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ment-roll of personal property yet to The investigator was equally asbe handed in by the Assessor. This tonished, on further examining the will contain, principally, a list of said Lis Pendens, to discover that mortgagees, and the gross amount he and his two brothers, now reof the enumeration will very nearly siding in Vancouver Island, were equal 17,000,000 dols. This sum, also impleaded in the said suit. added to the personal property al- Who could not afford to be robbed ready listed, gives a total under that of real estate which he never prehead of 45,556,806 dols., being an tended to own, in company with increase in the amount of personal such illustrious defendants? property for 1865-66 of 6,427,661 If one evidence of high civilisadols., while in real estate the in- tion in these days is high taxation, creased valuation of last year is it becomes interesting to learn how 8,743, 156 dols. Assuming that the San Francisco stands in this partiamount of the supplemental roll is cular, and the following figures comnot over-estimated, and the figures piled by the managers of the “San are given on the authority of a gentle- Francisco Directory," witl help us : man intimately connected with the

Assessments 1866-97, Real... 53,485,42! municipal finances—there will be an

Personal 43,214 976 * aggregate increase in the valuation of real and personal property


1,841,753,96 and improvements for 1866-7 of Taxes for city for 1866.67

Do. State 987, 105,77 15,170,817 dols. Among these owners of real estate

2,828,859.73 are crowned heads, some living and Mumicipal Expenditure for some dead, as is shown by the fol

1866-67, amounted to ......

1,766, 565,34

Population, July 1, 1867, eslowing :- A gentleman who was ex

timated : aming the Records of the City and White males over 21 in County, to his surprise, while making the column his search, accidentally stumbled

Females over 18, estimated

Males and Females under upon a recorded document in vol.

age, estimated

40,000 vi., p. 225 (there is nothing like Males, names refused, &c. accuracy in these statements), Lis

Chinese Pendens, in which no less than three


2,500 Emperors were named as having

Total ...... interest in real estate in San Francisco County. This lien was a noti- cisco raises taxes to the amount of

It appears, then, that San Franfication to all the world that the over 23 dols. to each individual

, Yerba Buena (Goat) Island, and which places her next to the city of the Oakland Railway Company, have New York in this most questionable commenced a suit at law in the scale of civilisation. District Court in the city and county Still, as the property of the city of San Francisco, on application to shows that each individual in the condemn the interests of Emperor city is worth, by the tax-valuation, Napoleon III., Emperor Norton, about 800 dols., and as this is not and Emperor Maximilian I., now probably over one-half of the real deceased, to certain portions of the value, these people certainly are not said island, as a terminus of a rail. poor, nor likely to be. way to the City of San Francisco.

45,000 27,000



122, 100





It has long been an admitted country from Roman conquest and principle of criticism in the philo- annexation-as the patriot, giving sophy of history, that the characters up life and worldly fame for that of the actors in history must be object, -- was one which they could judged according to the ideas of not draw. The combination of their own times. More recently ideas necessary for such a picture another critical rule has been pro- was one which a Roman,-believing claimed.? and begins to gain ground, that all other countries were made -that whenever we find a character only to be plundered by Roman so delineated as to be worse or better proconsuls, or to furnish tribute that than accords with the acknowledg- Roman citizens might live untaxed ed principle of human nature, the could not even understand. Dion excess on either side is to be con- Cassius and Plutarch are the two sidered as a proof of historic false- chief authorities for her life. Dion hood. Historical criticism has thus has a Quilp-like pleasure in painting been gradually discarding the por- every human action, as done from traits of faultless monsters on one the worst motives.

Plutarch can hand, and of immoral and unnatural see nothing good out of Greece and miscreants on the other, from the Rome, and always takes that view of galleries of the actual past, into the things which will make a story tell reign of poetry and fiction; where best. Ancient history has but few the recorded facts are such as cannot love-stories; for neither Plutarch, be doubted, and yet seem monstrous, nor any other ancient writer, seems it would have us look upon them to have dreamt of the intense human as extreme cases of the action of interest that may be called forth by principles common to all man a tale of love. Shakspere first saw kind. The story of Cleopatra affords the part that love played in the life such an extreme case to the phi- of Cleopatra, and, taking account losophic historian. What we know of it, has come nearer to what of her has come to us only from seems to be the truth respecting writers of the nation that hated and her than professed historians have feared her. We have from them at come. Her history, while it shocks best but the picture of the splendid our modern notions of morality, atcourtezan. The picture equally, tracts us by its splendour, and by the perhaps more true, which might world-wide importance of the events have been drawn of her, as the connected with it. Its scene is the sovereign struggling to maintain cradle of human civilisation. There, intact the throne and kingdom of grouped around her, are the claimher fathers—as the defender of her ants for the throne of the world;

· Comte : "Philosophé Positive.”


under the shadow of the Pyramids, a mixed band of Jews, Macedonians, fesz with the waters of the Nile gliding and other European adventurers, past, Pompey, Cæsar, Antony, Au- formed a populace for Alexandria, gustus, close or begin their career which ruled at its unsettled will the of fame,

dreamy animal worshippers of the Egypt's long course of greatness Nile basin. The country was with had brought the interest of the chief out political institutions. As the nations of the world to centre on her Copts lay, without acknowledged shores.

The Pharaohs had long rights, at the mercy of their Mace. since disappeared before the con- donian conquerors, so these conquering sword of Cambyses, and querors lay at the mercy of their after centuries of Persian rule the kings. Every now and then they land had succumbed to the Greeks, had recourse to the grand cure for under Alexander. At Alexander's the tyranny of absolute monarchs, death, and the partition of his em- rebellion. If a prime minister dispire among his generals, Egypt fell pleased them, they tore him in to Ptolemy,, perhaps the wisest and pieces; even critics they served in the best of them. The son of one the same way or roasted alive, a Lagos, common Macedonian freedom which perhaps some authors soldier, his good sense repudiated would relish even now. Occasion the flattery which sought to make ally they varied these political or him an illegitimate son of Philip of literary recreations by driving their Macedon. The people of Rhodes, kings into exile, or whimsically set as grateful for timely relief, gave him ting up a younger brother in the the name of Ptolemy Soter, or the place of an older.

place of an older. But withal, so Saviour; but he rejoiced most in much more favourable is freedom being called Ptolemy Lagos. He unrestrained, than despotism unrefinished the building of Alexandria, strained, to human advancement, begun by the Macedonian hero, and that the trade of the country grew, contrived that Alexander should be the wealth of its kings increased, buried there, in one of its most and their power seemed to have no splendid temples. He left the Copts, limit but the patience of the Maceor ancient Egyptians, free to follow donian oligarchy of Alexandrian cititheir old absurd worship of animals, zens; for the sleepy Copts yielded and to preserve their habits of caste; tribute in silence, content to preserve and governed the country as a their God-bulls, and buryundisturbed Macedonian King by means of their cat and crocodile mummies. Macedonian garrisons. Alexandria, As wealth and luxury increased, under him, became the next city to the kings of the Lagidean family Rome in splendour and extent. adopted the custom of Eastern Settlers from all lands were encou- despots, and among them that of raged; especially Jews, the great intermarrying within their own famitraders of the ancient world. He lies"a barbarous device for unity founded the celebrated Academy of of possible claimants to the succesAlexandria ; its library was unequal- sion." In Egyptian history, sister led in the number and variety of and queen became almost synony, books, its museum was the lounge or mous terms descriptive of the royal study, and its revenues the support, consort, and are used together in of the learned. Under Ptolemy's proclamations and on coins. Not successors the city grew, the library withstanding the endurance of this increased, and learning became fat custom for centuries, one king some : The Copts remained submissive; and times in succession marrying two of

1 Merivale: “The Romans under the Empire."

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his own sisters, we find, contrary to selves. Cicero opposed his most what we should expect on ordinary powerful oratory to the seizure; physiological theory, no lack of en- not daring, however, to mention the ergy in the generations so bred. real ground of objection, but skilfully Instead, we find an altogether ter- arguing that it would raise agrarian rible activity and skill in planning and disputes between the Senate and intriguing-in conducting invasions the Roman people—it would involve of

, and repelling invasions from Rome in endless wars—and, more Syria—in crushing Coptic insurrec- than all, it was unjust, since Alextions, or legislating for Alexandrian ander had no right to dispossess by commerce; and, in the midst oft will the true heir, Ptolemy Auletes, all

, a constant and persevering en- the elder of the two sons of Lacouragement of science and litera- thyrus. ture, such as no other royal family Ptolemy Auletes, or Ptolemy the that history can name has ever Piper, Cleopatra's father, was thereshown

fore allowed to keep his throne. But neither precautions of inter- That is, he held it on Roman suffermarriage, nor any other precautions, ance, by dint of bribing Roman could save Egypt and Egypt's royal senators with money got from Rofamily from the fate which had be- man money-lenders, especially the fallen all the other nations and royal Roman knight, Rabirius Postumus. families of the known Western world. The Piper's brother was also allowed, Rome was advancing to universal on similar conditions, to govern the dominion, and, in the year 57 before kingdom of Cyprus, then an appanChrist, of all between the Euphrates age, or younger brother's share of and the Atlantic, from the Rhine the Egyptian kingdom. Auletes mouth to Mount Atlas and the Red governed so as to acquire the hatred Sea, there remained only Egypt as and contempt of his subjects. Byyet unannexed. The greedy eyes of and-bye a change was brought about Roman senators had, however, long in Roman policy by the tribuneship been directed to that land. More of the demagogue Clodius. Cicero than a century before the date just was sent into exile. Cyprus was anmentioned, they had begun to inter- nexed as a Roman province. Its king fere in Egyptian affairs--at first un- poisoned himself, and the Alexander the pretence of promoting peace drians, indignant, urged the Piper between rivals for the crown of the to defend his brother's rights. He Lagides, then by occasional embas dared not. The turbulent and irrisies

, and at last by giving military tated citizens then drove him from aid to Ptolemy Alexander against his his throne, and proclaimed his two two nephews, the sons of Ptolemy eldest daughters joint Queens of Lathyrus. Alexander purchased that Egypt. Cleopatra was about ten aid from Sylla, the Roman dictator, years old when her sisters were thus by promising to leave his kingdom elevated. The eldest sister, Cleoto the Roman Senate when he died. patra Tryphæna, soon died. The He kept his promise, but the Senate remaining Queen, Berenice, married dared not, at the time, accept her cousin, one of the Syrian Sethe legacy. The mighty Republic leucide. The young Syrian began was tottering to its fall. The senators his reign as king-consort by seizing feared to trust any of their generals the golden sarcophagus in which with a commission to seize Egypt, Alexander the Great was laid. The Jest the wealth thus put into his Alexandrians and their queen stranhands should be turned against them- gled him for his impiety and avarice,

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Berenice finding another husband in Ptolemy, and a sister still younger, Archelaus, son of Mithridates, king Arsinoe. To the two first the Piper of Pontus.

left his crown, commending them to In the meantime the dethroned the care of the Roman Senate. The Piper had gone to Rome. He spent brother and sister were to marry, so his time there pleading with the said the judicious father's will, and Roman Senate to restore him by the Roman people were adjured by force of arms, borrowing immense all the gods to see it executed. The sums from Rabirius, and bribing Senate accepted the fatherly comsenators and generals. But the Se- mission, and appointed Pompeya nate hesitated to decree his restora- guardian to the youthful king and tion, pretending to fear an ancient queen. prophecy; really not daring to put Thus, exactly half a century besuch a source of wealth into the fore our era, the affianced bride of hands of any of the already too- her brother, young, beautiful, and powerful imperators. Cæsar, Pom- accomplished, with all that the philo pey, and Crassus each desired the sophers and literati of Alexandria commission, but each was also re- could instil into the heiress of their solved that neither of the others munificent patrons, Cleopatra found should have it. At last, after about herself called to rule. It would be

hree years' delay, the Piper, by an difficult to imagine a harder task for enormous bribe, borrowed from Ra a woman of her tender We birius, induced Gabinius, the Roman have but to look to the events of proconsul of Syria, to lead an army colonies, to judge how hard it is to into Egypt without, and even con restrain a race of conquering colotrary to, the orders of the Senate, nists dwelling among a servile but The undisciplined and unruly Alex- discontented population. Nor had andrians were easily defeated by the the Greeks, who lorded it over the veteran troops of Gabinius, under his Copts in Egypt, the motives for lieutenant, Marc Antony, then a moderation which the modern Eng. young and rising soldier of the Re- lish planter has. In Jamaica, family public. Archelaus and Berenice honour, and the fear of the home were speedily put to death, and the government, act as checks. But Piper was once more king. Gabinius there was no distant home governand Rabirius were both prosecuted ment to check the Alexandrian setat Rome for their share in the re- tlers, much less any sense of family storation of the Piper, and their de honour. Their numbers were kept gradation of the Roman name by up, not by births among themselves

, service under a foreign king. Cicero but by a continual influx of strangers. had by this time returned. His ad- Alexandria was the asylum of the vocacy of the cause of Rabirius world. Runaway slaves and ruined secured an acquittal

but even

debtors poured in continually from. Cicero's oratory, backed by whole- Rome; with these came robbers sale bribery, failed to save Gabinius from Syria, and pirates from Cilicia, from banishment.

as well as broken-down masters of The Piper kept his place as king rhetoric from Athens; forming a about four years after his restoration, trading, brawling, stealing, studying, upheld by Roman soldiers whom seething mass of city population,such Gabinius had left in his pay. When as no other city has ever paralleled. he died, B.C. 51, Cleopatra, his eldest The army, gathered out of such a po, surviving daughter, was seventeen. pulation, was one which had served She had a younger brother, named the queen's forefathers, as the spirits


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