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Published by the Visitation and Aid Society

79 Dearborn Stoet, Chicago, Ill.

VOL. V. New

OCTOBER, 1904

Series

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HOW

HOMELESS BABIES

ARE

CARED FOR

BEFORE ADOPTION

Judge Carlin, of Findlay, Ohio, has come out with a statement to the effect that a Juvenile Court should be established in that city. The judge gives for his reason the fact that he is besieged almost every day by parents of young boys who wish to have their children arrested for various misdemeanors. “There is no law whereby punishment can be meted out to them,” says Judge Carlin, "and they can not be confined to prison where adults are kept and in my estimation a court should be established to care for such cases.” A law passed by the last general assembly makes it possible for a city the size of Findlay to have a Juvenile Court and no doubt the movement will be agitated, as it has already met with the approval of a number of Findlay's citizens.

Twelve young self-confessed grain thieves were tried in the Juvenile Court recently and released on probation upon promises to be "good boys” in future; twelve mothers cried piteously when Judge Stubbs lectured them for their apparent lack of home supervision over their children and at least a score of Haughville men and women-three of whom, including a school teacher, were in court—who purchased stolen wheat, corn and oats from the boys, were subjected to a "dark brown roasting" by the court. Since the season of small grain shipments opened this summer the Big Four Railway Company has been systematically victimized by grain thieves in Indianapolis who have broken into cars in the Moorfield yards and carried off large quantities of wheat, oats and shelled corn. Nearly all the grain going over the Big Four through the local western yards has been consigned to dealers at Newport News, Va., for foreign export. Inspection at the seaboard terminal has resulted in the discovery of carload-lot shortages representing losses of from $1.25 to $86 a car and for a month the railway company's most expert secret service men have been engaged in ferreting out the thieves and bringing them to justice. The young culprits, who for the most part are sons of highly respectable parents, acknowledged having · made frequent raids on grain cars, and gave the names of people who had bought the product of their sneak thievery without question.

New York Offico 53 W. 24th St.

Boston Office 147 Milk St.

No. 9

need a recently by the appearance in Police Court of fourteen small boys. The boys, nearly all of whom were pupils of Train school, faced a serious charge of larceny. Their case was set for trial in October, and they were released on promise to be good. The boys were accused of having broken the seals of two freight cars in the Burlington yards and having stolen five cases of canned goods and ten sacks of cement from the cars. They were arrested by Special Agent W. J. Owens of the Burlington and lodged in the matron's quarters at the city jail. Although the parents of some of the boys knew of their predicament, not one appeared in Police Court to defend them. The little fellows seemed like an orphan class and were quite friendless except for the kindly dispositions of Judge Bachman and Acting Prosecutor Ellick. When the crowd lined up before Judge Bachman the little towheads not coming to the top of his desk, even the hardened criminals and toughs in the court were forced to smile sympathetically. One woman of the half-world was seen to weep when the charge of larceny was read to them. The tots bowed their heads and one and all pleaded guilty. Then it transpired that they didn't know what "guilty” means. The last boy sobbed that he "hadn't nothin' to do with it, but was guilty." Each had said "guilty” because "the feller next to me had said it," and so on until it evolved that they all denied having stolen the goods. The boys are alleged to have carried the goods to their homes, having divided the spoils among themselves. It is not thought that any of the stolen property was sold.

Cleveland, Ohio,'s Farm School at Hudson held the first commencement exercises in its history the afternoon of September 9. The Juvenile Court-room was the scene of this interesting eveni and a class of thirty boys was the center of attraction during the important ceremony of giving them back to their families. Every member of this little group carried flowers. They were not sumptuous hothouse affairs presented by admiring friends or relatives. However, the boys carried them just as proudly, and. after all, the effect was not a whit less pleasing. Golden rod had the call. Each boy was decorated with a huge bunch of the attractive, good old American weed, and each bunch had been picked and gathered by the little fellow who wore it. The process of elimination by which the personnel of the senior class was

ment may be seen an entire library of these novels. One packet is marked, “These papers were the cause of the death of Sollie Cohen.” Two boys who had been reading them enacted one of the scenes described, with the result that one boy was killed.

"The sale is not confined to any one portion of the city. I have found that as many are sold in the districts where it is supposed that the children are most carefully guarded, as in those where they are to a large extent, left to care for themselves. Every truant officer knows to what extent the children are influenced by this literature.

"I have found in my legal experience, especially in connection with the Juvenile Court, that more than half of the cases have been occasioned by the reading of a similar case. Children are naturally imitative; the desire of dramatic representation is almost intuitive in them. The sensational dime novel makes crime of every kind heroic.

“It is my intention to do all in my power to prevent the sale of such tales to minors. There should be a law prohibiting it, just as there is a law prohibiting the sale of cigarettes and liquors to them. I shall endeavor to have it brought before the Legislature in its next session.”

settled was painful, even as is the corresponding process in more pretentious institutions of learning. But it was heartstrings that suffered at Hudson, not the overtaxed brains of examination racked youth. It took Supt. Lohman days and days to select thirty-two boys who were best able to go back to the city and bear the temptations to which they had yielded once before. And when he decided upon the lists there was many a tear shed in the boys' camps.

At a little after 2 o'clock the senior class marched into the courthouse, ever and anon giving vent to war whoops as they marched through the corridors of the building. Mr. Lohman led them. In the court-room the class was lined up before the judge's bench, and when Judge Callaghan started to speak to them, thirty-two frank, eager, boyish faces were upturned to his.

“I have a pleasant duty to perform," began the judge. “It is the duty of sending you back into the homes from which you were taken to be given a course of training at Hudson. It was an unpleasant duty when I had to take you away from your old lives and send you to a place better calculated to make good men of you, but it was for the best, as I can readily see now by your pleasant faces, some of which I scarcely recognized at first, so much had they changed from what they were when they were first up here in court.

"You are all graduates now, and it is my duty to restore you to your fathers and mothers. But remember that, having graduated from the city's farm school, you will never be allowed to go back there except to visit. The next time, and may it never come, that any of you is brought up here, it must be Lancaster."

Judge Calaghan gave the boys a short talk about their future conduct, and then Member Cooley of the service board talked to them awhile. Supt. Lohman was asked to say something, but he said he could not.

"I hate to send them away," he said in an aside talk to the judge. "Something tells me they are not yet strong enough to go on the streets. And yet, they must go. There is no longer room for them at Hudson now that cold weather is coming on. I am afraid, though; I am afraid—” Lohman's eyes filled with tears. Many of the boys broke out and boo-hooed in real boyish ways. Then, in lieu of diplomas, each graduate was given a probation officer "as a friend," the judge told them, and an hour was spent in getting acquainted with each other.

After it was all over the boys and their fathers and mothers, many of the former carrying dinner pails and other evidences of days spent in honest toil, and many of the mothers wearing gingham aprons, bade good-bye to Mr. Lohman and the judge and took their departure. It was in every respect a genuine commencement, as the court and city officials hope, a commencement of better lives for the little fellows who were passing out of the mildly corrective influences of the Farm School.

New Orleans is facing a serious problem at the present time. The authorities are worrying over the question: "What will become of the colored juvenile offenders?"

A controversy has arisen between the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children and Mrs. Frances Joseph, who conducts the Colored Industrial Home. Mrs. Joseph claims that she does not conduct a reformatory, and that she cannot take the vicious and morally bad boys and girls. She says that where there are any children that have no home she is willing to take them and do the best she can for them. She claims that the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children receives assistance in a financial way to take care of the homeless, vagrant and vicious children, and that under the wording of the law colored children as well as white are incuded. Heretofore Recorder Marmouget has committed all of the colored children to the Industrial Home, while the white children were sent to the home of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.

Recently two negro boys who had been committed to the Industrial Home by Recorder Marmouget were returned to the court by Mrs. Joseph. She said that they were too vicious for her to take. Recorder Marmouget sent them to the House of Detention pending further steps in the matter. Thomas Agnew, agent of the society, was out of the city at the time and under the circumstances it was decided to await his return before doing anything further. The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children claims that its quarters are not arranged properly to take care of children of. both races and that the society has never obligated itself to take care of the negro as well as the white children. It is very probable that the entire matter will be submitted to the city attorney and that he will be called upon to render an opinion on the matter.

Police Matron Mrs. Babcock has been designated as custodian of juvenile offenders of Des Moines, Iowa, pending their temporary incarceration while waiting for trial in the Juvenile Court before Judge McHenry. A large room on the third floor over the city police station, which may be reached by private entrance not going near the jail where older people are confined, has been designated as a detention room for children below the age of 17 years arrested on the charge of violating the law. It is announced that Mrs. Babcock will undoubtedly be appointed one of the officers of the Juvenile Court also and vested with the right to arrest children against whom informations have been filed. Assistant County Attorney Robert O. Brennan has completed preparing Juvenile Court blanks for informations, commitments, etc., complying with the provisions of the new law, and in Polk county the new court is now working without a hitch. The necessity of all these preparations made the cases arising immediately after the law became effective, somewhat awkward to handle.

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Mrs. W. C. H. Keough, the only woman member of the Board of Education of Chicago, thus expresses her views of the sale of sensational tales, against which she has started a crusade. Mrs. Keough has discovered, in a wide experience among children convicted of crime, that these crimes have in nine cases out of ten been actuated by the perusal of stories in which crime of every kind is exalted, until the readers have believed that an emulation of such deeds would make them heroes.

“The work of the schools will be constantly hindered," said Mrs. Keough, "if around the corner, at the school store, children can buy this kind of sensational trash. More than one-half DITTEHENA of the truants who are brought in by the officers of the compulsory education department have these stories in their possession. Over in the office of the superintendent of the depart

PLAYING THEY ARE OLD LADIES.

JUVENILE COURTS OF OHIO CINCINNATI

DAYTON TOLEDO

The Cincinnati Juvenile Court is now fully established. At first a peculiar situation arose in regard to the cases of juvenile dependents and delinquents which are supposed, under the Juvenile Court Act, to be passed on by Judge Caldwell. For several weeks after Judge Caldwell's Juvenile Coust was established a number of cases were pending that came within the provisions of the law establishing the Juvenile Court, but by reason of some imperfection, they did not get to that tribunal. But four cases were heard by Judge Caldwell during the first few weeks after the court began to work. Whether this was due to the habit of years, or because those who interested themselves in having the Juvenile Court established failed to push it, is not apparent.

The fact remains that at the beginning Judge Caldwell's docket was practically blank, while juvenile cases piled themselves upon the docket of Judge Lueders of the police court. A majority of these cases, in fact, practically all of them, in the natural course of events come first to the attention of the police officers. As had been their habit in the past, these officers brought the children's cases to the attention of the Police Court. The consequence was that while the Juvenile Court practically was transacting no business, Judge Lueders had his docket full to overflowing with cases that properly should have come within the jurisdiction of Judge Caldwell's tribunal.

In a note to Judge Caldwell Judge Lueders notified him that he had under his jurisdiction sixty juvenile cases. He asked a conference, in order that they might arrive at some definite understanding as to what steps would be necessary to get the line of demarkation between the two courts clearly defined.

In compliance with this request, Judge Caldwell, Judge Lueders, Chief of Police Millikin, Prosecutor Holmes and Police Clerk Kirbert held a conference for the purpose of getting a clearer view of the workings of the Juvenile Court.

LAW IS AMBIGUOUS. The law, as passed by the Ohio Legislature, is very ambiguous. One of the most serious flaws is that a boy or girl, arrested on a juvenile warrant, must be taken into custody by the sheriff. The only institution the latter can place a prisoner is in the county jail, which, of course, is not in keeping with the spirit of the act. The law, if carried out to the letter, will revolutionize the methods of the police department in dealing with the young lawbreaker.

According to the law, when a policeman discovers that a youth is breaking a seal of a car, robbing a store, attempting to maim a companion, or committing any misdemeanor, the officer can do nothing but obtain his name and address and request the boy to appear in the Juvenile Court.

JUDGE CALDWELL IS FIRM. In th mind of Judge Caldwell there was no confusion of juridiction. He very firmly held that under the Juvenile Court law Judge Lueders has not the slightest jurisdiction of cases of delinquent or dependent children under the age of 16. His position was that Judge Lueders should not undertake to pass on these cases; should not, as was being done, hold them; should not take the liberty of sending them to the House of Refuge or elsewhere than the Juvenile Court. The law, he thought, makes it manifest that the Police Court should send all these cases directly to the Juvenile Court Judge Lueders was not so clear in his interpretation of the law as to jurisdiction in these cases. Furthermore, he was not sure of his obligation to transfer such cases as come before him directly to the Juvenile Court.

There is no provision for daily sittings of the Juvenile Court, and the police department held that these cases must be taken to a place where they will have immediate hearing. That they would probably get that kind of hearing in the Juvenile Court was contended by that tribunal if they were only there presented, instead of being held by the police department. There was no feeling between the two courts, just a difference of opinion touching some points of the law as to jurisdiction.

The plan of action finally decided upon was to have an officer swear out an affidavit in Police Court, and then take the document to Judge Caldwell's court, where the case will be tried.

In police circles some of the officials are disposed to look unfavorably upon the new law. It was pointed out that in cities like Chicago and Cleveland, with a cosmopolitan population, it has been a success, but Cincinnati has an excellent House of Refuge, and, together with the quasi-public institutions for juveniles, is well prepared to cope with the problem. The city of Cleveland invariably has a dozen or more youthful offenders in

the local Refuge. In the Police Court the young prisoner has always received sympathetic treatment from Judge Lueders.

"Spare the rod," is the motto of the Juvenile Court, under Judge Caldwell, who declared: “The less a child is whipped the better it is for him.' This was his admonition to Mrs. Henry Engelbeck, of Winton Place, who testified that she gave her 15-year-old stepson, Harry Engelbeck, a licking whenever he needed it.

“And you know, Judge, boys do need that sort of thing sometimes,” she said.

"I don't know about that,” said the Judge. "It is very often overdone. I don't believe very much in corporal punishment myself.”

The boy did not want to live at his father's home, and asked the Court to put him in charge of William Schroeder, of Winton Place, for whom he has been working, and with whom he has lived most of the time since he was a babe of 3. He said his stepmother taunted him because of his red hair. The controversy over the lad has made enemies of his father and Schroeder, formerly great friends.

The Judge discovered that the lad attends White Oak School, of which he formerly had charge, and continued the case to hear from the schoolmistress, Miss Garber, who was formerly a pupil of his.

The effectiveness of the Juvenile Court, and a contrast with the methods of the Police Court in dealing with children, was shown when Judge Caldwell had before him nearly, 30 cases of young offenders. They were turned over to the Juvenile Court by the Police Court. The result of all the cases was that the Court sent them to their parents or to the House of Refuge or the Children's Home or some orphan asylum temporarily, until some disposition could be made of the children. The police officers having the beats in the neighborhoods where the culprits live were asked to report how they were doing.

THE SITUATION IN DAYTON. It now appears probable that the organization of the Juvenile Court that was provided for by the last legislature will not be effected right away in Dayton. Judge Brown, senior judge who has been left with the matter in charge, is reported to have said that the matter had not yet been taken up by the judges and he doubted if anything would be done at present. It seems to be the opinion of the judges that the class of young delinquents for which the law makes provision are pretty well cared for and their rights properly protected at the present time.

It appears then that the principle factor in the law that might be of practical use in Dayton is the provision for the appointment of a probation officer, who acting with the Court and the charitable organizations in the city and county would do good deal in the way of prevention and keep an eye on the boys and girls whose condition was not conducive to right living. However, if the idea of Judge Brown finds favor in the eyes of his colleagues, and there is little doubt that it will, the whole matter will be postponed for a while at least.

QUESTION OF DUTY IN TOLEDO. Owing to the change in the manner of dealing with juvenile offenders against the peace quiet and morality of the city of Toledo, an interesting question has arisen as to whose duty it is to care for the bad little boys who are taken into custody.

It is the belief of the police officials and the Board of Public Safety, that, since the Juvenile Court is a county institution, and incorrigible offenders do not come under the jurisdiction of the city authorities, the county ought to bear the expense of taking care of them during their period of imprisonment. Since the law went into operation, which established the Juvenile Couri, youthful prisoners have been kept, as formerly, at the Lagrange Street station and the city has had to bear the expense of feeding them.

The equipment of this station which is used only for women, children and sick prisoners, makes it a much more desirable and suitable jail for the incarceration of youngsters and Chief oi Police Knapp thinks they should be kept here the same as in the past, but considers that the county ought to reimburse the city for the meals served them.

President Knisely will take this matter up with county officials at once and examine into the new Juvenile Court law to find if he cannot discover some paragraph which makes provision for the place and manner in which such children are to be cared for, The police officials would be willing to call it square so far as the care of juvenile prisoners up to the present time is concerned and open the account with the county from the present time.

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JUVENILE COURTS OF CALIFORNIA SAN FRANCISCO

LOS ANGELES

I have ordered them out. I need the space they have been occupying, and as the juvenile authorities have the money they can go ahead and provide for their charges. There was no haste in my action, but sufficient notice was given by me of my intention to move them."

ones.

SAN FRANCISCO JUVENILES TURNED OUT. At last the juvenile delinquents of the city of San Francisco have been obliged to move. For over a year they have been housed in a wretched corridor in that part of the Central Emergency hospital which is set aside for patients awaiting examination as to their mental condition. The hall was badly lighted, badly ventilated, and its iron-barred doors and windows carried out the suggestion of a jail, although it was intended to be anything but a jail. It was the only place which San Francisco could afford to provide for juvenile delinquents awaiting the hearing of their cases in Judge Murasky's court. The Board of Health, "for the sake of economy," issued the order prohibiting the police department from placing girls and boys under 16 years of age in the care of the matron of the Receiving hospital pend. ing the disposition of their cases by the Juvenile Court. Chief Surgeon Stephen gave orders that another place must be found for the boys, as the hospital could accommodate them no longer, not having money sufficient to pay for boys and patients both, and juvenile quarters were shifted to the building occupied as a home by the Boys' and Girls' Aid Society at Grove and Baker streets. There they will be kept until a new building, which has been secured on Polk street, can be prepared for their reception. It is estimated that the building will soon be ready, the supervisors having allowed $5,000 for the care of the boys during the ensuing year.

Up to this time, for the purpose of keeping the children away from the vile influences of the criminals, who are detained in the city prison, they have been transferred to the hospital since the Juvenile court was established. Not long ago rooms were especially arranged for the care of the juvenile offenders and W. H. Hutton, the probation officer, has been sleeping there in order to be close at hand. There are a large number of cases and by the time the court meets every Friday afternoon, with Judge Murasky, presiding, the quarters are filled with between forty-five and sixty young offenders.

The following order was issued by Chief of Police Wittman, acting under orders received from the Board of Health :

"On account of insufficiency of funds, the Board of Health has refused to receive or care for juvenile offenders under 16 years of age arrested by this department, and which were formerly detained at the Receiving hospital until their cases were disposed of by the Juvenile Court, and pending other arrangements, the Boys' and Girls' Aid society have agreed to keep them at their place, corner of Grove and Baker streets.

“Prison and station keepers will therefore have all juvenile offenders under 16 years of age transferred to this last-named institution instead of the Receiving hospital as heretofore. Have all offenders of this class who are arrested in Districts 1. 2 and 3 taken to the City Hall station by patrol wagon of the district in which the arrest is made. The sergeant in charge of the City Hall station will notify the Golden Gate Park station when arrests of this character are delivered there and the wagon from the Golden Gate Park station will transfer them to the Boys' and Girls' Aid society. Arrests of this class made in Districts 4, 5 and 6 will be transferred to the Boys and Girls' Aid society direct by the patrol wagon of the district in which the arrest is made. After having been booked at the proper station in their respective districts, officers T. R. Flynn and W. D. Scott will see that the juveniles above mentioned are transferred to and from the Juvenile Court by the O'Farrell Street station patrol wagon and will be held responsible for them while in their custody."

The patrol wagons from the Central, Southern and Harbor stations will take children from their various stations out to the city hall and then they will be loaded into the Golden Gate Park station wagon and transferred to the Aid society headquarters. The wagons from the Mission, City Hall and Park stations will carry the young prisoners to the Aid society building from their respective stations.

In defending his action, Chief Surgeon Stephen said:

"When I came here to act as chief surgeon the Board of Health gave me instructions to conduct the hospital on up-todate lines, and I am endeavoring to carry out those orders, but I cannot make bricks without straw . The money I am allowed is not enough to care for the patients in a proper way if the wants of the boys have to be attended to as well. Last month the boys cost 115 $60, and for ten months past they have meant an expense of $40 a month on the average. If $40 or $50 a month is taken from me for the keep of the juvenile offenders, how can [ furnish the patients with soun, eggs and the delicacies their condition demands? I told the Board that. and it supported me, agreeing to my suggestion that the boys should be moved. So

CLUB WILL HELP LOS ANGELES DELINQUENTS. The latest club to be organized in Los Angeles, California, is known as “The Jolly Boys' Club.” And these "Jolly Boys" have a mixed membership, for there are gray-haired and venerable ladies connected with it as well as some sprightly young

But the movement is not a purely hilarious one for there is a good bit of common sense philanthropy mixed up in it.

When the B. Fay Mills meetings were ended last winter the religious enthusiasm awakened by the eloquent divine crystallized into an organization of about 300 persons and is known as “The Fellowship.” Growing out of this are various committees whose purpose it is to seek to do some service to humanity; for the motto of the Fellowship is “What is the loving thing to do?"

Pursuant to this desire and questioning the ladies of the Fel. lowship, with Mrs. L. M. Vance as one of the leaders, decided that there was an opportunity for good work in connection with the detention home of the Juvenile Court. Other societies had pre-empted the religious services on Sunday. It was decided that a club for healthful recreation ought to be formed among these boys. The consent of Judge Wilbur was obtained and on every Wednesday night for the past few weeks a company of ladies have been going to the old city jail to show the boys there how to have a merry time in an innocent and respectable manner and incidentally inculcate higher moral standards.

The boys chose their own name for the club. “The Jolly Boys” and a secretary from one of their own number has neatly recorded, in red ink, all of the proceedings. They play games, sing songs, march and recite selections and then there is usually a short informal talk from some one who knows just what to say to a class of boys who do not want to be preached to but are susceptible to good moral influences.

This club is bound to grow, for it is planned to form other auxiliaries wherever possible. Among the women interested in the “Jolly Boys'” club are: Mrs. Mary Garbutt, Mrs. McMurtry, Mrs. Gaws. Mrs. Morrison, Mrs. Moody, Mrs. Underwood, Mrs. Garson, Mrs. Lawson, Mrs. S. L. Russell, Mrs. L. M. Vance, Miss Griffith and Miss Santa Ana. Miss Santa Ana is called'"the angel of the red light district" and is temporarily residing in Los Angeles, having gone there recently from San Diego.

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GOVERNORS

ONCE WAIFS

DR. CRAWFORD JACKSON

TO PARENTS

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A collection of letters from leading citizens of New York and other states makes up the contents of a scrapbook recently prepared by the Rev. C. L. Brace, secretary of the Children's Aid Society, of that city. Each of these letters is a testimonial to the work done by the society, for every one of the writers was once a waif on the streets of that city, and owes his present position to being placed in a good home by this organization. These letters are taken from old annual reports of the society.

The writers are representatives of nearly every profession, men in public office and leaders in the financial world. All tell the same story of a hopeless home life or no home at all, of a few months spent under the influence of the Children's Aid Society, and then of the uplift of a good home into which they were placed by the officers of the society.

Many a boy got his first start at the Brace Farm school, established in 1894 by Mrs. Joseph M. White at Kensico station, Westchester county. Here the street boys, ragged and dirty, are sent by the society, cleaned, given an entire new outfit of clothes, and put at the light, healthful work of the farm. In a little time the restless, undisciplined boy absorbs the refining atmosphere of his new environment, and aquires his first ideas of honesty and industry. After this preliminary training the boy is usually placed in the home of a farmer, where kind treatment and healtful home life is assured, and an honest citizen results from material that too often goes to swell the criminal classes.

One of the most striking testimonials in the scrapbook is that contained in a series of letters from Alaska of John G. Brady, now serving his second term as chief executive of the territory. The first letter was written in 1871, when Mr. Brady was in Yale. His first recollections, he said, were of being left in charge of an aunt, who abandoned him after a little time to the streets, where he lived as a vagrant, picking up scanty meals about the docks and sleeping in dark stairways, or old boxes and hogsheads about the wharves. He tells of climbing to the roofs of houses in the night and stealing the lead from the chimneys and selling it in the junk shops to get money to buy a ticket for the old Chatha theatre.

Finally he fell in with an officer of the Children's Aid Society and was induced to go to Randall's Island, where he remained for two years. In 1859 an agent of the society sent him to the home of an Indiana lawyer, who owned a large farm near the town where he lived. He was treated as one of the family, had work on the farm in the summer and was sent to the village school in the winter. Later he taught school for several terms and finally decided to enter the ministry.

Taking the $300 he had saved from his wages he prepared himself for college and entered Yale, and at length, by his own efforts and the aid of friends, completed his education and in 1878 went to Alaska. There he got into mercantile business, and soon became third owner and manager of the Sitka Trading company. When by an act of Congress in 1884, Alaska was organized into a civil and judicial district he was made one of the four commissioners provided for by the act, and from then rapidly rose in the administrative circles of the territory till he became its head. All this is told in the letters written from time 10 time by Mr. Brady to the officers of the society, to which he gives the credit for his present position.

Clement S. Edwards was taken as a street boy twenty-two years ago to Albert Lea, Minn., then a new born village, which has since become a busy little city. Two years ago Mr. Edwards wrote to the agent of the Children's Aid Society that sent him to Minnesota, telling him of is successful career in college, his admission to the bar and election to the office of city attorney. He organized a military company and served through the war with Spain, and at its close was appointed to the staff of the governor, with the rank of major.

Another letter is from Andrew H. Burke, written in 1891, when he was governor of South Dakota. He tells of a visit to the East and his old school on Randall's Island, where he was placed by the Children's Aid Society for a little time before he, too, was sent to the West and given a home.

James A. Gray, elected to Congress from Ohio in 1895, is another writer. Another is Edward A. Morgan, editor and proprietor of the Daily Journal of Fairmount, Ind. These are only a few of the successful journalists, lawyers, educators and politicians who have contributed to this scrapbook. Nor are the leaders of affairs the only ones who have written letters of interest. Many less pretentious notes tell of quiet, respectable and comfortable careers, made possible by the start given in former years by the society to whose merits they now testify.

At a mass meting of citizens of Atlanta, Georgia, interested in the work of reforming juvenile offenders, Dr. Crawford Jackson, editor of the Christian Union, delivered a strong address regarding the duties of parents to their children. During the course of his remarks he said:

“When I read the story of four boys now in the Fulton county jail, one of those graphic sentences in the brief but comprehensive book of Jude occurred to me, and I thought I would like to talk to you briefly and as best I can on this subject.

““Redeemable boys behind bolts and bars foaming out their own and the state's shame.'

"Of course we shall have to go behind the state and back of the boys and all boys in the wrong way and place to the fountain head, the family. And referring to parents, let me say, please, that there is scarcely a single defect in any child in my home, for which I am not directly or indirectly responsible. May I make it a little stronger?-for the most part directly responsible.

“And when this very day after one morning family worship and I had prayed with all the children just a little, I took my seat in the lap of my oldest son, who is now entering upon the years of his greatest danger, with my own face fronting his, and with three kisses of whole-hearted love exchanged, the lad little dreamed that I was trying to atone, in part at least, for some of my own folly, at the same time endeavoring to get a deeper and more abiding hold on that son, in order that I might everlastingly hold him on to God and the right and myself.

TOO MUCH AUTHORITY IN HOME. “Further confession leads me to say—and in these remarks I am trying to preach to other parents—that there has been too much authority in my home, that stern and unbending authority which holds the boy strictly to account, and too little of that sympathy which makes itself one with the offender, yet not one with his offense, an all too-frequent use of the switch and a too infrequent use of those strokes of love which penetrate the deep recesses of the soul-and nowhere more certainly than in the heart of a child, which strokes of love oft repeated and coupled with a rightful authority, can and will transform almost any boy's heart and life.

Another word somewhat personal, but I trust not offensive, boys like John Gentle and Victor Nuttall and all that unfortunate class will perhaps never be able to know how, whatever sympathy I have had and poorly, I am sure, manifested for them, has in chords, stronger and still more imperishable, tied me on to the very heartstrings of my own boy. But the latter boy was at family worship this morning, next in some innocent play in the sitting room, then delivered some notes in the interest of this mass meeting; then in Sunday school, next at preaching and is now doubtless either reading a good book or in an afternoon service. But Victor Nuttall, who, from both his name and his own account of himself, seems to be one of Satan's best trained Victors, a boy who seems to be, pardon me, all nut, instead of Nuttall. That boy of 12, younger than my own son, referred to, is yonder behind bars, getting, moment by moment, more iron into his soul. And, curses on me forever, if I should provide for my own son as best I can and forget or be indifferent toward the other boy, whose case is more distressing; one of the many waves on the troubled sea of humanity foaming out his own and the state's shame. A boy who, though now an acknowledged thief, will, like Jean Valjean, Jerry McAuley and George Muller, all acknowledged thieves and liars for awhile, but like them also, can become a living and mighty tree, which shall bear fruit for the healing of the nations. And the worst of it all is that is of the present situation-the boy that is most neglected at home or whose parent or parents, from sheer poverty, are sometimes, it seems, forced to neglect the boy, in both the parents and the boy's battle for bread-that is the boy of all others, who, though calling most loudly for our sympathy and help, yet receives our cruelest, most fatal blows. The state, just where parental indifference or enforced parental neglect ceases, the state, I say, comes in loco parentis and starts out on a systematic and legalized course. O, high heaven, show us what we are doing! A legalized course of crime training and criminal making with that unfortunate boy.

"But the tide, thank God, is changing, and as I have some reason for knowing, is rising higher and higher all over the state and the South-with Atlanta and this mass meeting as the center-and Atlanta's imprisoned lads and Georgia's enchained boys shall yet have a chance at redemption, or else, let us bid farewell to civilization and farewell to Christianity and vote at once to go back to barbarism."

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