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18 Praying always with 18 Δια πασης προσευχής all prayer and supplica- και δεησεως προσευχομενοι εν tion in the Spirit, and

παντι καιρώ εν πνευματι, και watching thereunto with

εις αυτο τουτο αγρυωνούντες all perseverance, and supplication for all saints;

εν παση προσκαρτερησει και δεησει περι παντων των α

γιών, 19 And for me, that ut

19 Και υπερ εμου, ,


μοι terance may be given un- δοθειη λογος εν ανοιξει του to me, that I may open souatos uov

παρρησια, my mouth boldly, to make known the mystery of the

γνωρίσαι το μυςηριον του ευαγγελιου,

, gospel :

20 For which I am an 20 Υσερ και πρεσβευω εν αambassador in bonds : that λυσει, ίνα εν αυτω παρρησίtherein I may speak bold

ασωμαι, ως δει με λαλησαι. ly, as I ought to speak.

strokes of swords and missile weapons.-Add in the fifth place, the sbield, and the whole body is completely covered. The shield was sometimes round, and sometimes square, and was made of strong thick leather. Thus the shield of Ajax consisted of seven folds of bulls' hides. Sometimes the shield was made of wood, covered with plates of brass or steel.

But besides the defensive armour just now described, offensive weapons were likewise necessary to render the soldiers' armour complete ; particularly tbe sword, which was used with the right hand, while the shield was held on the left arm. They had darts likewise, or javelins, mentioned ver. 16.

Ver. 18.--1. With all supplication and deprecation. The words agortuyns and dengows, which I have translated supplication and deprecation, seem naturally, as Chandler remarks, “ to denote the asking of what is good, and the deprecating what is evil, from their two roots; the first of which signifies wishing, “ and the latter fearing. And this they were to do in the Spirit, that is, " either with their heart and mind, sincerely and fervently, (Ess. iv. 56.) “ Or, according as the Spirit of God should excite and more them."

2. Pray at all seasons in Spirit. In confirmation of the interpretation in the commentary, I observe that our Lord himself directed Ananias to distinguish Saul as his disciple, by the watch-word or token of his praying, Acts ix. 11. Inquire in the house of Fudas, for one called Saul of Tarsus, for behold he prayeth in my name.

3. For this very purpose watch, with all perseverance and prayer, for all the saints. The first Christians constantly prayed for each other. Thus when Peter was cast into prison, Prayer was made without ceasing, of the church unto God for him, Acts xii. 5. And their prayer was answered ; for he was miraculously delivered by an angel. This, with other instances, led the


18 (114, 119.) With all 18 And as soldiers distinguish supplication and depreca- each other by watch-words, let your tion, ' pray at all seasons 2 token of distinction, as fellow-sol(e» tvEUMATI, 36.) in spirit; diers of Christ, be prayer in the and for this very purpose, name of Christ. Therefore, with all watch (Fury agoTxapTegnoti) supplication for what is good, and dewith all perseverance and precation of evil, pray at all seasons prayer for all the saints, with earnestness: and for this very (See Col. iy. 2.)

purpose, watch, like soldiers guard, with the greatest perseverance

in prayer, for all the faithful, 19 (Ksl., 220.) Especial- 19 Especially for me, that when I ly for me, that (207) elo. open my mouth in my own defence quence may be given me in before my judges, eloquence may be the opening of my mouth, given me with boldness, to make known with boldness, to make the mystery of the gospiel, (chap. i. 8. known the mystery of the note, the doctrine of the gospel higospel;

therto a secret; namely, that men are to be saved through faith, without obeying the law of Moses as nie

cessary to salvation. 20 For which I execute 20 For publishing which mystery, the office of an ambassador, I execute the office of an ambassador (ey áhugei) in a chain, that of Christ chained : I say that I may I may speak boldly (ev, 168.) speak boldly, concerning the divine concerning it, as it becometh original of the gospel, and conme to speak. (See Col. iii. cerning the salvation of mankind 4.)

through faith ; as it becometh me to speak, who am the ambassador of so great a Prince.

disciples to expect great benefit from the prayers of the faithful. Hence Paul himself often begged the brethren to pray for him, as in ver. 19. See Col. iv. 2. note.

Ver. 20.-1. For which I execute the office of an ambassador in a chain, The apostle being accused of no crime against society, but only of heresy. in the Jewish religion, Acts xxiv. 5. xxvi. 31. he was allowed at Rome to live in his own hired house, with a soldier who kept him, Acis xxviii. 16. To this soldier he was tied with a chain, fixed on his right wrist, and fastened to the soldier's left arm ; and the chain being of a convenient length, the two could walk together with ease, whithersoever the apostle's affairs called him. The soldiers who were thus employed, no doubt reaped great benefit from the apostle's conversation and preaching.

21 But that ye also may

21 Ινα δε ειδητε και εμεις know my affairs, and how

τα κατ' εμε, τι πρασσω, πανI do, Tychicus, a beloved

τα υμιν γνωρισει Τυχικος και brother and faithful minister in the Lord, shall αγασητος αδελφος και πιςος

διακονος εν Κυριω make known to you all things: 22 Whom I have sent

22 Ον επεμψα προς υμας unto you for the εις αυτο τουτο, ένα γνωσε τα purpose, that ye might

σερι ημων, και παρακαλεση know our affairs, and that

τας καρδιας υμων. he might comfort your hearts. .

25 Peace be to the bre- 23 Ειρηνη τους αδελφους, thren, and love with faith

και αγαση μετα πιςεως. απο from God the Father, and Θεου πατρος και Κυριου Ιηthe Lord Jesus Christ.

σου Χριςου.


Ver. 21.-1. That ye also may know the things relating to me, &c. Te xar' ques. We have this expression likewise, Philip. i. 12. The apostle means, that he wished the Ephesians, as well as the Philippians and Colossians, to know what success he had had in preaching at Rome, what opposition he had met with, what comfort he enjoyed under bis sufferings, what converts he had made to Christ, and in what manner the evidences of the gospel affected the minds of the inhabitants of Rome.

2. Tychicus-will make known to you all things, &c. This passage is a clear confutation of those who hold, that this epistle originally had a general inscription, and was directed to no particular church. For bow could Ty. chicus be sent to the saints qubich are, and to the believers in Christ Jesus in all countries, to make them know the apostle's affairs, and thereby to com. fort their hearts ? It is evident, therefore, that this epistle was sent to the saints of some particular place. And who should they be, but the saints at Ephesiis, to whom, as Dr. Lariner has shewed, by the consent of all the ancient MSS. and versions, it was inscribed ?

Tychicus and Trophimus are mentioned Acts xx. 4. among those who açcompanied Paul to Jerusalem. Wherefore, as he was then on his way thither with the collections, which he had received from the Gentile chuches for the poor of the saints in Judea, we may suppose that Tyclicus and Trophimųs were of the number of the messengers, whom the churches had deputed to attend the apostle when he performed that ministry. In the above quoted passage these two are said to be of Asia. And of Asia T; cbi. cus and Tropbimus.- Acts xxi. 19. Trophimus is called an Ephesian. Per. þaps l'ychicus was of the same city ; which may have been the reason why the apostle sent his letter to the Ephesians by him, that he might comfort 21 Now that ye also 21 Now that ye Ephesians also may know the things relat- may know the things which have haping to me, AND what I am pened to me, and what I am doing at doing, Tychicus, a beloved present, T'ychicus, a Christian brother, brother, and faithful minis- greatly beloved by me for his many ter in the Lord, will make excellent qualities, and who besides known to you all things :: is a faithful minister of Christ, will

make known to you all things. 22 Whom I have sent 22 This person, so estimable on to you for this very pur- account of his character, I have sent pose, that ye may know to you for this very purpose, that ye our affairs, and that he may know my affairs, and that he may may comfort your hearts. comfort your hearts, by the account

he shall give you of every thing re

lating to me. 23 Peace to the bre- 23 After the manner of the thren, 1

and love with priests of old, I bless the church at faith, from God the Fa- Ephesus, Peace be to the brethren ther, and the Lord Jesus there, and mutual love with increas. Christ.

ing faith from God the Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

their hearts by making known to them the things which had happened to him in Rome, and what he was doing there.-But whether he was an Ephe. sian, or not, the character given of Tychicus, That he was a beloved brother and faithful minister in the Lord, sheweth, that he was deservedly honoured with this commission. The same character Paul gave of Tychicus to the Colossians, chap. iv. 7. All things concerning me, Tychicus, a beloved brother and faithful minister and fellow-serdant in the Lord, will make known to you. -When the apostle, after being released from his first confinement in. Rome, visited the churches of Asia, he desired Titus to come to him from Crete, when he should send to him Artemas or Tychicus, to supply his place to the Cretian brethren, Tit. iii. 12. When I shall send Artemas to thee or Tychicus, make haste to come to me at Nicopolis, for there I have determined to winter. In like manner during the apostle's second imprisonment at Rome, when he desired Timothy to come to him from Ephesus, he wrote to him, 2 Tim. iv. 12. Tychicus I have sent to Ephesus, probably to direct the church there during Timothy's absence. These are all the par. ticulars which the scriptures have mentioned concerning Tychicus. They are few in number, but they are sufficient proofs of the great confidence which the apostle placed in him, on account of his ability, faithfulness, and zeal in the cause of Christ.

Ver. 23.–1. Peace to the brethren. It hath been said, that if this epistle was directed to the Ephesians, it is difficult to understand how the apostle contented himself with giving them a general salutation, without mentioning

24 Grace be with all 24 “Η χαρις μετα παντων therm that love our Lord των αγαπωντων τον Κυριον Jesus Christ in sincerity. ημων Ιησουν Χριςον εν αφ

θαρσια. Αμην.


any of his numerous acquaintance and friends, with whom he had been intimate, during his long residence at Ephesus. But the answer is, there are no particular salutations in the apostle's first epistle to Timothy, notwithstanding Timothy was in Ephesus when it was written. And in the second, there are only salutations to Prisca and Aquila, the apostle's fellow-labour. ers, who were in Ephesus occasionally, and to the household of Onesipho. rus, on account of the great respect which the head of that family had shewed to the apostle during his second imprisonment in Rome, 2 1 im. i. 16.In like manner, there are no particular salutations in the epistles to the Galatians, the Philippians, the Thessalonians, and to Titus; because to have sent salutations to individuals, in churches where the apostle was so generally and intimately acquainted, unless there had been some very special reasons for such salutations, might have offended those who were neglected. On the other hand, to have mentioned every person of note in these churches, would have taken up too much room. In writing to the Romans, the case was different. The apostle was personally unknown to the most of them. And

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