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THE JUVENILE COURT

By J. J. McMANAMAN. The Juvenile Court is an established institution in the State essential principles that can be practiced to-day by the old as of Illinois. It has passed the experimental stage and it is now well as by the young, for in the mad rush for wealth, with the a permanent fixture.

words of lago constantly ringing in your ear, "Put money in There is now in the State one Juvenile Court presided over by thy purse," the standard of honesty in the street must necesa Circuit Judge, located at Chicago. In other counties of the sarily be at a low ebb, so that too much stress cannot be laid State, the Juvenile Court is presided over by the County Judge. upon the rule laid down by the Master: "Do unto others that

These Courts have demonstrated their usefulness in propor which you would have others do unto you.” tion to the means they have had at hand to carry out the object The State as yet has paid little attention to parental condifor which they were established. They have given the young tions. It has paid little attention to the child until the child and thoughtless an opportunity to develop without carrying the violates some rule of conduct established by the State, then it stigma of a criminal. They act as a parent to the parentless, a builds jails, penitentiaries and even casts the shadow of the guide to the weak, and a check to the strong. They teach the scaffold upon the land to protect itself from the products of its boy and girl that society is interested in their conduct and edu own neglect. cation and that they are a part of society.

I believe that it can be truthfully said that the delinquent A Court simply as a Court, without the power to carry into boy was a dependent or neglected child, and that a great many execution the objects of the law, is a useless ornament in the of the criminals, who have puzzled and burdened the State for community and an unnecessary expense to the people, but a their care and protection, have developed from the delinquent Court so equipped that it can reach the home through efficient and neglected boys. probation officers on the one hand and charitable and corrective The dependent child is placed in a home where in many institutions on the other, is one of the most important and cases the home, instead of throwing around the child wholesome beneficient institutions established by the people in many years.

parental care and guardianship, is neglected and the child's perThe Court is supposed to be limited in its jurisdiction manency in the home depends upon the usefulness and profit to to dependents and delinquents, who are under sixteen years of its new parents. Here is where the State should extend its age, but in dependent cases it passes beyond the child and helping hand, and see that every child placed by a society or an reaches the parent and the home. It is here where the great

institution is properly treated and the best elements of the object of the law is realized; here where society will in time child's nature developed. If a boy or girl is placed in a home fully realize the work that is being done.

where the environments are wholly at variance with his or her The home is the unit of the State, and the homes in the temperament and the child has ar independent, adventurous aggregate make up the State and the Nation. If the home is neg spirit, it will break the ties that bind it to this master and seek lected, debauched or vicious society breed disease and death,

relief in the large cities and where it is free to act and do as it but if the home is happy, wholesome and sober, society is safe,

pleases. The lodging house, the all-night restaurant and the strong and promising.

cheapest and lowest quarters are its haunts, and in a few years There is a danger, however, in public officials peeping into

society has an associate and the State a citizen schooled in all the home and attempting to establish a standard of living, a

that is vicious, selfish and dangerous instead of a clear, clean, standard of conduct and morals and then measuring all peoples

intelligent, interested citizen. by that standard. This is one of the dangers that confront the

The law with regard to delinquent children is weak as it Juvenile Court, and one which the judge must be constantly on

limits the Court in its jurisdiction to children under sixteen guard to check. To set up a standard of living, of morals and

years of age. It would be well if the Court had the power to of conduct for all peoples, and then to say that all those who

hold jurisdiction of the boy or girl until they reached their have not reached that standard must be brought before the

majority. The law should be so amended, that once the Court Court to explain their habits and conduct, would destroy the

acquired jurisdiction of a delinquent child, the Court could use very purpose for which the Court was established.

its discretion as to whether or not it would surrender the boy The efficient probation officer must consider the habits, con

or girl to the criminal machinery of the State. It is a fact that duct and morals of all peoples with whom they come in contact,

the greatest number of delinquent boys and girls come from they must know that the standard of cleanliness, industry and

neglected or dependent homes and why the Court should lose living are in stratas, like rock formation, and the officer who

jurisdiction of this delinquent boy or girl when he or she does not give full consideration to every detail is not serving the

reaches sixteen years of age is not very clear, for it is at this best purpose of his or her position.

period of life that most boys and girls need the greatest amount

of care. The Judge of a Juvenile Court holds a high and important

It is as this period of life that the boy is passing to position. He is the ballast, the check, the readjuster of the

the physical, but not the intellectual man, carrying all the burideals and standard fixed by his agents. In dealing with and

den of the animal with very little of the light of man to guide adjusting these ideals, he shows his breadth of mind, his phi

him. At this period the boy is erratic, eruptic and volcanic; he losophy of life, his knowledge of the habits of all peoples, and

loves the daring physical courage of his idol; the wild, daring, his sympathy with the lives of many peoples whose ideals differ,

dashing gun fighter is his ideal of a man. Until those dreams but whose purpose is simple and sincere.

are expelled by reason and experience the Juvenile Court

should hold him in check. The Court should be the best judge The Judge of the Juvenile Court deals with the lives and futures of the coming citizens and too much care and caution

of the boy's moral responsibility.

-Reforms in the individual are mental processes of developcannot be indulged in when we consider that by one act, the

ment and brick walls and grated windows have the power to hopes of the parents may be shattered and the welfare of the child blasted.

develop nothing but fear or revenge. To develop that part of

the boy's nature to do good because it is good and for princiWhy should a man's child receive less consideration at the hands of the Courts of the State than his horse? If we take

ples' sake, cannot be done by surrounding him with bolts, locks

and bars. He should have freedom of thought, freedom of a man's horse from him, he must have a chance for a complete action and an environment constantly surrounding him that will hearing and have his day in Court. So if a man's child is to be awaken in him the knowledge that every pleasure has its cortaken away from him. Every form prescribed by the law responding pain and that to do right is a duty he owes to himshould be conformed to, every right should be considered and self and to society. no matter how vicious or depraved a parent may be, every Some people have placed great stress upon the improvements right that can be claimed by the most powerful in society should they have observed under their master hand in delinquent indibe enjoyed by the parent because no man can be said to be viduals. I have even heard the hangman say that he was on guilty until pronounced so by a Court of competent jurisdiction. intimate terms with the condemned; as if society was more safe

The Juvenile Court is a crime preventer instead of an instru and enriched by the intimacy. ment for punishment. The old saying, “As the twig is bent, the tree is inclined,” is true with regard to the young sprouts of

Improvement in a delinquent cannot be made by any master society as well as the young sprouts in the vegetable kingdom.

unless the delinquent has the same freedom of thought, free

dom of action as the master. The teacher who can reach the The child born in poverty, poorly nursed and nurtured with intellectual level of his pupil, learn his tendencies, catch his insufficient and unwholesome food and air, with vicious environ weaknesses, one at a time, not condemning or trying to crush ments cannot be expected to develop that sturdy manhood or out with one blow all the tendencies that it has taken years to womanhood so essential to good order and good citizenship. develop, will prove a greater benefactor in the way of reform

Respect for the rights of others, the most essential element in the individual than all the masters practicing their powers to inculcate in the young, is in a vicious and depraved home, behind grated windows and bolted doors, and add more to the wholly neglected.

welfare of mankind than all the jails and all the penitentiaries This respect for the rights of others is one of the most and all the scaffolds have ever added.

LOS ANGELES JUVENILE

JUVENILE COURT

A Juvenile Court Law was passed in California in 1903.

Under this law, a home for juvenile offenders was established in the old county jail. A matron, probation officer and two other officers were placed in charge.

The members of the Juvenile Court Commission decided that these young offenders should be regularly instructed and employed and asked the Board of Education for a teacher. This request was granted; and on March 22nd, a small room was set apart, in the building with the home, for a public school.

On the first day, seventeen pupils were registered. This number increased to twenty-seven, with a daily average of eighteen during the first two weeks.

The school soon grew beyond the confines of this little room. Six weeks from the date of opening, a newly constructed apartment was provided in the rear of the building with seating capacity for thirty-three.

As the average for May was thirty-eight, and for June thirtysix, this room, too, was daily over-crowded.

At the beginning of the third month, the Board of Education appointed an assistant teacher. No available space for a second class room necessitated the teachers working together in the same room.

From March 22nd to June 30th, the names of one hundred and twenty-five pupils appeared on the register, with a daily average of thirty. Out of this number fourteen were sent to the Reform School-seven during the first month.' Others were returned to their homes on probation. Thirty-three remained in

Home at the close of school. These boys are detained here for various causes. A few are homeless. Some, accused of crime, are awaiting trial. Others, either for insubordination in the ordinary school, or for misdemeanor have been sentenced by the court to attend this school for a term of weeks or months.

If a boy, for any cause, cannot be controlled in the graded school, or if he be guilty of truancy or suspension, he should be transferred to the teacher of an ungraded room. If unmanageable here, he should be sent to a school that should exist for truants and suspended cases alone. If still ungovernable, he should be placed in the Parental School.

A visit from the truant officer to the truant child's home and a fine imposed on the parents might be an effectual means of preventing truancy.

Careful study and close observation show inefficient home training to be responsible, more than all other causes combined, for the incorrigibility of youth. Negligence or inability of the teacher to study a peculiar child's nature and ply a timely and proper remedy-is another cause and truancy is generally the result of one or both of these. If every mother and every teacher could and would check the insubordination of early childhood, there would be little need of the Parental School.

It is the supreme effort of all connected with this work to bring the child to a realization of his wrong-doing; to create in him a desire to do right; to convince him that there is nothing higher on earth than true manhood and Christian character; that right-doing is the basis of all great character and that he alone is wise and virtuous "who knows what is best to do next and does it."

The mere acquisition of book-lore is held subordinate to the teaching of these vital principles.

Soon after he comes into the home, the boy begins to show the effect of precept and example. He feels the influence of strong personal interest. He finds he receives sympathy, or censure, or assistance to regain his lost grade, or whatever help he most needs; and ere long there is a soul-awakening and he is brought to see the error of his way-sometimes in very rare and obstinate cases through the application of the shingle.

It is encouraging to note the decrease in the number sent to the Reform School. During the first three months 33 1-3 per cent. were sent to Whittier. In the three months following this was reduced to 1 2-3 per cent. And many of these may belong to that class of unfortunates who come into the world stamped with criminal tendencies and who are such because they could be nothing else.

If this little home and school, still in its infancy, hampered by incommodious and unsanitary surroundings and inefficient material can do so much good, what may we not expect from an institution properly equipped ?

Give to these boys a school and home with a ten-acre tract to farm; an industrial education; retain them here a long enough time for the habit of honesty, industry, usefulness and morality to become a second nature, and few of them will take the downward path.

The least thoughtful may be able to see in this institution a means of preventing much of crime, pauperism, vice and disease, without the expense and oppression of to-day.

BOYS' SHELTER

Here are samples of the answers which nine out of ten boys make when they apply for shelter at the home of the Children's Aid Society, at Forty-fourth Street and Second Avenue, New York:

Q. Have you either parent? A. No.
Q. Have you a near friend? A. No.
Q. What is your home address ? A. Have no home.
Q. Are you employed ? A. No. Can't find work.

These answers indicate the condition of the boys who are received at the Home every day.

Erected in 1888 by Morris K. Jesup, it has been a rallying point for these boys since its founding. It is fitted with baths, gymnasium, reading and sleeping rooms, and the superintendent and his aides are always ready to give the downcast and lonesome boy a cheery welcome.

During the past year almost one thousand homeless boys have been provided with food and shelter there, and endeavors have been made to benefit them mentally, physically, and morally. The special effort made here is to provide permanent and suitable homes and very often applications are received for boys to work on farms, in stores, and in offices.

The charge made for lodging is five cents for a "double-deck" bed, and ten cents for a single bed. Most of the inmates pay in advance, and as they come to the desk they are greeted with a pleasant “Good evening" by Mr. Wood.

“Well, William, I thought you were down in Long Island.” said he to a young chap who had just entered with a bundle under his arm.

"I was, sir, but I had to leave today."

“What was the trouble? Couldn't you manage the cows on the farm?"

Yes, Mr. Wood; I could manage them all right, but they sold the cows, and so I had to get out."

"Well, here's your key again. Guess I can fix you up tomorrow.

“Will you take care of this for me, please?”

The boy handed over the desk a well-worn and dirty envelope, containing $4.50, which he had saved out of his wages. The money was placed in a new envelope and put in the safe.

"You would be surprised to see how these fellows can save, " said the superintendent. “There's one over there. You see he is a cripple. We took him from the almshouse on the island, and he now sells papers in the Grand Central Station. He has quite a little to his credit, which is saying a good deal, as it is hard for him to get around on these rainy days. I have another boy who left me yesterday. He is employed in a glass factory in Jersey, and when he was laid off at the beginning of summer and came here he brought me over $50. I just mention these few cases to show you how industrious these chaps get when they see some one is taking an interest in them."

Not only does this building shelter the homeless boys, but during the day a school is conducted there for the poor children of the neighborhood, 75 per cent of whom are Italians. These boys and girls are so poor that they are unable to dress well enough to attend public schools. There is an average attendance of about 250 a day and a warm dinner is served to all who may want it. Chair-caning, basketry, and iron-work are taught at the school. The House was visited some time ago by Thunder Cloud, a full-blooded Sioux Indian. He told the children all about his tribe and his home, and a large picture of the chief now adorns one of the rooms.

During the recent coal strike a very funny incident occurred. The lesson was about the miners' troubles, and the children were writing compositions about it. One boy with imagination wrote in part: “The coal will be scarce. All the wood will be used up. If you see men tearing down part of their houses do not be surprised. But the worst part will be when they tear down the fences, and then what will we boys do then-we can't tell when the circus is coming!"

Juvenile Court Record IDEALS IN JUVENILE COURT WORK.

It behooves all who have any part in the workings of PUBLISHED BY THE VISITATION AND AID SOCIETY

Juvenile Courts to consider carefully the article by Mr.

McManaman in this issue. It points out forcibly what T. D. HURLEY, Editor, 79 Dearborn Street, Chicago, Ill. J. L. CLARK, Business Manager

should be the guiding principles of judges and probation Eastern Office, 53 W, 24th Street, New York City

officers. Correctly it says that every legal right of even Boston Office, 147 Milk St., Boston, Mass.

a child offender must be considered, that no famliy dare The JUVIMLE DOURT RECORD is published monthly, except in the month be broken up until all other resources for its reform are

July. Single pien, 10 centa. Subscription price, $i per year. exhausted, and that it is the height of injustice to set up batared at Pootodice, Ohicago, a second-class matter.

arbitrary ideals for all individuals and families. The JUVENILE OOURT BECORD is the official organ of and published Throughout the article stress is laid upon the vital necesby the Vittation and AN Society and will deal with social problems in nd-uaving work and give an account of the worldings of the Juvenile Court.

sity of knowing the child intimately if the teacher would

really teach him. NEW SUBSCRIPTIONS cu commence with current number.

WHEN RENBWING, always give the name of the postoties to well por paper is Dow being rent. Your name cannot be found on our boala

DOING CHILD-SAVING WORK RIGHT. o this is done. Four weeks are required after the receipt of money by

before the date opposte your name on your paper, which shows to wheat Could anything be more apparent than the soundness Home your subscription is paid, can be changed. This will show that your

of the principles, laid down by Mr. Kingsley in his article tanco wu recatred.

CHANGE OF ADDRESS.-Always give both your old and your new addrem in this issue, as necessary for_the guidance of those when you ask w to change.

engaged in child-saving work? Every true parent, every PAYMENT FOR THE PAPER, when sent by mall, should be made in a mutatdoe money order, bank check or draft, or an express money order.

teacher, every person of reflective mind must endorse Men neither of these can be procured, send 2-cent United States postage these so natural ideals. Consideration of the heart ties mampos; only this kind oan be received

that bind together mother and child; the necessity of LETTERS should be addressed and checks and drafts made payable to JUVENILE COURT RECORD, 79 Dearborn Street, Obiango.

really knowing the material we are working with; willADVERTISING RATES made known on application.

ingness to "take trouble" because we are dealing with AGENTS are authorized to sell single copies and take subscriptions, who Dans credentials signed by the President and Secretary of the Visitation and precious humanity, not with things; recognition of our Soalety.

serious obligation to the child when we dare to deprive

him of the parents who brought him to earth;—where is OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY—1903-4.

the person who will dispute for a moment the legitimacy T. D. HURLEY, President.

of such a working creed? And yet we dare say some

benighted mortals there are, still walking the earth who, VICE-PRESIDENTS. John Cudahy Michael Cudahy C. C. Copeland

while ready to endorse all that Mr. Kingsley says, in John F. Barrett Wm. A. Amberg Frank X. Mudd their practical every-day doings with children, run counWilliam P. Nelson Chas. A. Mair M. W. Murphy ter to all of the principles mentioned. Their carelessness Mary Hummelsheim John O'Malley W. F. McLaughlin and thoughtlessness and desire to see results in a hurry Hon. E. O. Brown P. H. Rice

Wm. E. O'Neill

cause the mischief. The day was when pure ignorance John A. Lynch W. J. Hynes

P. J. Geraghty Hon. R. W. Clifford John R. Walsh Dr. C. P. Caldwell and criminal folly reigned among a large number of D. J. Murphy Z. P. Brosseau Patrick Garrity child-saving workers. No high ideals were then formuWm. P. Rend John P. Byrne Dr. John B. Murphy lated. But now with examples on every hand of the L. A. Jones

T. J. Amberg W. H. O'Brien August Brosseau

richly beneficent results that can come from the obseryE. A. Beauvais J. M. Sellers C. H. Canby R. Ortmann Chas. H. McConnell

ance of right principles there is absolutely no excuse for Howard B. Jackson John M. Smyth E. J. Nally

blunderings.
Hon. T. E. Barrett Hon. T. A. Moran D. F. Bremner, Jr.
J. Ward Amberg W. P. Henneberry Joseph E. Flanagan

A YEAR'S WORK.
F. M. Hushart D. F. Bremner J. B. Scott
Geo. F. Featherstone John B. Heeney Hon. Frances O'Neill

If a charitable society's work could all be indicated

in a statistical report it certainly would be poor work. James F. Bowers, Treasurer.

The thousands of bits of advice, encouragement and
Emma Quinlan, Recording. Secretary.
May Mallanny, Corresponding Secretary.

cheer given in a year's time cannot be set down in print. Esther J. Mercer, Financial Secretary.

And yet that is a great part and a fine part of the activity

of any such organization. The Visitation and Aid SociDEPARTMENTS.

ety's report on another page does not represent all that Finance

John Cudahy

it has done along this line. Even the figures given, bare Men's Auxiliary

Michael Cudahy

and cold as they stand there, mean a vast amount of conWomen's Auxiliary...Mrs. William P. Nelson Office

.T. D. Hurley

scientious, painstaking labor. The worry, the thought, Institutions

Thomas Breen

the physical exertion necessary to get even small results Library .Mary Hummelshein

the public can never know. It must go behind the scenes Children . James F. Bowers

if it would learn. It must know, for example, the considerable amount of work it takes to put even one case

properly and with all legal requirements met, through the Three Years Two Years

One Year James F. Bowers Chas. A. Mair John Cudahy

Juvenile Court. Imagine then what it means to do so in Esther J. Mercer R. J. Reynolds Thomas Breen 667 cases. Michael Roden D. F. Bremner T. D. Hurley

The Society is justly proud of the results accomplished A. H. Weir R. M. Prendergast May Mallanny

through the publication of its paper, THE JUVENILE Mrs. T. Quinlan Mary Hummelsheim Michael Cudahy Josephine B. Hughes Mrs. Robert Whelan W. P. Henneberry

COURT RECORD. With a circulation of 20,000 per May Norton John F. Barrett John W. Walsh month it is able to wield wide influence in its

chosen field. The establishment of Juvenile Courts in SUMMARY, SIXTEEN YEARS-1888-1904.

twenty different states means that through the aid, direct

and indirect, of this paper, thousands of children have Children assisted

17,090

been protected and encouraged and saved to lives of Placed in homes

942 Transportation secured

future honor and usefulness. All who have contributed

1,974 Persons sent to hospitals

2,630 to the support of the society can feel that they have had Persons otherwise assisted

44,918 a hand in this beneficent work.

BOARD OF DIRECTORS.

Foundation Principles of Good Child Saving Work. An address by Sherman C. Kingsley, Gen'l Supt. of the Chicago Relief and Aid Society, formerly Gen'l Sec'y of the Boston Children's Friend Society, delivered in St. Louis, Sept. 22, '04, before the annual conference of the National Children's Home Society.

14

The cuts used in this article are all made from photographs of children in care of the Boston Children's Friend Society.

ciples of good child saving work may be the paths of duty, may become deeply re-
broadly considered under two heads : Firstpentant.
Our duty towards the child in relation to We need equipment for this kind of work
his own family, and Second, Our duty to and once equipped we shall find increasing
wards the child who has no family or who pressure for such activity. It is necessary
must be removed from his family.

to know and be in actual, sympathetic touch What then is this first duty ? At the

with all organizations whose work is with

families in their homes. There are many very beginning of the family life the minister repeats, “What God hath joined to

such. The Chicago Relief and Aid Society

which I now have the honor to represent, gether, let not man put asunder." The bond between parent and child is of Divine origin. tgether of families. I believe if child car

has for its foundation work the keeping toThat relationship exists while charity workers come and go, when boards of directors ing societies equip themselves to work hard have changed or dissolved. There are

in the line of saving the child to his own

family they will find themselves more and lonely children, grown children perhaps,

more reluctant to sever children from their and lonely parents each searching in vain for the other while the worker who did the

own kindred. Certainly, chief among chilplacing has long since forgotten both child

dren's rights is the right to his own family.

Among the most pathetic stories I have and parent. I have no doubt but that thousands of children might have been saved to

ever heard were those of young men and their families if such a department as the

young women who were going the rounds

of the children's societies trying to find a aid department of Mr. Hart's society had always been a feature of children's work.

brother or sister, father or mother and to

discover their own identity. But one may We are creating a literature about chil- fairly ask if the children's rights do not dren, we are slowly formulating standards also include the right to be saved from evil for placing children in families. We are and brutal parents. Emphatically yes. But substantially agreed that for the normal separation presupposes the greatest wisdom

more

secure.

child of tender years a family is the best and devotion on the part of those responSHERMAN C. KINGSLEY.

place. Are we making equal progress at sible for the child's removal and the very

saving children in their own homes with FOUNDATION PRINCIPLES OF GOOD their own families? We should not remove

fact that a society is resourceful, persistent

and devotedly conscientious in its efforts to CHILD SAVING WORK.

a child from his family because we have an reconstruct the family will make the child To discover the foundation principles of

empty bed in our institution, because some of hopeless parents all the Christianity we realize more and more that

one can pay or because we know an ideal Courts and magistrates will have increased we must try to understand its great founder.

family where a child is wanted. Above all, confidence, and faulty commitments and Political economists, in their search for

in the darkest hour of their lives, parents distorted evidence will not menace the child

should not be asked to sign away their chil as they do today. fundamental truths and principles are wont to say "back to Smith" or "back to Mill.”

dren. Time is a great element in the set The Boston Children's Friend Society, The worker among children must ever more

tlement of all problems and even the delin which until recently I had the honor to reptry, even as did the great Froebel, to know

quent parent, finding no happiness outside resent, has kept up its relation with famand understand the child mind and heart.

Henry D. Thoreau living that secluded life near his beloved Walden Pond, tried to know his neighbors of the wood. For many hours at a time he would lie on the grass and watch a chip-munk in his busy antics about a stump or an old stone wall. Thompson Seton spends weeks and years making the acquaintance of the Sand Hill Stag,

The mother of these Lobo, King of wolves, and Johnny Bear. Neither went to the menagerie for his ob

children is dead. They servations. Each studied his subject in an environment which was intrinsically appro

have all been kept topriate. A grizzly, swaying his body with

gether in a family. The pendulum like rhythm from one side of a

oldest boy, fourteen cage to another, is at a manifest disadvantage and a chip-munk in a cage with ten or

and a half, now earns fifty other chip-munks would not and could

$75.00 per year. The not have told Thoreau what he wanted to know.

Boston Children's If the naturalist must choose so wisely

Friend Society pays the setting of his study of the ant and the bee, the chip-munk and the bear, and if to

board for the other five, really know insects and animals, he must

collecting from relaobserve with such accuracy, sympathy, patience and love, who shall measure the ob

tives what they can ligations resting upon those who preside

pay. over the destinies of children.

It seems to me that the ruling motive and principle of life for the man or woman in this profession should be, to know children. Such an attitude of mind and heart seems to me to be a fundamental requirement.

Now, what seem to be foundation prin.

[graphic]
[graphic]

ilies for periods reaching into years. It I will quote two of these letters which ily if worked out at all. These are some of costs money, often generous sums.

It sees

most clearly reflect the sentiments of all: the principles which it seems to me should to it that every cent of expense that can be Edward T. Devine, General Secretary of the actuate us in our attitude towards the child borne by relations is collected. It has its Charity Organization Society of the City and liis family. disappointments of course, but the results of New York, writes: "That unmarried Secondly, then, what principles should are in the main most gratifying and the mothers should be encouraged to keep their guide us in our care of the child who has actual experience affords all the argument children, rather than send them to a found ro family, or having relatives, cannot safe necessary for continuing and developing the ling asylum or otherwise dispose of them, ly remain with them. work along this line.

may be regarded as demonstrated by ex Not long ago I read, in an institution, a Not so many years ago the attitude to perience. This policy not only results in placard which stated that one hundred dolwards illegitimate children was fairly shown the saving of infant lives, but exercises the lars would save a boy. I have read similar by the two baskets. There was always an greatest influence on the mother in prevent statements with reference to thirty-six and empty one waiting, the child could be swung ing the development of a loose manner of fifty dollars. From 800 to 1,000 boys were in and no questions asked. The most com life. The special agencies that have been piaced in three states by that organization plete statement of the present attitude of organized in New York City and elsewhere and less than half the time of one man was leading workers on this subject that I hap- for providing situations for mothers and given to their supervision. •In receiving pen to know about is to be found in the children have accumulated an experience children do we not assume the responsibilreport*) of the State Board of Children's which leaves the wisdom of this method ities of parents? The child is taken beGuardian's of N. J. for 1903. It is in part quite beyond successful controversy." cause that responsibility is lacking and beas follows: "The policy of this Board is Mrs. Kate N. Barrett, General Superin cause the child needs it. Was one hundred to persuade a mother to keep her child and tendent of the National Florence Crittenton dollars a careful estimate of food and thus to prevent a separation, which we be- Mission, who has been interested in help clothes and shelter and car fare needed to lieve to be both unwise and unnecessary ing young women for twenty-five years, get a boy to his new destination? It cerunwise because the child needs its natural writes: "In all the complex cases that have tainly did not cover parental solicitude, food and its mother's care and because the come to me, I have never found a case that wisdom and care. We were inquiring as newly awakened love and sense of respon- I did not think the girl was better off if to how the placing work was done, how the sibility are the mother's best hope for her she had the care and responsibility of her new relationships were adjusted, whether salvation; unnecessary because it is not dif- child, unless she was physically and mentally some one took the lad, whether the good ficult to find positions at service in new sur disabled, and even then, in most of these man or woman came or how it was done.

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Three motherless brothers at board in this country home. The third, who hid in the barn, does

not appear as the camera was not X-ray.

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1

roundings for the mother with her baby. To cases, had there been sufficient money to He promptly replied: "Oh no, sir, we send justify our position in the matter we ad support her and her child together, I be- them and we never lost a boy.” We were dressed a letter to well known charity work- lieve it would have been better for her. In thinking of little lads with lumps in their ers, both public and private, all over the our sixty-four Florence Crittenton Homes throats and quivering lips and with feelings United States and Canada, asking them for they all practice this plan of keeping moth- in their hearts which they could not voicean expression of opinion in regard to keep er and child together."

we were thinking of these things, not merely ing illegitimate children with their mothers. This does not mean that there are not o transportation, for live stock and World's Thirty-two replies were received, and the exceptions, of course It does mean Fair exhibits will almost surely reach their verdict in favor of our policy was almost that a profound study of these questions im- destination. My observation is that it unanimous, there being but one of the thir

presses upon us more and more the sacred should cost much more than thirty-six, ty-two who favored separation."

ness of family ties, that there is in these ties fifty or one hundred dollars to save a child

of blood a family individuality, a family des- and that if we thus limit ourselves we don't *) Compiled by Seymour H. Stone, former Supt. State Board Children's Guardians, N. J. Now Gen'i Sec'y tiny, a family salvation which should and know whether he is saved or not. It seems Boston Children's Friend Society.

must be worked out by the family as a fam to me that the worker who makes such a

not.

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