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administrative allowance Amendment American amount assistance Association attend believe benefits bill Catholic child choice church Committee concern Congress constitutional costs course decision deduction direct economic effect elementary enrolled equal establishment clause example existing expenses fact families federal freedom funds grants groups high school higher education income increase independent individual institutions interest issue Justice legislation less loan majority means ment Michigan middle middle-income MOYNIHAN nonpublic opportunity parents parochial schools percent political present primary principle private schools problem programs proposed public schools question reason receive reduced religion religious require result secondary secular Senator society statement student aid subsidy suggested Supreme Court tax relief taxpayers teachers tion tuition tax credit United universities York
Halaman 597 - No tax in any amount, large or small, can be levied to support any religious activities or institutions, whatever they may be called, or whatever form they may adopt to teach or practice religion.
Halaman 710 - The fundamental theory of liberty upon which all governments in this Union repose excludes any general power of the State to standardize its children by forcing them to accept instruction from public teachers only. The child is not the mere creature of the State; those who nurture him and direct his destiny have the right, coupled with the high duty, to recognize and prepare him for additional obligations.
Halaman 597 - establishment of religion' clause of the First Amendment means at least this: Neither a state nor the Federal Government can set up a church. Neither can pass laws which aid one religion, aid all religions, or prefer one religion over another. Neither can force nor influence a person to go to or...
Halaman 515 - First, the statute must have a secular legislative purpose: second, its principal or primary effect must be one that neither advances nor inhibits religion: , , , finally, the statute must not foster "an excessive government entanglement with religion...
Halaman 630 - Nor need we enquire whether similar considerations enter into the review of statutes directed at particular religious, ... or national, ... or racial minorities. . . .; whether prejudice against discrete and insular minorities may be a special condition, which lends seriously to curtail the operation of those political processes ordinarily to be relied upon to protect minorities, and which may call for a correspondingly more searching judicial 'inquiry.
Halaman 554 - A legislature is not bound to tax every member of a class or none. It may make distinctions of degree having a rational basis, and when subjected to judicial scrutiny they must be presumed to rest on that basis if there is any conceivable state of facts which would support it.
Halaman 630 - It is unnecessary to consider now whether legislation which restricts those political processes which can ordinarily be expected to bring about repeal of undesirable legislation, is to be subjected to more exacting judicial scrutiny under the general prohibitions of the Fourteenth Amendment than are most other types of legislation.
Halaman 597 - It is undoubtedly true that children are helped to get to church schools. There is even a possibility that some of the children might not be sent to the church schools if the parents were compelled to pay their children's bus fares out of their own pockets when transportation to a public school would have been paid for by the State.
Halaman 599 - ... to compel a man to furnish contributions of money for the propagation of opinions which he disbelieves, is sinful and tyrannical...
Halaman 619 - No question is raised concerning the power of the State reasonably to regulate all schools, to inspect, supervise and examine them, their teachers and pupils; to require that all children of proper age attend some school, that teachers shall be of good moral character and patriotic disposition, that certain studies plainly essential to good citizenship must be taught, and that nothing be taught which is manifestly inimical to the public welfare.