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SAN FRANCISCO.

SAN FRANCISCO has come to be ships of all nations came flocking in the dividing-ridge between the Old with their white sales ; then, houses World and the New--the point rose out of the sand by magic, and which separates the Past from the churches and palaces, until now we Present-the pivot upon which the see there a great city, the third in world's trade and exchanges now its foreign commerce in America, turn; and yet this remarkable city Whence the name, and why a is but twenty years oldma child'; Spanish and a Catholic name for an but what a child !

American and a Protestant city? Already over a hundred thouasnd Because, in the year of the nation's live people call themselves Francis- birth (1776), two of those wonderful, cans, and are proud of it; already self-sacrificing, eamest souls which her foreign commerce is next to that the Roman Catholic Church has of New York and Boston ; already sent out over the world, came to her exports of gold and silver reach this barren coast and established a nigh a hundred millions a-year; and “ Mission;" built monasteries and now (1871) she has stretched her schools, and planted vineyards, and hand across and grasped the com- raised sheep and cattle, and did merce of the whole continent of what they might to civilise and Asia. She dares any thing, and she Christianise the Indians who then attempts everything--the most occupied the country. These two audacious city in the world!

men were Spaniards and Franciscan For an extent of two thousand monks, and they called their Mission, miles the blue waters of the broad San Francisco de Assisi. Less than Pacific washes the shores of the con- three miles south of the present City tinent, and in that whole distance Hall, the old “ Mission," built of there is but one safe harbour forships adobe bricks, still stands; but the to shelter. There, in latitude 37° good monks have departed, and, 48' north, the ocean breaks through with their virtues, have gone to the white hills of sand, and within heaven. the Golden Gate spreads out the What has come in their place? spacious and beautiful Bay of San Six miles from the blue Pacific

, Francisco-eight miles in average which flows in through the Golden width, and fifty in length.

Gate, an adventurous settler built a How much of the history of this house in the year 1835. On that world is accident, or what seems spot now stands the St. Francis such!

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, in the vicinity of the spacious For thousands of years this fine and elegant City Hall; in front of harbour has waited with open gutes the latter spreads out Portsmouth for the commerce of man-it did not Square, the Plaza of the city; not come ; but in January, of the year far from this are the Mint, the United 1848, the race-diggers at Captain States Hospital, and the Custom Sutter's mill, in Comola Valley, House--which last has cost 800,000 threw out, with the earth, golden dols. Montgomery-street

, with its grains; then, thousands of strong superb shops, invites and tempts men poured into California, and every mortal' man, and fascinates spread themselves over the barren every mortal woman.

Front-street sand-hills of San Francisco; then, and its vicinity contain in great ware

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business as circumspectly as if he freight carriage of two oceans. Its were anxious for a discount at the new line to Asia is a success from Bank of England. The best people the start, and it is impossible to estidecided, and the whole body quickly mate its effect upon the trade, the determined, that San Francisco manners, and even the religions of should be no scorn and by-word the East. The exports to China in among men ; they determined that 1870 reached nearly 8,000,000 dols. the metropolis of the western coast Manufactures are starting, and we should be the peer of older cities, have a premonition that the same and have taken matters in hand energy, daring, and success, will boldly and vigorously. A few de- mark their inception and developtails will best express what they have ment, that have characterised the attempted, what they have done. brief history of this city. Already

Merchants, of course, are the lead- Mr. Donald McClellan, who comng profession ; but while they are bines Scotch blood and Massabold, often reckless, they are not as chusetts training, has established an a 'class mean or dishonourable. Yet extensive woollen mill, where he mean and deeply dishonourable consumes yearly over a million things are perpetrated among them, pounds of California-grown wool, and the secrets of the stock-brokers and produces blankets, &c., second and the forestallers will not bear to none. Machine shops and other the light of day; they are shrewd branches of industry are already exenough to keep them in the tensive, and are growing, and cotton dark. These merchants, by pro- mills are started. It will not be jecting and daring, have produced long before San Francisco presents surprising results. Besides the the same great variety of occupation great business houses, are some as marks other cities. striking business organisations. The A journal of this city says: California Steam Navigation Com “We have ten grist mills, one pany plies its boats into all waters salt mill, twenty-one breweries, two of the State that can be cut by keel, sugar refineries. We grind 1500 and thus it centres all the produc- tons of salt a year ; 130 men brew tions and all the trade at this city. 61,825 barrels of beer ; 180 men The Wells-Fargo Express Company manufacture 25,000,000 pounds of has its agents at every village, every refined sugar. We have a match mine, and every ranch ; it carries all factory, two glass factories, a wire letters and all money, all gold dust rope factory, and a hemp rope facand all postages, faithfully and tory employing fifty men. We have swiftly, and makes enormous profits thirteen soap factories employing for its stockholders. In the year thirty-nine men, consuming 750,000 1864 it purchased some two and a pounds of tallow in making 1,000,000 quarter millions of United States pounds of soap annually. We have stamped envelopes, which in some five saw mills, cutting 6,250,000 degree shows the extent of its busi- feet of lumber a year; and thirty

It acts as a private post- eight machine shops and foundries, office, a banker, and a carrier, employing 1200 men.” throughout the mining districts “The San Francisco Bulletin of California, Idaho, Nevada, and states that the catch of codfish on Washoe, and by this time, no doubt, the banks on the north-west coast it has an office under one of the this season has not only demon“big trees” of the Yosemite Valley. strated that we can supply our own

The Pacific Mail Company owns market, but that we can become ex: one of the grandest of steam navies, porters of the article to less favoured and controls the passenger and localities.' The amount already

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those who brought the whole world sive are Grace Cathedral, St. Mary's of intellect and genius to their fire- (R. C.) Cathedral, the Cavalry sides. They do; and these fine Presbyterian, and the Jewish Emshops are thronged with the wisest, manuel. The leading sects are the and loveliest, and best.

Catholics and the Methodists; The sales of these two houses these touch the souls of the largest alone reach about half a million a- numbers. The prosperity of some year, and are constantly on the in- others is surprising, and among crease. School-books, of course, them the church of the lamented are first in numbers and amount; and gifted Starr King; its rental then come novels and light litera- now reaches the sum of twenty-seven ture; then histories and library thousand dollars. books. Children's books are also A single mission church attempts largely sold. Bancroft and Co. are the almost hopeless task of convertobliged, in their immense establish- ing the Chinese who flock to Caliment, to keep on hand a most fornia ; with what success we have varied stock, in amount equal to no report. some 200,000 dols., gathered from Assuming the same number of the East and from Europe.

members as in the leading denomiBut besides the great consumption nations of New York (three hunof books through these houses, the dred and twenty to each church), sale of magazines, periodicals, and San Francisco would seem to be papers through the newsdealers, one of the most religious cities of such as Strattman, Sullivan, White, the world. But as the Methoand Bauer, and others, is estimated dist societies report an average of to reach half a million in value. but one hundred and twenty-one, We have no means of knowing the we may suppose that the average of numbers sold of such magazines as all does not exceed two hundred to Harper's, the Atlantic, the Galaxy, each church. But this estimate &c., but it is reported that they shows a result of about one quarter devoured there at the start near two of the population who may be thousand copies of Putnam." recognised as belonging to the re

Both Bancroft and Roman have ligious world. engaged to some extent in publish The Young Men's Christian Asing ; and the works issued have sociátion numbers near four hunbeen of great value to their section; dred members, and works vigorously such as law-books, Tuthill's "His as usual to resist the baser influences tory of California,” Hittell's “Re- which in new countries are apt to sources," &c., &c.

Bancroft and corrupt the unwary. Co. published a Monthly Medical The attendance at the various Journal, and the Occident, a weekly Sunday-schools of eleven thousand religious paper, both of which are children is surprising, and exhibits well patronised, and is still increasing the interest which attaches to the in circulation.

question of man's relations to the Religion. -- On the 8th of May, Deity. 1849, a public meeting was called The Jews seem to be growing in for the purpose of ascertaining "the wealth and numbers, and the Ger prevailing sentiment in relation to man and the Polish Jews of San the establishment of a church in the Francisco each have their own town of San Francisco.". The pre- Synagogue, Benevolent Society, and vailing sentiment has built up fifty- Cemetery. The former are infected three churches, which now point by the progressive spirit of the age, their spires to heaven. Of these, and use a reformed ritual ; whilst the most elegant and most expen- the latter adhere to the ancient

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