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Judge Wildermuth's review of the Columbus Juvenile court situation, as made before the state charities conference, last evening, should have been heard by all Columbus people who are interested in children. This is true, not so much because the information contained was new, as because it was again presented in a manner to show the need of the establishment of a separate court. The police judge and the police officers have done much to meet the need, but the atmosphere of the police court, as the judge says, is not the atmosphere into which children should be taken.
One of the best features of the work of the state conference of charities and corrections is its earnest advocacy of intelligent, humane treatment of erring children. Even to a greater degree than in the case of adult criminals, the law should be
LOS ANGELES JUVENILE COURT COMMISSION SUGGESTS NEED OF SUITABLE DETENTION
BUILDING. The county of Los Angeles will soon have the finest detention home in the world. The juvenile commission has presented to the board of supervisors plans for the construction of the home, and a committee was appointed to co-operate with the committee from the juvenile court commission to call upon the city council and further the plans for the erection of the home.
The following is the report the juvenile court commission presented to the board of supervisors:
“The juvenile court commission of this county desires briefly to present for your consideration the condition and pressing need for permanent provision for the children that come under the jurisdiction of the juvenile court of Los Angeles county.
"Present arrangements so far as quarters are concerned are at best only temporary, but more than that are unsatisfactory from every point of view.
"We suggest to your honorable body that it be advisable to furnish a tract of land, not less than ten acres in extent, convenient to some car line and within the city limits; that suitable buildings on the cottage plan for the accommodation of at least sixty children be provided. The conditions demand immediate action.
“H. E. WASHBURN, Secretary.” The discussion of various sites was taken up, but no satisfactory conclusions were reached, and it was decided to refer the question to the city council. Judge Wilbur stated to the board that the juvenile home was a great saving to the county, and that an expenditure of at least $30,000 should be made for the erection of the home.
The juvenile commission hopes to secure a tract of land large enough to enable them to construct cottages to accommodate at least ten boys, besides a dining room and school. Judge Wilbur suggested that the boys could be instructed in the art of farming, if the tract of land purchased was large enough to permit.
enforced against a child in the effort to reform him. Punishment must be regarded only as a means to correction, and the manner of its infliction has great influence upon the moulding of the child's character.
Association with the criminal classes does not help toward the reformation of a child who has committed some misde
Yet, under the system in force in many cities, such a child mingles with hardened, profligate men and women while awaiting his trial in police court. He sees more of the seamy side of life than any child ought to see and the experience often leads him into paths which he might have been taught to shun. The circumstances surrounding the enforcement of law in his case may turn a potential good citizen into a chronic law-breaker.
It is evident that the present system is wrong and harmful. In a few cities the juvenile courts, with their probation officers and their complete separation of undutiful children from real criminals, are proving very successful. Such an institution is a good investment for any city.
have contributed toward the adoption and operation of the measure are to be congratulated on the happy issue of their reform.
NEW JUVENILE WARD. Chief Ball has asked for bids for the erection of the detention and juvenile wards at police headquarters which have been provided for by the police commission.
The announcement is greeted with the greatest possible satisfaction on the part of the people of the city, and particularly those who have been agitating the question of these reforms for so long a time.
The new juvenile ward is the most insistently demanded as the case is altogether different with juvenile offenders. Even though it be proven that they are guilty of the offense for which they are arrested, their ultimate reform and redemption is the real object ever kept in mind by the law. This discipline becomes worse than a farce when they are placed in close companionship and association with hardened criminals, from whom they learn more meanness in a day than the law can discipline out of them in a month. These children are entitled to a wholesome and uplifting environment. They are to be made to realize the majesty of the law and the necessity for observing it, without at the same time deba sing them by association with veteran offenders.
The establishment of a system of juvenile reform has enlisted the earnest attention of the best citizens of Atlanta, and it is gratifying to them to realize that their efforts are at last about to bear some practical fruit.
TENEMENT STATISTICS IN NEW YORK. An inquiry into the character of the population of certain tenement districts in New York city reveals the fact that the native American families are decreasing, the adult population becoming more and more distinctly foreign. Already the adults in nearly every family are of foreign birth.
Of the children in these tenements 50 per cent. are natives of this country, but many of them were born in crowded quarters of large cities. These children go to the public schools and are there taught by American teachers. Thus they are subjected to Americanizing influences while in school; since this is true of all the pupils attending those schools, the tendency is to make Americans of the children born in the tenement districts, notwithstanding the foreign influences to which they are exposed in their homes.
The tenement districts seem destined to remain for many years under foreign influence, notwithstanding the American nativity of a large percentage of the children and the education in public schools of these and also of the foreign-born children. The reason is that aliens arriving in this country find their way at the outset into the tenements. The American-born children drift away as they grow up, seeking better conditions elsewhere and leaving the tenements to the foreigners who are willing to remain in them.
New York is in a large degree a foreign city. It is the port through which nearly all the immigration into this country passes, and a large percentage of the arrivals stop there. They know but litle about the remainder of the country, and, finding work of one kind or another in New York, they remain there and become members of some one of the foreign colonies. This makes the assimilation of the alien population in New York city slow, and from time to time the suggestion has been made that these alien colonies should be broken up by the distribution of their population throughout the country.
ATLANTA JUVENILE COURT.
GOOD FRUITS OF JUVENILE REFORM. Councilman Key himself, when he introduced in council the measure establishing the probation system for young offenders against the law, hardly anticipated how rapidly the good results of this reform would become apparent.
It was an impressive scene presented at recorder's court yesterday when nineteen boys between the age of 8 and 14 years were lined up before Judge Broyles and in the presence of friends or parents, congratulated on the penitence and desire to reform they had shown and the charges against them wiped from the record.
The offenses charged were of a nature which could not be entirely overlooked, and yet the reformation which is the end of justice would not have attained if these boys of tender age had been sent to serve among criminals and to carry through life the odium of a term in prison.
As it is, they have shown the proper spirit and all concerned are happy at the practical workings of the system.
The probation plan is one of the wisest measures yet adopted by the city. The first fruits are more than gratifying, and the longer the system is in use the greater will be its beneficial results. Councilman Key, Probation Officer Gloer and all who
Juvenile Court Record
Now then, it was to offset some of these evil condi
tions by filling in the missing elements of child life and PUBLISHED BY THE VISITATION AND AID SOCIETY
offering “a chance” to the boy and girl who under op
pression or misguidance went wrong that juvenile courts T. D. HURLEY, Editor, 79 Dearborn Street, Chicago, III. J. L. CLARK, Business Manager
were established. The motive was a high one. It had a Eastern Office, 53 W, 24th Street, New York City
look forward to the good of society as well as of the Boston Office, 147 Milk St., Boston, Mass.
child. It had a religious tone to it. It came from the The JUVENILE COURT RECORD is published monthly, except in the month
heart. of July. Single copies, 10 cents. Subscription price, $1 per year.
Natural, therefore, is the horror and indignation of Entered at Postoffice, Chicago, as second-class matter.
these friends of the movement who see in various parts The JUVENILE COURT RECORD is the official organ of and published of the country attempts to degrade these courts from by the Visitation and Aid Society and will deal with social problems in child-saving work and give an account of the workings of the Juvenile Court. their high purpose. It is being done. The political corrup
tionist is the offender. The motive of his meddlings is, NEW SUBSCRIPTIONS can commence with current number. WHEN RENEWING, always give the name of the postoffice to which
of course, his pocket-book. Nothing appears sacred to your paper is now being sent. Your name cannot be found on our books
him, no not even a little child. unless this is done. Four weeks are required after the receipt of money by u before the date opposite your name on your paper, which shows to what In Kansas City, Mo., the enemies of the juvenile court time your subscription is paid, can be changed. This will show that your remittance was received.
declared unconstitutional the law establishing it and CHANGE OF ADDRESS.-Always give both your old and your new address
forced a fight to be waged up to the State Supreme when you ask us to change.
court where they were soundly defeated. But they conPAYMENT FOR THE PAPER, when sent by mail, should be made in a postoffice money order, bank check or draft, or an express money order. tinued their machinations and today it is said the workWhen neither of these can be procured, send 2-cent United States postage
ings of the court are tainted so poisonously with politics stamps; only this kind can be received.
LETTERS should be addressed and checks and drafts made payable to that it might just as well be out of existence. JUVENILE COURT RECORD, 79 Dearborn Street, Chicago.
The allegation is made that the judges of the County ADVERTISING RATES made known on application.
Court, who are in fact, the County Commissioners and AGENTS are authorized to sell single copies and take subscriptions, who bear credentials signed by the President and Secretary of the Visitation and in charge of the county's finances, are the mainspring of Aid Society.
the opposition. By depriving the court of the necessary
funds with which to conduct its work they are nullifyOFFICERS OF TIIE V. & A. SOCIETY.
ing the usefulness of judge and probation officers. For T. D. Hurley, President.
example, instead of furnishing money to pay for the care James F. Bowers, Treasurer.
of certain classes of children at institutions these judges
force the court to set them free. The children mock it Emma Quinlan, Recording Secretary.
the farce and sink deeper in their wrong-doing. May Mallanny, Corresponding Secretary.
Reports have it that the circuit court judges have apEsther J. Mercer, Financial Secretary.
pointed a man 60 years of age entirely unfit for the place. Finance
John Cudahy It appears to be a political appointment and will of course Men's Auxiliary
bear proper fruit. But what about the welfare of the Women's Auxiliary.
neglected and unfortunate children over whom this court Mrs. W. P. Nelson
and its officials are supposed to act as a father! The
children's friends dare not grow discouraged. SUMMARY, FIFTEEN YEARS—1888-1903.
Out in Denver, Colorado, there is another phase of the Children assisted
same fight. The judge of the juvenile court, who has Placed in homes
been hailed as “one of America's great educators," "one Transportation secured
1,869 Persons sent to hospitals
of the most remarkable men in the West," Benjamin B. Persons otherwise assisted
43,692 Lindsey, stands in danger of defeat at the November Interments
926 election. As everybody interested in juvenile courts Books circulated from Poorhouse library
74,576 knows he was really elected in May last, having run on
both Republican and Democratic tickets and having reTHE MOTIVE OF THE JUVENILE COURT.
ceived 53,000 out of the 54,000 votes cast.
ponents of the Judge and his court, politicians, have beThe Juvenile Court movements had its inception in gun suit to prove the illegality of the action of the conthe highest philanthropic motives. Its founders and its vention that changed the date of the last November elecbest friends since the beginning have had an eye single tion to May 1904, (the time when Judge Lindsey was to the welfare of the child. They, have been those who elected.) The court decision on the matter will not be saw deeply into the subject of the making of men. They given until after this November election and if affirmawere able to analyze adult character and child character tive, will nullify Judge Lindsey's election, "a consummaand discover the relation between the two. They per tion devoutly to be wished” according to the corruptionceived the effect of environment and the effect of ists who found they could not move to their purposes heredity upon the development of the physical, mental this man of backbone and decency. and moral life of the child. Their conclusion though It is a glorious fight, this one in Denver and while it simple, yet in a way, a discovery, was that this child is looks as if Judge Lindsey must win still “you can never a creature of circumstances, is at the mercy of others tell" in politics. As "Charities” well says: for weal or woe.
"The fight, of course, is not won yet. It is a fight The conditions of city life, of life among the illy-fa which means a good deal for the juvenile court movevored members of the community they knew, and the ment throughout the country. But more than that, if conviction came that many children are far from getting the children of Denver are not to lose from the bench the a fair show toward becoming good men and womer.. friend to whom thev owe that unique, humane, and enThese do not get the sympathy, the example, the en lightened statute, of Colorado, which provides that he couragement, the instillation of ideas which their plastic, who contributes to the delinquency of a child is himself impressionable natures absolutely need, and which if delinquent and may be fined not more than one thousand they received in proper measure would save them to good dollars, or committed to jail for not more than one year, citizenship and from misery and crime.
Judge Lindsey must be elected again in November,"
(Concluded from page 5.)
SATURDAY MORNING'S SESSION.
In the courtroom on Saturday morning, counsel tables have been removed, chairs have been placed in the long courtroom, and it has the appearance of a schoolroom as far as possible. The probation officers are at the table provided in front of the boys. The judge does not occupy the bench. He comes down among the boys at the table immediately in front of them.
At the opening of court Judge Lindsey generally proceeds to deliver a short “Saturday morning talk." It is made as spicy and interesting as possible. No effort is made to preach to the boys. Their duties as little citizens are impressed upon them. They are often told that they are among the best boys in Denver. Some of them have done things in the past that they despise as much as the Judge does.
These Saturday morning talks are generally upon some subject that is close to a boy's heart and respecting his own world, the discussion of which keeps him in his own atmosphere and does not try to lift him to a plane where he is not at home. For instance, a tattletale is called by every Denver boy a
"snitcher.” Every boy knows that if he tells on one of his companions he is outlawed. Teachers often make a great mistake in compelling boys to tell on each other without considering the penalty to which the boy subjects himself in the world of "Boyville." It tends to make a boy a little sneak and gets him the reputation of being a “knocker,” or a “sissy boy.”
The subject of the Saturday morning talk may be "Snitching”; when to "snitch” and when not to "snitch.” The boys are immediately interested. It is a common topic in Boyville. There is no trouble in getting their attention. There is no scraping of feet, uneasiness, and sliding about in the chairs, anxious to get out. They will listen long if one will only stay and talk to them. Under this title the boys learn, possibly for the first time, the duties of individuals toward each other and the state as citizens.
The result of the Saturday morning talk is that there is a. better understanding. If any one wants to handle boys he must understand them and they must understand him. This is too often not the case. The Judge has talked to the boys on the subject of "ditching." "If tiney do not like a boy they make it disagreeable for him to run with the crowd, and when hey do this they all say in Denver that he has been “ditched.” “Cut it out" is a common expression among Denver boys.
- Inter Ocean, Chicago.
A GOOD WORK FOR BOYS
THE CHICAGO BOY'S CLUB
Fifteen or twenty years ago a knowledge of drawing was considered an accomplishment and had no part in the common school curriculum. Today it is as much a part of a child's education as reading, writing or arithmetic.
It is well recognized as playing an important part in training the perceptive faculties, and developing accuracy in both eye and hand, thus better fitting the student for any line of work in which he may engage.
This is looking at the practical side only: the man, woman or child, who goes through life looking only at the hard, practical dollars and cents side of things, loses the better part.
There is always a line of beauty in everything, no matter how unsightly or commonplace it may be. One of the poets has said,
"In the mud and slime of things
Something always. always sings.' It may be only the coloring seen in a bit of broken pottery, the curves in a miniature whirlpool in the wayside puddle, or the shapes formed by the smoke from a chimney, yet the one who is looking for and can see the beauty in this side, gets more than he who sees only the broken crockery, the muddy street or the suffocating smoke.
In our work among these boys who have so little opportunity to see the really beautiful work of either God or man, we try to teach them to look for the best in their surroundings, and to formulate a taste for the clean and pure that will cause them to reach out for the best there
is in life. DAISIES
The habit thus formed will help
them to look for the best in their Drawn by Meyer Finkelstein
The two hours spent twice a week with the boys is a pleasure, and while our hands are busy, our tongues are also busy as we discuss matters of interest and profit to all. In this way we come in touch with the boys and their ambitions in the vital sympathetic human manner, which makes all the world kin and children of our father.
ELEANOR I. FINCH.
A PATHETIC CASE.
Look at that little weazened, half-starved girl of ten or a dozen summers dow!) there at the foot of the stairway leading to the Chicago Boys' Club. Her hair is disheveled, her clothing is tattered and torn, her worn-out shoes but partially protect her feet from the stone pavement, her hands and face are grimy with the dust of the street Poor little atom amidst the mighty throng of State Street. Herself
CANDLE STICK in sore need of a protector, she is, on the contrary, standing guard over a
By Saul Rabinowich less little bundle in the baby cab—a child about two and a half or three years of
age, evidently brother to the weazened little "mother” who has wheeled him to our club room door.
But another figure appears upon the scene, a little "brudder" who tenderly lifts Baby Ragamuffin out of the cab and toils with him up two flights of stairs to the room for games and reading; and because the Boys' Club has
room for girl waifs, this neglected little "mother,” with her pathetic, womanish face, but with a noble self-sacrificing heart, stands guard for nearly two hours over a battered old baby cabonce doubtless the outing-rig of some more fortunate child, and rescued for its prese ent use from the city dump.
But while she bravely and patiently waits there at the foot of the stairs, the other two have entered the warm, well lighted room. "Little Brudder,” otherwise known as “Rooster," takes hat and baby over to the checking desk, thinking to check them both and leave them with the matron until club hours are over. To “Rooster” this checking business is the most serious and the most complicated affair that has come up in his business career. Hanging 110 one's hat! The idea! What's the use of it? Why lots of "de guys” sleep in their's. But here they are, a long line of "de guys*
in front of the iron screen in the reading A SLUM TENEMENT.
room, deliberately surrendering their precious
hats, or what is left of them, to the kind matron. If hats were take the baby with him, especially since the baby is lucky. safe with her, why not babies? Yes, surely babies; and this enough to be a boy, and isn't the Chicago Boys' Club for all baby with his rigid, solemn face felt it. He gave Mrs. At- such as he? kinson an appealing look that went straight to her heart. She He is used to hard knocks. He owns an alley in this, the gave the child a set of building blocks, taught him how to "busiest city in the world”—Newsboys' Alley. The policeman use them; and so in a quiet corner of the room he played, to who is stationed there to preserve law and order, does so all appearances, the first game of his life; and as he played with the aid of a raw-hide whip. The Superintendents, staa new light came into his face, the light of innocent baby joy. tioned in the delivery rooms of some of the great daily pa
Nor is this baby boy the only one who has played his first pers to preserve peace among these little paper merchants, do innocent game in the Boys Club rooms. Boys who, in our so with the persuasion of a long whip. Such of these boys Club rooms, insist on playing checkers with a billiard cue, and as are fortunate enough to have a father, know him by the think croquet is something to eat, evidently never give their blows received at his hands. So it is blows at home, kicksmothers very much trouble picking up building blocks and in the street, a whip at the delivery rooms, and that is the dominoes, which they had scattered over the house.
only argument he knows. Is it any wonder they pummel each So while these two, Ragamuffins and "Rooster,” enjoy their others' heads on the slightest provocation, and sometimes forinnocent games up here
get to wait for the in the pleasant Club
provocation rooms, little "mother"
Our one great object patiently waits down
in organizing the Chithere at the foot of the
cago Boys' Club was. stairway.
to institute a new cru. SUPT. J. F. ATKINSON.
sade among that class. which, in the language
of Charles Kingsley, ADAPTABILITY.
"is damned from its
birth.” Blows and If there is one thing
kicks and cuffs will more than another
never do it. The boys about our Chicago
want to be mothered. Waif that challenges
We master them, not my admiration, it is
through fear, nor by his wonderful gift of
the policeman's club, adaptability. He can
but by a band of consemake a hair top mat
crated workers, the retress out of an iron
sult of which shows grating over "hot
more efficient wheel" in the rear of
power than that of the some big heating plant
uplifted hand and the and sleep "as sound as
threatening rod rules a logo all night-pro
the minds and molds. viding “de copper"
the characters of these don't "pinch” him.
otherwise unhappy fads He can make a square
of the street who are meal out of a "red
dubbed by the scornful hot” and a slab of rye
as "gutter snipes" and bread. He can sleep
"allèy rats.” in “de alley" or on the
Who can compute lake front or in damp
the importance of cellars or hallways and Meyer Finkelstein. Michael Rotheiser. Leo Weisfeld. Saul Rabinowich.
christianizing these other unhealthy and
hundreds and thouunsanitary places and
sands of little wandercome through it all with strength enough left to sell more ers, who must otherwise become a peril to the state and a "newses” than any other "guy” in town.
reproach to Christianity? While writing this little account, Another characteristic of our little "Hooligan" is his Chi- I can not help thinking of the scores and hundreds of poor cago way of doing things. He won't let a little thing like little lambs who still wander in the wilderness of "Darkest tending baby keep him from the Boys' Club rooms; he'll Chicago" with bruised and weary feet.