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the same for any purpose not authorized by law, by any public officer, shall be deemed a felony, and shall be punished as provided by law.

State vs. Gramm, 52 Pac. Rep. 533.
BOARD OF EQUALIZATION FOR STATE.

There shall be a state board, composed of the state auditor, treasurer and secretary of state. DUTIES OF BOARD OF EQUALIZATION.

Sec. 10. The duties of the state board shall be as follows: To fix a valuation each year for the assessment of live stock and to notify the several county boards of equalization of the rate so fixed at least ten (10) days before the day fixed for beginning assessments; to assess at their actual value the franchises, roadway, roadbed, rails and rolling stock and all other property, used in the operation of all railroads and other comomn carriers, except machine shops, rolling mills and hotels in this state; such assessed valuation shall be apportioned to the counties in which said roads and common carriers are located, as a basis for taxation of such property; provided, that the assessment so made shall not apply to incorporated towns and cities. Said board shall also have power to equalize the valuation on all property in the several counties for the state revenue and such other duties as may be prescribed by law.

Powder River Cattle Co. vs. Commission- Kelley vs. Rhoads, 51 Pac. Rep. 593. ers, 3 Wyo. 618-623. UNIFORMITY OF ASSESSMENT REQUIRED.

Sec. 11. All property, except as in this constitution otherwise provided, shall be uniformly assessed for taxation, and the legislature shall prescribe such regulations as shall secure a just valuation for taxation of all property, real and personal.

Kelley vs. Rhoads, 51 Pac. Rep. 593. EXEMPTIONS FROM TAXATION.

Sec. 12. The property of the United States, the state, counties, cities, towns, school districts, municipal corporations and public libraries, lots with the buildings thereon used exclusively for religious worship, church parsonages, public cemeteries, shall be exempt from taxation, and such other property as the legislature may by general law provide. TAX MUST BE AUTHORIZED.

Sec. 13. No tax shall be levied, except in pursuance of law, and every law imposing a tax shall state distinctly the object of the same, to which only it shall be applied.

State vs. Board Commissioners Laranie Co., 55 Pac. Rep. 451. SURRENDER OF TAX POWER PROHIBITED.

Sec. 14. The power of taxation shall never be surrendered or suspended by any grant or contract to which the state or any county or other municipal corporation shall be a party.

ARTICLE XVI.

PUBLIC INDEBTEDNESS.

LIMITATION OF STATE DEBT.

Section 1. The state of Wyoming shall not; in any manner, create any indebtedness exceeding one per centum on the assessed value of the

1073.

taxable property in the state, as shown by the last general assessment for taxation, preceding; except to suppress insurrection or to provide for the public defense. CREATION OF STATE DEBT RESTRICTED.

Sec. 2. No debt in excess of the taxes for the current year, shall in any manner be created in the state of Wyoming, unless the proposition to create such debt shall have been submitted to a vote of the people and by them approved; except to suppress insurrection or to provide for the public defense. LIMITATION OF COUNTY DEBT.

Sec. 3. No county in the state of Wyoming shall in any manner create any indebtedness, exceeding two per centum on the assessed value of taxable property in such county, as shown by the last general assessment, preceding; provided, however, that any county, city, town, village or other sub-division thereof in the state of Wyoming, may bond its public debt existing at the time of the adoption of this constitution, in any sum not exceeding four per centum on the assessed value of the taxable property in such county, city, town, village or other sub-division, as shown by the last general assessment for taxation.

Board Commissioners vs. Rollins Invest- In re Fremont County et al., 54 Pac. Rep. ment Co., 3 Wyo. 470. Miller vs. School District, 5 Wyo. 226.

Grand Island & N. W. R. Co. vs. Baker

et al., 45 Pac. Rep. 494. CREATION OF MUNICIPAL DEBT RESTRICTED.

Sec. 4. No debt in excess of the taxes for the current year shall, in any manner, be created by any county or sub-division thereof, or any city, town or village, or any sub-division thereof in the state of Wyoming, unless the proposition to create such debt shall have been submitted to a vote of the people thereof and by them approved. Miller vs. School District, 5 Wyo. 224.

Grand Island & N. W. R. Co., vs. Baker Fremont Co. et al., 54 Pac. Rep. et al., 45 Fac. Rep. 494. 1073. LIMITATION OF MUNICIPAL DEBT.

Sec. 5. No city, town or village, or any sub-division thereof, or any sub-division of any county of the state of Wyoming, shall, in any manner, create any indebtedness exceeding two per centum on the assessed value of the taxable property therein; provided, however, that any city, town or village may be authorized to creat an additional indebtedness, not ex ceeding four per centum on the assessed value of the taxable property therein as shown by the last preceding general assessment, for the purpose of building sewerage therein. Debts contracted for supplying water to such city or town are excepted from the operation of this section. DONATIONS PROHIBITED.

Sec. 6. Neither the state nor any county, city, township, town, school district, or any other political sub-division, shall loan or give its (redit or make donations to or in aid of any individual, association or corporation, except for necessary support of the poor, nor subscribe to or become the owner of the capital stock of any association or corporation. The state shall not engage in any work of internal improvement unless authorized by a two-thirds vote of the people. MONEY PAID OUT-HOW.

Sec. 7. No money shall be paid out of the state treasury except upon appropriation by law and on warrant drawn by the proper officer, and

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no bills, claims, accounts or demands against the state, or any county or political sub-division, shall be audited, allowed or paid until a full itemized statement in writing, verified by affidavit, shall be filed with the officer or officers whose duty it may be to audit the same.

State ex rel Henderson vs. Burdick, 4 Wyo. 276. CERTIFICATES OF INDEBTEDNESS-LIMITATION OF.

Sec. 8. No bond or evidence of indebtedness of the state shall be valid unless the same shall have endorsed thereon a certificate signed by the auditor and secretary of state that the bond or evidence of debt is issued pursuant to law and is within the debt limit. No bond or evidence of debt of any county, or bond of any township or other political subdivision, shall be valid unless the same shall have endorsed thereon a certificate signed by the county auditor or other officer authorized by law to sign such certificate, stating that said bond or evidence of debt is issued pursuant to law and is within the debt limit.

ARTICLE XVII.
STATE MILITIA.

OF WHOM CONSTITUTED.

Section 1. The militia of the state shall consist of all able-bodied male citizens of the state, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years; except such as are exempted by the laws of the United States or the state. But all such citizens having scruples of conscience reverse to bearing arms shall be excused therefrom upon such conditions as shall be prescribed by law.

McKinney vs. State, 3 Wyo. 725. PROVIDED FOR-HOW.

Sec. 2. The legislature shall provide by law for the enrollment, equipment and discipline of the militia to conform as nearly as practicable to the regulations for the government of the armies of the United States. OFFICERS COMMISSIONED-HOW.

Sec. 3. All militia officers shall be commissioned by the governor, the manner of their selection to be provided by law, and may hold their commissions for such period of time as the legislature may provide. FLAG.

Sec. 4. No military organization under the laws of the state shall carry any banner or flag representing any sect or society or the flag of any nationality but that of the United States. COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF.

Sec. 5. The governor shall be commander-in-chief of all the military forces of the state, and shall have power to call out the militia to preserve the public peace, to execute the laws of the state, to suppress insurrection or repel invasion.

ARTICLE XVIII.

PUBLIC LANDS AND DONATIONS.

LAND GRANTS ACCEPTED-PRICE LIMIT.

Section 1. The state of Wyoming hereby agrees to accept the grants of lands heretofore made, or that may be hereafter made by the United States to che state, for educational purposes, for public buildings and institutions and for other objects, and donations of money with the conditions and limitations that may be imposed by the act or acts of congress, making such grants or donations. Such lands shall be disposed of only at public auction to the highest responsible bidder, after having been duly appraised by the land commissioners, at not less than threefourths of the appraised value thereof, and for not less than $10 per acre; provided, that in case of actual and bona fide settlement and improvement thereon at the time of the adoption of this constitution, such actual settler shall have the preference right to purchase the land whereon he may have settled, not exceeding 160 acres at a sum not less than the appraised value thereof, and in making such appraisement the value of improvements shall not be taken into consideration. If, at any time hereafter, the United States shall grant any arid lands in the state to the state, on the condition that the state reclaim and dispose of them to actual settlers, the legislature shall be authorized to accept such arid lands on such conditions, or other conditions, if the same are practicable and reasonable. APPLICATION OF PROCEEDS.

Sec. 2. The proceeds from the sale and rental of all lands and other property donated, granted or received, or that may hereafter be donated, granted or received, from the United States or any other source, shall be inviolably appropriated and applied to the specific purposes specified in the original grant or gifts. BOARD OF LAND COMMISSIONERS.

Sec. 3. The governor, superintendent of public instruction and secretary of state, shall constitute a board of land commissioners who, under such regulations as may be provided by law, shall have the direction, control, disposition and care of all lands that have been heretofore or may hereafter be granted to the state.

State ex rel vs. State Board Land Commissioners, 53 Pac. Rep. 292. PROVISION FOR DISPOSITION OF LANDS.

The legislature shall enact the necessary laws for the sale, disposal, leasing or care of all lands that have been or may hereafter be granted to the state, and shall, at the earliest practicable period, provide by law for the location and selection of all lands that have been or may hereafter be granted by congress to the state, and shall pass laws for the suitable keeping, transfer and disbursement of the land grant funds, and shall require of all officers charged with the same or the safe keeping thereof to give ample bonds for all moneys and funds received by them.

State vs. Gramm, 52 Pac. Rep. 533.
SPECIAL PRIVILEGES PROHIBITED.

Sec. 5. Except a preference right to buy as in this constitution otherwise provided, no law shall ever be passed by the legislature granting any privileges to persons who may have settled upon any of the school lands granted to the state subsequent to the survey thereof by the general government, by which the amount to be derived by the sale, or other disposition of such lands, shall be diminished directly or indirectly. UNEXPENDED PROCEEDS-DISPOSITION OF.

Sec. 6. If any portion of the interest or income of the perpetual school fund be not expended during any year, said portion shall be added to and become a part of the said school fund.

ARTICLE XIX.

MISCELLANEOUS.

LIVE STOCK. PROTECTION OF, PROVIDED FOR.

Section 1. The legislature shall pass all necessary laws to provide for the protection of live stock against the introduction or spread of pleuro-pneumonia, glanders, splenetic or Texas fever, and other infectious or contagious diseases. The legislature shall also establish a system of quarantine, or inspection, and such other regulations as may be necessary for the protection of stock owners, and most conducive to the stock interests within the state.

CONCERNING LABOR. DAY'S WORK.

Section 1. Eight (8) hours actual work shall constitute a lawful day's work in all mines, and on all state and municipal works.

LABOR ON PUBLIC WORKS. WHO SHALL NOT BE EMPLOYED.

Section 1. No person not a citizen of the United States or who has not declared his intentions to become such, shall be employed upon or in connection with any state, county or municipal works or employment. ENFORCEMENT PROVIDED FOR.

Sec. 2. The legislature shall, by appropriate legislation, see that the provisions of the foregoing section are enforced.

BOARDS OF ARBITRATION. PROVISION FOR.

Section 1. The legislature shall establish courts of arbitration, whose duty it shall be to hear, and determine all differences, and controversies between organizations or associations of laborers, and their employers, which shall be submitted to them in such manner as the legislature may provide.

POLICE POWERS. PINKERTON MEN.

Section 1. No armed police force, or detective agency, or armed body, or unarmed body of men, shall ever be brought into this state, for the suppression of domestic violence, except upon the application of the legislature, or executive, when the legislature cannot be convened.

LABOR CONTRACTS. PROHIBITION OF CERTAIN KINDS.

Section 1. It shall be unlawful for any person, company or corporation, to require of its servants or employes as a condition of their employment, or otherwise, any contract or agreement, whereby such person company or corporation shall be released or discharged from liability or responsibility, on account of personal injuries received by such servants or employes, while in the service of such person, company or corporation,

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