sess.) for an investigation into the question of representation at and participation in the Chicago World's Fair Centennial Celebration, known as the Century of Progress Exposition, on the part of the Government of the United States and its various departments and activities.
The findings of this committee include recommendations that the Government be represented in the person of a commissioner under the direction of a commission composed of the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Secretary of Commerce; that in order to effect economies the organization of this commission and the authorization and appropriation of funds be expedited; and that a certain latitude be conferred upon the commission and the commissioner in the expenditure of public funds as well as in the employment of personnel.
I commend to the favorable consideration of the Congress the inclosed report of the committee to the end that legislation may be enacted to authorize an appropriation of $1,725,000 for the expenses of representation at and participation in the Chicago World's Fair Centennial Celebration, known as the Century of Progress Exposition on the part of the Government of the United States and its various departments and activities in accordance with the recommendations of the committee.
THE WHITE HOUSE,
Washington, December 19, 1930.
The Government of the United States has been invited by the Chicago World's Fair Centennial Celebration Corporation to participate in an international exposition to be held in Chicago, Ill., in 1933, to celebrate the one hundredth anniversary of the incorporation of Chicago as a municipality.
In consideration of this invitation and of the action of the Seventieth Congress with respect to the issuance of invitations to foreign countries, the Seventy-first Congress approved the following:
PUBLIC RESOLUTION-NO. 92-71ST CONGRESS
"JOINT RESOLUTION Providing for an investigation and report, by a committee to be appointed by the President, with reference to the representation at and participation in the Chicago World's Fair Centennial Celebration, known as the Century of Progress Exposition, on the part of the Government of the United States and its various departments and activities
"Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the President be, and he is hereby, authorized and requested to appoint a committee, consisting of one representative of each of the Departments of State, Agriculture, and Commerce, who shall investigate and report to the President, for transmission by him to the Senate and the House of Representatives at the opening of the second regular session of the present Congress, in December, 1930, their conclusions and recommendations with reference to the suitable representation at and participation in the Chicago World's Fair Centennial Celebration known as the Century of Progress Exposition, at Chicago, Illinois, in the year 1933, on the part of the Government of the United States and its various departments and activities. Approved, June 20, 1930."
Following a preliminary survey of the plans and purpose of the Chicago World's Fair Centennial Celebration, your committee consulted with the executive departments and independent establishments in order to form a general opinion as to the extent and nature of the proposed governmental participation in this exposition. Due cognizance has been given likewise to the part which the Government has taken in previous international expositions held in the United States and the rôle assumed by all branches to display the functions and accomplishments of their Government to the people.
The committee then conferred with the president and officers of the exposition. It was learned that this occasion is to be used for the dramatization of the part science and man's achievement have played in the progress of industry, commerce, finance, education, sports, and the arts. While the scope of the exposition is to be worldwide, the exposition authorities indicated their intention to elaborate on agriculture and on those branches of the extracting and manufacturing industries which would engage the active interest of the people of Chicago and that surrounding country from which the greatest attendance at the exposition will be drawn. Having concluded its investigations and studies, the committee believed that its proposals might be presented best in the annexed draft legislation, this being substantiated by detailed recommendations, suggestions, and conclusions.
The action of the Seventy-first Congress in giving authorization for investigation and planning in advance of the development of legislation was a most constructive move, for the experience of the executive departments in the past has been that the quality and exhibit value of their presentations have suffered through lack of sufficient time to plan ahead. It is a fact that the ratio of exhibit costs have increased rapidly when the time for planning and preparation has been shortened. Now that tentative plans have been prepared for this exposition at Chicago in 1933, the Congress may add further to this constructive procedure by an early authorization for the appointment of a commission and commissioner, as well as by the prompt authorization and appropriation of funds.
COMMISSION AND COMMISSIONER
It is believed that participation by the Government would be administered most effectively by one commissioner, such commissioner to be under the direction of a commission composed of several heads of executive departments. The scope of the exposition and the wishes of the exposition authorities as regards governmental participation indicate that it would be appropriate to have this commission composed of the Secretaries, respectively, of the United States Departments of State, Agriculture, and Commerce.
Separate structures could be erected on grounds provided by the exposition corporation without rental fees, or appropriate spaces could be leased in certain of the exhibition buildings that will be constructed by the exposition for general purposes. The former is suggested as being the more advantageous. As is shown in another part of this report, the committee estimates that a cerditable showing could be made in a gross floor space of about 120,000 square feet. This space could be provided either in one large building or in an arrangement of smaller buildings. There should also be provided a suitable air-mail post office at the airport.
The committee recommends that the commissioner contract with the exposition corporation for the designing and erection of necessary buildings, and that he be provided with funds for this purpose at the earliest date possible in order that the construction of the building or buildings can be started at once, thus assisting in solving the problem of unemployment. In contracting with the exposition corporation the commission would exercise control over the type, general design, and finish of the buildings.
The departments, establishments, and other branches of the Government which have indicated a desire to take part in the exposition, have submitted tentative plans for their participation. After conferences with officers of the exposition the committee felt justified in modifying the request of some of these offices.
The exposition authorities recognized the importance of each branch of governmental activity and its relationship to the needs of the people. However, they are attempting to develop at Chicago in 1933, an exposition which will be somewhat different from anything of this nature before accomplished. At an early stage in their planning, they solicited the aid of a group of scientists and business men, who prepared for them an exhibit plan and dramatization of a Century of Progress; and the plans which were submitted are now being brought to completion in so far as is practicable. The officers of the exposition would like the governmental representation to be of such nature that the Government would display largely the part it has played and is playing in the essential progress of of the agricultural, extracting, and manufacturing industries, as well as in commerce, transportation, and communications.
While it is the opinion of the committee that governmental exhibits should be separate and apart from private and other exhibits portraying developments in like fields of endeavor, the committee recognizes that the cooperation of governmental agencies will be needed to complete some of such exhibits and indorses the recommendation that provision be made for such separate cooperation and assistance upon the approval of the commission.
SPACE AND FUNDS
The committee is of the opinion that space of not less than 120,000 square feet will be necessary and that the sum of not less than $550,000 for buildings and not less than $1,175,000 for exhibits, compensation, and other expenses should be provided. These proposals are based upon a tentative distribution as follows:
In view of the specialized nature of the work of the commissioner in connection with participation of the Government in an international exposition, the committee feels the necessity that the Congress give favorable consideration to the grant
ing of certain latitudes to the commission and the commissioner in the execution of their respective duties, as well as to the waiving of standard governmental regulations with respect to the expenditure of funds and the employment of personnel. Likewise, it feels the need that the Congress authorize the commission to expend those funds which it deems necessary for certain entertaining. It is customary for many foreign countries to send special commissions to these expositions and, while the exposition authorities provide for their appropriate reception, the governmental commission has always certain limited obligations to fulfill.
The committee therefore has the honor to recommend that the Congress be requested to enact legislation to authorize the appropriation of the surn of $1,725,000 for the expenses of representation at and participation in the Chicago World's Fair Centennial Celebration, known as the Century of Progress Exposition, on the part of the Government of the United States and its various departments and activities.
W. R. CASTLE,
Assistant Secretary of State.
Assistant Secretary of Agriculture.
Assistant Secretary of Commerce.
With the report was submitted a form of bill or joint resolution, in the words and figures contained in the pending bill (S. 5625).
Your committee held a hearing on House Joint Resolution 448 (for which S. 5625 has been substituted, as above stated) January 15, 1931, and was convinced that the Federal Government should take part in and be represented at this exposition. The members of the committee appointed by the President and representatives of the fair appeared before the committee and made complete statements.
The tentative allotment of space for exhibition purposes and of appropriation for expenditures for the various departments was stated by Mr. Dunlap, Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, to be as follows:
As summarizing the information given the committee at the hearings, there are submitted copies of the following documents:
1. "A Century of Progress" issued by the president of the corporation, Mr. Rufus C. Dawes.