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yearly income, and all social and “Lord Campbell, the Lord High domestic comforts, for a life of strug- Chancellor of Ireland, took his final gle and annoyance in the arena of St. departure from this country on SaturStephen's. It would be unjust to day last, having, during a short soomit the following trait, exhibiting journ of three weeks, and after sithis innate love of justice :
ting without intermission for the His keen sense of injustice was protracted space of three entire days, often shown by the indignation with earned a retiring pension of £4000 a which he reproved the habit, too year. His lordship's outlay in money, often indulged in by some members independently of his waste of time of the House of Commons, of attack- and labour of mind in qualifying ing absent persons without any rea- himself for the enjoyment of this sonable grounds for the charges trifling annuity for life, consisted in brought forward, and without even the expense of a ten days' sojourn giving any notice to the accused. at the Bilton Hotel, and one dinner It made no difference in such cases to some half a dozen officers of the with him from what quarter of the Court, over which he presided with house such attacks proceeded, to such zeal, talent, and application. what party the accused belonged, or “Plain Jock Campbell is a lucky in what rank of life they stood. He
man !'" was always ready and willing to ex But very unlucky is the Governpose the evils of such a practice, and ment which allows the money levied to vindicate the characters of those on its subjects to be so squandered. who had no means of defending Such instances of prodigality at the themselves."
expense of the people furnish the The Whig ministry of 1841 exe- hands of Messrs. Bradlaugin and cuted a slight job, well-disposed as Odger, and their partisans, with dethey professed to be to the claims of structive weapons in their detestable Ireland, Sir John Campbell was attempts to subvert religion and the appointed Lord Chancellor of Ire- Government under which its subjects land, instead of Lord Plunket; and enjoy all rational liberty, and eat he seemed to love a residence in their bread in peace. Dublin as little as Lord Redesdale. Mr. Lefroy's friends, and probably We prefer quoting from the text the he himself, considered that he demighty labours of this Hercules of served to occupy the Lord Chanthe Exchequer, when cleansing the cellor's seat as much as lucky John legal stable on the north bank of the Campbell. However, he contented
himself with the office of Baron of " Sir John Campbell was appoint- the Exchequer, conferred on him in ed Lord Chancellor of Ireland on the end of 1841. the 23rd of June 1841. The Dublin Mr. Shiel would have been satisJournals of that period record, 'that fied to see Judge Lefroy raised to he took his seat for the first time in the peerage and to a seat in the the Court of Chancery on the 2nd House of Lords ; but he feared, from of July, that he set in court the fol- his strong political bias, that his lowing day to hear motions, and selection for the office conferred was gave notice that he would not hear not a happy one, and spoke in his long causes till November.' And the place in Parliament againt it. Howonly other record I can trace of his ever, the outcry was an idle one. lordship's discharge of the duties of None were more forward than his high office is the following caus- Roman Catholics themselves, in tic article taken from the Dublin bearing testimony to the judicial Evening Mail, of Monday, 26th July, rectitude and freedom from preju
dice of the learned judge in discharg
ing the onerous duties of his office: heeded them not, being convinced “ This well-known trait in his judicial of no diminution of mental powers. character frequently elicited from However, on Lord Derby's accesRoman Catholics of various classes sion to office, in the year named, he the gratifying testimony that there voluntarily tendered resignation of was no judge on the Irish Bench office into the same hands which they would sooner select for the had conferred it. On the 4th of trial of any case affecting their May, 1869, he calmly expired at his property, their liberty, or their lives." country residence, Newcourt, Bray,
In 1852, Baron Lefroy, after sit- surrounded by his sorrowing chilting in judgment on John Mitchell, dren and grandchildren. and obtaining much approbation for Few readers of this article, as we his temperate and sound - judging hope, will require more words to charge, was appointed Lord Chief- prove that the subject of it faithfully Justice of the Common Pleas, by the discharged, during his long career, Earl of Derby. His biographer the duties of son, husband, and quotes most gratifying congratula- father ; that he was possessed of a tions from the dignitaries of the Bar; devout spirit, and faithfully did the but the tribute paid by Catholic work of an upright and unprejudiced papers to his unswerving rectitude judge. Whatever eulogies are passed and display of even-handed justice, on him by his biographer are fully whether to Protestants or Catholics, borne out by the narrative, which must have afforded greater and displays mastery of composition and purer gratification to his relatives simplicity of style. Much informaand friends. Equally warm and tion concerning the history and pofriendly addresses continued to be licy of the long period of Judge presented to him by the Sheriffs and Lefroy's life is connected with the Grand Juries of the various counties biography. The views and opinions in which he distributed justice, these which pervade the work are all what juries consisting indifferently of used to be called Conservative and members of the Established Church, Evangelical; but the tone is modeRoman Catholics, and Dissenters. rate throughout. The author is a
In 1858, after a joyful and nume stout partisan for his party, but he rous family re-union, this good hus uses none but the recognised and band and father had to lament the loyal arms of political warfare. The removal of the loved companion who volume is a valuable acquisition to had been his chief comfort and Irish biography, a possession in solace for upwards of sixty years. which our country is not affluent, He continued to exercise judicial and it is produced in a style which functious till the year 1866, though would do credit to any publishing in that year he had reached the very house in London. advanced age of ninety-two. Many house of Hodges and Co. has long hints were given, in and out of Par- been noted for the richness and liament, that it was more than time finish of its publications, and the to give himself rest. However, he care bestowed on their production.
UNDER the Empire the city of Paris his twenty centuries ago. This he was the brilliant flower of modern did, and since the 21st day of Decivilisation ; to its shrines wended cember, 1851, that army of five hunpilgrims in crowds, from Europe, dred thousand men had made a nafrom Asia, from Africa, and from tion of more than thirty millions pay America more than all. It was the tribute. In brief, each one man in paradise of women. Here were the army was absolute master of gathered and here were spent the more than sixty of the people of taxes of all France; here came the France out of the army; and nearly intellect of all France; here was ex
all the earnings of France, beyond hibited the art of France aud the a bare subsistence, went to support world; here was amusement in a this army and the machinery which thousand shapes, and here was-a
controlled it. single religion.
Some have fancied that so vast a. Society was never brought to so body of armed men was kept up to thorough a system as here, and never operate upon the fields of Europe, was the art of preying upon man so
to control empires, and enlarge completely organised.
boundaries, It may be so used, If the end of civilisation is to per- but it had other uses. It centred fect mankind; to educate and deve- in Paris. and was useful there. lope a healthy, handsome, happy Spacious barracks, filled with thirty people; to promote good fellowship thousand men, dominated the most and kindness; to bring man into important centres of the city. The harmony with God-if this is so, great sewers were constructed with how miserably has the civilisation of railways in them for the speedy and Paris failed to effect any such ob- secret moving of troops. There ject !
was not a pavement left in the city For twenty years the central figure with which an outraged populace in France, and in Europe, too, was
can build a barricade. The master Louis Napoleon. In the city, and of Paris thus guarded himself in all the empire, his will was law. against his loving people, and an He was the child of accident, but army was a most useful thing in his he had had the audacity to seize and great housekeeping. But-it had the talent to use all the people and to be soothed and placated; it had all the production of France, and to to be made to feel and to know make them work out his purposes. that the soldier was better off than It was a remarkable success, and it tbe civilian ; that there were praise was the result of a belief nursed and pudding for him. until it had become a fanaticism Espionage. So thorough was the cold-blooded, it is true, but still a system, that this army itself could not fanaticism-a belief that he was to unseat an Emperor except by a conbe Master of France. To serve
vulsion involving fearful risks and France was not his dream, but to untold woes. The police of Paris make France serve him. Cæsar was was perfect. Five men could not the model he studied, and he saw stop on the corner of the street to long ago that the Master of France have a little talk or to hatch a little must make the army of France his, conspiracy; nor could they meet in as the Master of Rome had made it a room, privately or publicly, except
by permission of the police, and Seine. The Director, in 1864, estiwith a policeman present to report mated that those who would demand their doings. The most brilliant relief in 1865 would number 259,199, members of the Institute could dis- of whom 100,0002 were registered cuss political questions only under poor (permanent paupers), 91,355 cover of Greece or Rome; and in were in hospital, 30,000 sick beside the Parliament of the nation every were treated at their own houses, statesman spoke with a curb in his and 23,416 abandoned children mouth, upon which rested the finger were placed in the country. of the President, upon whom rested Two hundred and sixty thousand the hand of the Emperor. Every paupers in the city of highest civilizman of note or influence was ation, does not tell a pleasant tale ! watched, and his doings, his plans, The population in 1860 and his thoughts were known-the 1,700,000, and in 1866, 1,825,274 system was so perfect! How, then, -one-eighth of all not able to supis it there is come so marvellous a port themselves by their own labour; change? For more than a thousand another 100,000 were soldiers, and years Paris has been “governed" in 60,000 ranked as criminal class. this way; she is used to it, but Anything might happen and mighty from time to time she has broken convulsions have happened. up into eruption; the most frightful It is certain that life is as difficult of which has come to be known as in Paris as anywhere, notwithstandthe French Revolution and the ing so many foreigners who go there Commune. A sham civilisation believe it the most delightful city of breeds mischief, and who can, who the world, and that life there is easy, dare, predict the future?
gay, and fascinating. Paris is not It has been well said, "Bayonets all Champs Elysées and Rue de Riare a convenient thing, but it is voli. difficult to sit on them.”
It has been said there is no starThe government was paternal. vation, while there is,-a vast popuThe Emperor not only kept the lation of 260,000 belonging to the people from breaking out into dis- pauper class. Another indication of agreeable insurrection, but he sa.v the wide-spread poverty and of the that they were fed and amused. hard struggle for existence prevailing Taxation is thorough and searching, in Paris, is seen in the Mont de Piété. and none can fail to see how closely This is a great governmental pawnthe Parisians live to starvation ; but broker's shop, with various branches, they never do starve. Why? From and is thoroughly systematised. It time to time we learn that France is guards the poor against the extortion in the market to buy wheat in vast of free pawnbroking. Through fifquantities. What for? It is to feed teen years, 1,313,000 articles were the people of Paris, when work runs pawned annually, and the average low and the machine creaks. The of the loans was but 17 francs 40 people must be cared for, too, when centimes—some three dollars and a they are sick, and they must be half. This may help to dispel the amused to the requisite degree. illusion that the people of Paris are These things “Government” un- gay and light-hearted. dertakes to do in Paris.
perience (brief though it was) led The whole administration of chari me to the belief that no people lived ties and public aid is also thoroughly so closely, so carefully, or were in organised, under the Prefect of the such grim earnest to get a subsist
1 The Charities of France in 1866.
ence; and that nowhere are the little sum of 15,329,000 francs, and large mass so entirely hopeless as public works (what is called "beauto bettering their condition-except tifying Paris") 23,681,000 more. it be through revolution and convul- The people, the workmen, and sion. The system holds them in those who amuse, get most of this hopeless poverty or mediocrity; and from the strangers, and the governthe system cannot be changed ex ment gets it from the workmen. cept by revolution.
Its system of taxation is thorough, About one-half of the whole people and there is no escape. at Paris--say one million-are class Is Paris an earthly paradise for ed as workmen; of these, in the woman? Rich women and strange business of
women may find it so; but the great Food, are
38,859 mass of women there are intensely Building
71,242 industrious, and are poor. The PariFurniture
37,951 sians have discovered the art of utiClothing and textile fabrics... 104,887 Jewellery
lising their women. They have conPrinting, engraving, &c. 19,507
verted them from lovely and loving It may be curious to learn what companions for man, serene partner these earn. I find that the wages of his prosperities, sharer of his mis
of his joys and his sorrows, doubler of men range from 3.25 francsoto 20 francs a-day-or from about
fortunes from careless, inconse
3 shillings to 16s. ; those of women quent, unproductive creatures, into from half a franc to 10 francs, or
the shrewdest, toughest. hardest, 8s.
homeliest, and most productive of I discover another fact-new to
the race. It is doubted whether me, and it may be to you—that 87 ten
handsome women can be found out of the 100 of them can read and in Paris to save it. They produce write. It is not the want of what vastly, everything but children. we call education, then, that Paris
“Love" --so called-is in the suffers from.
market; and in the Latin quarter, as While among the figures, it may well as in others, whole populations be well to say here, that for the last of women, called Grisettes, are up sixteen years Paris has exported for hire as temporary companions of annually some 160,000,000 francs, students. These are not to be deor 6,000,000l. worth of manufactured scribed as harlots. While the enarticles.?
gagement lasts they are true to their The budget of Paris-receipts part of the bargain ; they keep the and expenditures about the same rooms, they cook the food, they wash, for the year 1867 is officially stated and mend, and make ; and when at 241,653,613 francs, or about Sunday comes, in their neat dresses 8,500,0001. Nearly the whole of they go out upon cheap and pleasant of this is raised from the people of excursions, or they enjoy a cheap Paris
. Every egg is taxed, every theatre in the evening, and are not dog is taxed, water is taxed, burials abandoned women, in our sense of are taxed, wood is taxed, hay is the term.
This life is their business, taxed, night-soil is taxed-every- and there is no shame and no conthing is taxed. It must be, for in- demnation among them. dependently of the Prussian indem There is much less apparent vice nity and the enormous expenses of in Paris than in any great city, and the war, the police and National the “ social evil” does not stalk the Guard required yearly the pretty streets as in London and New York.