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only be used when away from all span of which was forty-two feet, and buildings, and then for breaking up its width forty-three feel
. He conmasses too heavy for the sledge. sidered it to be one of the most perThe Moslems circulated a strange fect and magnificent remains at JeruTumour, to the effect that the ex- salem, and probably of the same age ploring party were depositing little as the wall at the Wailing Place ; balls of gunpowder around the walls but from want of the necessary mining of the sanctuary, and that these in apparatus, he was unable to make process of time would arrive at the a thorough investigation. Captain dignity of barrels of the same ma Warren being better provided, acterial, and then, by means of some complished what was impossible for infernal machine, would be used by his predecessor, and discovered a the perfidious Frank to blow up the series of arches, forming a viaduct building.
across the Tyropæan valley. Of course such a work as the Here it is that we first come upon “ Exploration” party carried on at the great defect of Captain Warren's tracted the attention of visitors to otherwise most interesting account, Jerusalem, and Captain Warren gal- viz., entering into detailed descriplantly testifies that the ladies were tions, which can only weary and be undaunted by his deepest shafts, by wilder when maps and plans are not vaults where rope-ladders were need supplied. There are through the ed, or by holes, through which push- book constant references to places as ing was the only method of advance- shown on the Ordnance Survey, to ment. Visitors there were who saw pencillings sent home, to plans at everything, and yet saw nothing in the Society's rooms, which are only anything, who, after descending a so much aggravation to the perplexed 100-feet shaft, and while gazing at reader. In the account of the vaults foundations buried for long ages, at Wilson's Arch, we follow on until and with a history such as none “we don't know where we are," and others have, would murmur con
grope about as much confused as temptuously at being dragged so far the explorer would have been had to see only an old wall."
his lights been extinguished, and he “A primrose by the river's brim, left to make his survey in Cimmerian A yellow primrose was to him, darkness. Vaults, and arches, and And it was nothing more."
doorways, and viaducts, and causeThe giant stone that has bome the ways, are so massed together
, that weight of mountain structures, and daylight is quite excluded from the the heavier weight of centuries, is narrative ; left-hand and right-hand equalled in some fates with the frail
are so magically handled that we bud of an April morning! Visitors, know not one from the other; pastoo, came who would enforce a gra- sages leading to east and west, and tuity on the employés, but refuse north and south, twirl you round a subscription to the Fund. Others, until the giddy brain cannot tell the however, repaid the trouble of show- points of the compass. We have ing the results of the labour by be- tried again and again to follow the coming thoroughly interested in it, description, but all to no purpose, and afterwards aiding it by zealous until getting into a secret passage advocacy at home.
emerge thus with effect :We will now mention some parti- “Having traced it (the secret pasculars of the work. At the western sage) to a distance of 220 feet from wall of the sanctuary, Captain Wilson, the sanctuary wall, we found a thin who, in the year 1864, had gone out wall blocking up the passage ; we to make an ordnance survey of Jeru- broke through it, and dropped down salem, discovered a large arch, the about six feet into a continuation of
it, stopped up by a wall to west, but fine drafted stone resting in situ on opening by a door to south; through the rock, and forming part of the this we crept, and then saw light, western pier of Robinson's Arch. and getting through into another The pier was found to be 51 feet chamber to south, we found our- 6 inches long and 12 feet 2 inches selves in a donkey stable, the owner thick; two of its courses on the of which happened to be there, and western side, and three on the easthe, on seeing us grimed with dirt, ern, remained in situ, the stones rushed out, swearing he was followed being precisely similar to those in
the wall at the S.W. angle of the While the work was going on at sanctuary. The span of the arch Wilson's Arch, it was found advis- was 41 feet 6 inches. able to construct a pit, sunk some Stretching from the base of the six feet in one of the dark vaults, to pier to the sanctuary wall is a paveact as a mouse-trap to catch certain ment, and working along it they meddling effendirs, if they persisted found the fallen voussoirs of the in visiting the workmen engaged in viaduct, which crossed the valley by clearing out the passages. However, this arch. the report of what was prepared for
A few feet above the pavement, a them had such deterring power that low passage was found leading direct the capabilities of the trap were not to the wall. It was full of mud, and put to the proof.
could only be cleared out by the men Captain Warren does not assign crawling on their knees, and at times this arch to so early a date as its the air was so bad that candles discoverer, as he only places it in would not burn, and they had to the fifth or sixth century. But the work in the dark at the head of the Haram wall
, wherever exposed in this gallery. They were eventually stopexcavation, was found evidently to be ped by shingle pouring in without in situ. There are in it here twenty ceasing ; but they were repaid for courses of drafted stones, averaging their trouble by having discovered 3 feet 8 inches to 4 feet in height, that the Haram wallextendsunbroken and making in all 75 feet 6 inches from the south-west angle up to above the rock. It is probably one the Prophet's gate, a distance of of the oldest portions of the sanctu- about 300 feet. To the height of ary now existing, and may have the pavement it is built of roughformed part of the original enclosure- faced stones; the faces of those wall of the Temple, in accordance above it are smooth, with Jewish tradition.
Sinking through this pavement, Robinson's Arch, which is the on which lay the fallen voussoirs name given to what seemed to be of Robinson's Arch, they reached, the remains of an ancient arch pro- through 23 feet of debris and old jecting from the west wall, not far masonry, the rock, and on it found from the S.W. angle of the sanctuary, two voussoirs of a more ancient has been a subject of controversy as arch, which in their fall had broken to whether there ever was a fur- in the roof of a rock-cut canal. This ther prosecution of the work than canal runs some distance to the now appears. Captain Warren de- south, but following it to the north, termined to set the matter rest by they made the very material disexcavating in search of the other covery that it leads to a circular pool pier. Beginning some distance from hewn in the rock, of which only half and opposite to the arch, he sank can be seen, as it is cut through by shafts at intervals across the valley, the foundations of the sanctuary until at 54 feet from the wall he wall. Evidence was thus obtained Sound the object of his search in a of there having been structures more
ancient than the present wall and ancient buildings. And lastly, at a the viaduct, of which Robinson's point go feet on the south side of Arch is the only remnant visible this angle, the Haram wall, which is above ground.
here 85 feet below the surface, and We turn now to the southern wall built of stones so marvellously fitted of the sanctuary:
together that the joints are scarcely It is 922 feet in length, and is di- discernible, cuts through (as the vided into three nearly equal por- west wall the rock-cut pool mentions, by the Double or Huldah tioned above) the remains of an gate to the west, and the Triple gate aqueduct running along the lowest to the east. After examination in part of the Tyropæan Valley. nine separate places, Captain Warren In the excavations of the east considers the whole to be in situ, wall of the sanctuary, letters in but the western third to be less red paint, some five inches long, ancient than the rest.
His reasons were discovered, apparently quarry for assigning a later date to it are marks, and if so, proving that the the following. We have mentioned stones had been dressed before the evidence of more ancient struc- being brought to the ground. Then tures at Robinson's Arch, and also "marks of King Solomon," excitthe character of the wall, the stones ed great interest among the inhacomposing it being rough-faced be- bitants and visitors to Jerusalem. neath and smooth-faced above the The Pacha could not be persuaded pavement This pavement and to see them himself, but ordered a similar building in the wall, is found party of effendis to report upon them. to extend round the south-west Captain Warren hearing of the comer and all along to the Double matter, and knowing it would be gate ; while at the south-east angle dangerous to leave such gentlemen the wall springs from the rock and to their own will, took care to be at has its stones nicely worked from the spot on their arrival, and drew the foundations,
There is, also, a from them an admission that they very remarkable course of stones, had come by his Excellency's order. the height of which averages from A judicious administration of de 5 ft. 1o in. to 6 ft. I in., extending scents, gradually increasing in length, more or less continuously from the diminished the number of inspectors south-east angle (where the corner- to one, a renegade Greek, who perstone, the largest yet known, weighs severed through shame of failing 100 tons) to the Double gate, but is under the ordeal. The last and not found to west of that point. The longest shaft was at the south-east largest stone at present known is angle, where the basement courses found at the south-west corner, but were shown to him as belonging its bed is four feet above the great to the Haram wall. He thought it
was a jest, and reported that a wall Further, the walls of the south- of Solomon had been found in west angle from the Prophet's Gate front of, and quite distinct from, on the west, and the Double Gate the Haram. The paint-marks were on the south– that is, for nearly also shown him, but being too. Or300 feet on either side-are different dinary-looking characters to have in construction from the portions attained such notoriety, he took this of wall they adjoin, being less as a jest also, and quietly with his carefully built , as well as Leing thumb deprived a Q of its tail
, and formed of stones roughly faced up transfigured it into a common-place to a certain height, as if they had 0. Captain Warren, horrified at been sunk underground in debris ac- such Vandalism, tumbled him over, cumulated over the ruins of more and he, satisfied with his experi
sty, ences, begged to return to the sur- Sanctuary is 150 feet in height at face.
this point. The inspection was over, but An important discovery seems to effendis could not be trusted to re- have been made in the Haram area. port truthfully, so that a dragoman Heavy rains did for the explorers had to be despatched to confront what the royal firman had prevented them in the Pacha's presence, and them doing for themselves, by caus
thus the matter was brought to a ing the ground to give way and stil favourable issue, and the explora- thereby making an opening at the og bó tions were allowed to proceed. northern edge of the platform. The
Further researches along the east opening had been filled up, but he wall were rendered difficult, in con- Captain Warren's experienced eye 28 sequence of the western tombs which detected a deficiency in the work,
lie close to it. "The same people and coming early next morning he
who see no harm in the destruction was not disappointed in his expectaber of them while quarrying, in using tion of finding the cavity again in
them as stables, and in building the existence. By it he got admittance tombstones into their houses, think to a souterrain running east and it desecration for a Frank in any west. It consists of an arched pasway to examine these interesting sage 18 feet in span, with bays to relics."
the south, 12 feet by 17 feet. The The nearest point available was southern side of these bays is scarped 143 feet distant from the wall, and rock, and on it the wall supporting at that distance a shaft was sunk the northern edge of the mosque platopposite the Golden Gate, and a form is built. The arches appear gallery run towards the south side; to be Saracenic. On the northern
but it had to be discontinued, as the side of the vault the rock could not blishingle came rushing in so suddenly be discovered. The souterrain was
as to bury some of the tools and explored for about 70 feet, and it filled it up, rendering further work seems to limit the space which was impossible. It was found that the occupied by the sacred courts. “It miners could not be kept in such is suggested that the northern edge dangerous places except at intervals, of the platform is the northern front since their nerves became so un- of King Herod's Temple.” strung as to render necessary a re Having thus finished our brief sort to safer labour for a few detail of the excavations, it is exdays.
pedient to see what conclusion is Of the explorations at the north- deduced from the results obtained -east angle the material results ap- what is the net increase in materials pear to be that the wall is discover- for determining the ancient Temple ed of a different construction from site. that at the other angles of the sanc It has been observed that two
tuary. At the angle it rises upward points were especially under investiunbroken, and forms part of the so- gation—the present walls and the
called Tower of Antonia, and be- lie of the rock about it. The walls yond the angle it continues with- being covered to such a height with out any break as the city wall. A accumulations of debris, their age valley was found to run under this could only be ascertained by mincorner and to emerge from beneathing. Captain Warren has come to the east wall at 58 feet from the the conclusion that a portion of the north-east angle, the debris at this western wall-that between Wilson's point being 125 feet deep. The Arch and the Prophet's Gate-was
bottom of the valley is 165 feet be- the work of Solomon, or of the elow the Sakra; the wall of the kings of Judah. The south-west
angle, for about 300 feet on either same is alluded to in his account of side, he assigns to Herod; the re- the attack of Titus when describing maining portion of the south wall, Antonia. The discovery of this and the greater part of the east, he valley accordingly proves that the considers to be Solomon's; and the present Haram area extends northrest of the east wall up to the north- wards considerably further than the east angle, he sets down as the old ancient courts. wall of the kings of Judah.
The Sanctuary, as we have stated, What made it appear of such con is 1500 feet from north to south, sequence to discover the lie of the and goo from east to west. Accordrock in and around the Haram area ing to the view now propounded, was, that the Sanctuary being an 600 feet of length on the northern artificial plateau constructed on the side is cut off as being of later adridge of the mountain, it was hoped dition, leaving a square of 900 feet, that the knowledge of the natural of which, again, 300 feet in length conformation of the ground would of the south end is cut off as having afford some guidance to the true formed Solomon's Palace on the site of the Temple.
east, and an addition by Herod on The ridge of the mountain was the west. The central remaining part found to run nearly in a straight line of the Haram, 600 feet in length, from the north-west angle to a point and stretching across 900 feet from in the south wall 300 feet from the wall to wall, is given as the courts south-east angle, the sides sloping of Solomon's Temple. down so steeply that the rock near
Haram Area. the north-east angle is 162 feet, at the south-east angle 163 feet, and
Hero. 600 feet,
Saracenic it is incredible that the Temple
Addition. should have been placed "in a hole,
Temple. or even along the sides of the hill, or anywhere except on the ridge." And this argument would no doubt We may add, as a confirmation of be conclusive if there were no arti- the view that Solomon's courts did ficial plateau, or if it had been an not extend beyond the northem after construction—in that case there edge of the platform, the fact that would have been an evident pro- none of the ancient rock-roofed priety, if not necessity, for building tanks are found beyond it either. the sacred edifice on the ridge of It is hardly possible that any real the mountain. But if by massive advance in obtaining knowledge to walls raised from the valleys on either decide the question at issue will be side a level space were obtained, it made until liberty be given to carry would surely then be optional, in on the excavations in the Haram a great measure, on what portion of area, and the obtaining such liberty it the building should be situated. seems but a remote prospect.
The most important aid in the In conclusion, we cannot withsolution of the great problem seems hold our admiration of the courage to be derivable from the discovery which nerved the explorer to enof the valley under the northern counter dangers truly " i’ the deadly part of the Haram. In Josephus's imminent breach," 'the tact which account of Pompey's attack, a valley gained its point successfully, and is spoken of as being on the north the cheerful ardour that never murside of the Temple courts, and the mered at work in places from which