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in Latin, Cæsar, Cicero, and Virgil's Æneid occupy the freshman and junior years; in Greek (an optional study), the Anabasis, the Iliad, and an oration of Demosthenes occupy three years, making the course in the classes equal to the requirements for adinission to the leading colleges; in history, Meyer's General History, and Guizot's History of Civilizatiun; in science, zoology, chemistry with laboratory practice, botany, physics, astronomny, geology; there is a year each of French and German; and there are courses in psychology, ethics, philosophy, political economy, international law, and ästhetics. The number of pupils in the collegiate department is 108, representing 30 States, the District of Columbia, and Canada.

The Kendall School, as the primary department of the institution has been called since 1885, receives pupils mainly from the District of Columbia, although a number came from Maryland between 1860 and 1868, and both Delaware and Montana' send their beneficiaries to the Columbia Institution. Children also are sent to the school from various States to be prepared for college. The aim of the school is to give the pupil a practical understanding and command of the English language, a knowledge of the principles of arithmetic sufficiently extensive to

tary branches of knowledge, so that the deaf and dumb might here receive training in the elementary culture which would qualify them for business life, or at least begin the training required for the more exacting duties of college life, we all remembered that the board of directors called it the Kendall School, in grateful memory of Amos Kendall, well known in political history of the United States, above all, well known in Washington City.

And so we have here the Kendall School as a subclassification of the work done in the Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, the official designation by which the institution is known. Now, we have listened to-day to exercises which indicate a higher academic learning, and it bas seemed to the board of directors, responding, I may say, to repeateil and earnest entreaties coming from different parts of the land, and recently renewed in a petition of the alumni signed by a committee representing all sections of the country, that this department now receive a special desig. pation by which its particular work, its distinctive work, should be signified at once by the name it shall bear.

That name has already been signified to you in bronze in the statue which stands yonder on this college green, a statue erected in memory of a great work done in the cause of education for the deaf and the dumb, because it is a statue erected in grateful memory of him who was the founder of this system of education in the United States. I need not say I refer to Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, the founder of the first institution ever established for the instruction of the deaf and dumb in our country. And when I have pronounced that name I bave told you a magnificent history and I have pronouced à eulogy, because it is impossible to name Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet without signifying the work he did for the deaf and the dumb of our whole land. Born in 1787, a graduate of Yale Collego, a teacher in Yale College, a graılıate of one of the great theological seminaries of the North, a preacher of distinction, he early became interested in the education of the deaf anil the dumb because of that sympathetic heart which brought him in close contact with one single sufferer from this difficulty of speech. That was enough to move him, and from that time he devoted himself to the study of all those appliances by which knowleilge and culture might be brought within the reach of the deaf and the dumb.

Therefore it is that the board of directors of the Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb have ordained that hereafter its academic, its collegiate department shall be known as Gallaudet College.

The statue referred to by Dr. Welling is one of the most celebrated works of Daniel C. French, and was executed in 1887. It represents Dr. Gallaudet teaching his first pupil, Alice Cogswell, a girl of 8 or 9 years, who lived next to him at Hartford.MS. letter from D. C. French to the Editor, September 7, 1887.

Montana has recently established a school for the deaf of that State.

meet his needs in business transactions, a full course in political geog. raphy, and a reasonable course in history. Daily instruction in articulation and lip reading is given to every pupil who shows a capacity for vocal improvement, and all the various appliauces that can aid the hearing are employed. The school has 67 pupils.

The normal department was organized in 1892, with six hearing young men and one young lady, who were instructed in all the inethods of teaching the deaf. The young men were college graduates, and the young woman was a graduate of the Boston High School. The degree of master of arts was awarded to the men after one year of study, and on leaving the college they found situations as instructors of the deaf and dumb, respectively, in New York City, Philadelphia, Chicago, Faribault, Colorado Springs, and Austin. The seventh was retained at the National College. Thus auspiciously begun, the normal department has been continued with increasing success. The normal students are especially helpful as instructors of speech and speech-reading in the college.

The institution is managed by a board of directors on which Congress is represented by one member of the Senate and two members of the House of Representatives. The admissions of all beueficiaries are subject to the approval of the Secretary of the Interior.

CHAPTER IV.

GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS AND ASYLUMS.

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THE war of the rebellion found Washington a straggling village; made

of the District of Columbia an enormous fortified camp, and left the beginnings of a modern city. With the two exceptions of the Government Asylum for the Insane and the Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, every public charitable institution and agency had its origin either during or after the war. Dr. Samuel C. Busey's reminiscences of a Washington doctor's life during the two decades before the rebellion show how impossible any organized charity would have been in a city so slightly organized.

It was during war days that the doctors of Washington discarded the margins of newspapers for the prescription blanks furnished by the druggists. The day of the specialist was far distant. The young doctor trudged on foot over unpaved streets and through alleys rarely lighted with lard-oil lamps to earn the dollar fee that often failed to be forthcoming, while the more prosperous practitioner rode in a buggy, which was at once his comfort and his advertisement. Yet even the successful doctor in all his pride was compelled to make way for the gangs of geese and the droves of swine that acted as public scavengers to dispose of the garbage that was thrown into the carriage ways. To drive over one of these garbage collectors was to incur a fine or an enforced visit to the workhouse, until a citizen of importance was knocked down and killed, in front of the general post office, by a pig running between his legs. This sacrifice proved effective, and stray animals were banished from the streets by law.

“Then,” says Dr. Busey, “the war came, and with it a transformation not less surprising than the primitive methods and conditions to which I have referred. The barren farm and pasture lands were occupied with encampments, fortifications, parade grounds, hospitals, wagon yards, mule pens, and other munitions of warfare. The streets were in continuous martial array with troops equipped for the field. In brief, the city was one great, impregnable fortress, protecting a Government that never for one moment faltered in courage or paused in prosecu

See also A Chorographical and Statistical Description of the District of Columbia, by D. B. Warden, Paris, 1816; pp. 92-97.

With these stupendous preparations and masses of troops there came the omnium gatherum of contrabands, refugees, scalawags, camp followers, tramps, substitute brokers, wild-cat money changers, oflice seekers, as now, and last but not least the croakers who lived upon the innocent credulity of timid women and cowardice of malingerers who wanted war but somebody else to do the fighting.” 1

In the District of Columbia and Alexandria no fewer than eightyfive hospitals were opened for a longer or shorter time between 1861 and 1866. Churches, hotels, schoolhouses, private residences, and even the Capitol itself were pressed into service to meet sudden esi. gency or to provide for distinct classes of cases. The home of Stephen A. Douglas became the Douglas Hospital; that of Joseph Gales was known as the Eckington Hospital. The Harewood Hospital was built upon the farm of W. W. Corcoran, and the Kalorama Hospital for eruptive diseases occupied the private residence of General Bomford, that had once been the home of Joel Barlow, the poet, and Robert Fulton, the inventor. The new east wing of the Government Insane Asylum was opened as a military hospital under the distinguishing name of St. Elizabeth's, a title that has since clung to the asylum itself. The congregation of St. Aloysius erected a building in order to prevent their church from being used for hospital purposes, but Ascension, Epiphany, Grace, Trinity (Episcopal); the Dunbarton Street, Ebene. zer, Ryland Chapel, Union Chapel (Methodist Episcopal); the E Street and Thirteenth Street (Baptist); the Fourth Presbyterian, and the Unitarian churches of Washington were among those occupied by the Government for the reception of the sick and wounded.

The following list of hospitals for the accommodation of soldiers is taken from Dr. J. M. Toner's anniversary oration: Armory Square, Washington, D.C. Consisted of eight long, one-story, frame build

ings, erected on purpose, ends fronting on Seventh street, between the Canal and Dstreet south. Opened August, 1862; closed September 11, 1865. Buildings

retained by Quartermaster's Department as storehouses. Bayne, George. Private residence, Alexandria, Va., corner of King and Water

streets. Branch of first division United States General Hospital. Bellhaven Female Institute, Alexandria, Va. Corner of Queen and St. Asaph streets.

Branch of third division United States General Hospital. a Beverly, Mrs. Private residence, Alexandria, Va., Washington street, between Oro

noco and Princess streets. Building used as a hospital, Alexandria, Va., on Cameron, near corner of Water

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street. (Owner's name not ascertained.) Campbell, Washington County, D.C. Frame buildings, erected on purpose, on ground

just outside of city limits, at north end of Sixth street. Openeil December, 1862; closed July 22, 1865. (Buildings transferred to General Howard, who had a freed

man's hospital opened.) Capitol of the United States, Washington, D. C. Hospital opened in September,

1862; closed November, 1862. Carver, Washington County, D. C. Frame buildings erected on a site adjacent to

and north of Columbian College, on the Fourteenth street road. Opened July, 1862; closed 16th August, 1865.

1 Dr. Busey's Reminiscences, pp. 55, 56.

? Not corroborated by any record found in the War Department, December 10, 1897.-Letter of Surgeon-General Sternberg to the joint committee.

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