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thirst any more; neither shall the sun , worketh abomination, or maketh a lie; light on them nor any heat. There shall but they which are written in the Lamb's be no more death, neither sorrow, nor book of life. From such a place, from sighing, neither shall there be any more such society, from such enjoyments, who pain. For the Lamb which is in the could have the cruelty to wish to withmidst of the throne shall feed them, and draw them? Oh, let them enjoy their shall lead them unto living fountains of bliss. We shall go to them, though they waters; and God shall wipe away all shall not return to us : tears from their eyes."

“ A few short years of evil past, To be with Christ is to be removed out We reach the happy shore, of the reach of temptation, as well as Where death-divided friends, at last, sorrow; for into the city in which they

Shall meet to part no more,"

“Wherefore, let us comfort one another thing that defileth, neither whatsoever with these words.”

G. P.

3000 1800


POWER OF VOLUNTARY RELIGION. [At a meeting of the Anti-state Church of the Establishment in England and Society, held at Leeds, on Wednesday, Wales in the year 1844, was about 12,100. the 27th October, Edward Baines, Esq., Allowing for subsequent increase, we may delivered a speech on church statistics, suppose them now to be about 12,500. which we deem it our duty to lay before From the authorized publications of our readers, as it contains a record of the Wesleyan, Independent, Baptist, Rofacts which both Churchmen and Dis man Catholic, Unitarian, Wesleyan Assosenters are interested in knowing. In ciation, and other bodies, as well as from addition to which we cannot but regard other sources, we draw the following it as next to a demonstration of the results as to the number of their places power of Voluntary Christianity depends of worship :ing exclusively on its own resources.)

Chapels in England.

Wesleyap Methodist men and Dissenters in the United King Independent .......... dom are a matter of considerable interest,


1435 Primitive Methodist ......

1421 and even importance. Very erroneous Roman Catholic .......


Bible Christian .......... statements are often made on both sides :

387 the materials for forming a comparison

Wesleyan Methodist Association ... 316

Methodist New Connexion ............. 277 are scattered : it will therefore be of Unitarian ....


Orthodox Presbyterian....... utility to make any nearer approach than

Lady Huntingdon's Connexion ...... has hitherto been made to an accurate

New Jerusalem Church supposed 500 estimate. In the course of remarks at the Anti-State-Church meeting at Leeds,

Total in England ........ 10,394 on Wednesday, Mr. Edward Baines, Jun., adduced the number of places of

Chapels in Wales.
Calvinistic Methodist

.................. worship built and maintained by Dis

Independent................ ...."

640 senters as one among many proofs of the

Baptist ............

312 Wesleyan ..................................

469 power of the Voluntary principle. From Unitarian ......... the statement made by him, and from

Quaker ........

Wesleyan Association subsequent examination, we arrive at the Primitive Methodist

Various minor Sects (supposed) following results : From the Clergy List of 1845, we find

Total in Wales ............. 2,340 that the number of churches and chapels . The following, then, is the summary of


Quaker ........................




and Various .............




the places of worship belonging to the ragements, have built, and are maintainEstablishment and the Nonconformist ing no less than 12, 700 places of worship, bodies respectively :

and support their ministers and service,

without the aid of sixpence from any Summary of England and Wales.

public funds. Churches and Chapels of the Es

In Scotland there is a decided majority tablishment Chapels of Nonconformists in

12,500 against the Presbyterian Establishment. England


The following numbers of churches and Ditto in Wales


12,734 chapels approach to correctness :

Church of Scotland
Free Church....

1160 840 518 142 41 30 109 91 82 32 18 80


Total of Nonconformist bodies

It would appear, then, that there is a

Churches and Chapels in Scotland. greater number of places of worship belonging to the Nonconformists than to the Established Church, even in that part

United Presbyterian Church

Congregationalist of the kingdom where the Establishment United Original Seceder

Reformed Presbyterian Church... is the strongest. It does not of course Scottish Episcopal Church follow that there is a greater number of


Roman Catholic ................................ Nonconformists than of Churchmen. Wesleyan Methodist ....................***

Evangelical Union ... There are many places where the great Various minor Sects (supposed)...... bulk of the population attend the Church, and where the Dissenting chapels are small, and scantily attended. The

Thus the Nonconformist chapels exchurches would in general accommodate ceed the churches of the Scotch Estamuch larger numbers than the chapels

. blishment by 823. But when it is reBut, on the other hand, many of the membered that great numbers of the churches are in parishes of very small churches of the Establishment were absopopulation. Of 14,453 parishes and lutely emptied by the secession of the townships in England, no fewer than

Free Church, it will be obvious that the 9181 have a population below 400 per- numerical majority of Dissenters must be sons each. Many of the churches which much greater than in proportion to the abound in cathedral cities, and other old number of their places of worship. towns, as well as in villages, have very

In Ireland the Establishment has only scanty congregations. The Dissenting about one-ninth of the population attached chapels exist in the greatest number to it, whilst the other eight-ninths are Diswhere the population is the most dense ; senters or Roman Catholics. The foland in the manufacturing districts at lowing are the numbers given by the least, the Dissenting congregations are

commissioners appointed to inquire into larger than the Church congregations, the state of religious and other instrucOn the whole, however, we do not doubt tion in Ireland, in the year 1834 :that the number of Churchmen exceeds that of Dissenters in England and Wales ;

Religion of the Irish. and, of course, in point of wealth, the Members of the Established Church 852,064


642,356 Church has an immense superiority. But

21,808 the above figures lead to the belief that Ronian Catholics...

6,427,712 the numerical majority of the Church is


7,943,940 much smaller than many writers have assumed. And it is surely a fact which We are not aware of any decisive evimost strikingly demonstrates the power dence as to the number of churches and of the Voluntary principle, that the Non-chapels in Ireland. The following are conformist bodies of England and Wales, the numbers of the clergy and ministers besides contributing to the support of the of religion, as given in the census of Church, and in the face of many discou- 1841 :

Other Protestant Dissenters


6 216 449 13

11 872

14 118



Ministers of Religion in Ireland. the other sects is as one to eight. If, fur Established Clergy..... .........................

1560 the sake of ascertaining what we may Baptists..............

term the comparative religious weight of Presbyterians

the Establishment and the other sects, Independents Moravians

7 we divide the population of Great BriRoman Catholics


tain and Ireland according to these proFriars...... Not specified

portions, (though we are aware that Missionaries... Scripture Readers

there are great numbers who attend no place of worship, and belong to no reli

gious body,) the result would be as The Established clergy, therefore, are

follows: much more numerous in proportion than their flocks; not a few of the clergy

Computed Numbers belonging to the Eshave not a church to preach in, and not a

tablishment and other Religious Bodies few of the churches are without congre

in the United Kingdom. gations. At least 3000 chapels must

Other Total have been built, and are now upheld, by

Establish- Religious Popula

Bodies. the poorest part of the population, entirely without Government aid, except

England and

Wales, and the allowances made under the name of

9,160,446 6,870,335 16,030,781

the British Regium Donum to the Unitarian and other Presbyterian ministers of the north

748,623 1,871,560 2,620,154 Ireland

908,547 7,266,777 8,175,124 of Ireland,—the benumbing and deadening effects of which have Jately been

10,817,417 16,008,673 26,826,089 exhibited on official authority.

It would seem, then, that the other re. It would appear from the above that the places of worship belonging to the ligious sects outnumber the Establish

ments as follow:Established Churches and the Nonconformist bodies in the United Kingdom Nonconformist Bodies

16,008, 672 are as follows:


10,817,417 Majority.

5,191,255 Places of Worship-United Kingdom.

The proportion against the EstablishBelonging to Belonging to

ments is about as three to two. formists.

The object for which Mr. E. Baines In England & Wales 12,500 12,73+ In Scotland ........

made these calculations, on Wednesday,

1,160 1,983 In Ireland (supposed) 1,400 3,000

was simply this,—to prove that the Volur15,060 17,717 tary principle had power and EFFICIENCY,

amply sufficient for the support and proBut the proportions of the population pagation of religion. To us the proof of attached to the respective religious com- fact is perfectly demonstrative. This view munities must be different. We are in- of the state of our population was only one clined to believe that the actual attend- of several illustrations given of the power ance at the churches of the Establishment of the Voluntary principle; and this in England and Wales would exceed the single branch of the subject was chosen attendants at Dissenting and other cha- as that cn which there is the greatest pels in the proportion of four to three. ignorance, and the most erroneous imWe think that in Scotland the proportion pression. The scriptural, moral, and belonging to the Established Church social objections to Establishments were would be, compared with the other reli- treated with distinguished ability, and gious bodies, as two to five. And in not less moderation, by the reverend Ireland the proportion of Churchmen to Chairman and other speakers.


the Establishment.



(Continued from page 647.) PERSECUTION is the sin of our apostate co-extend with the progress of a religion nature, and all history confirms the asser- divinely revealed and attested? tion. But before Christians could either We have already referred to the appapersecute heathens or each other, Chris- rently unconnected and partially obscure tianity must have established itself, and method in which it has pleased Infinite obtained rank and importance among the Wisdom to convey the doctrines and disreligions of the earth. The means which coveries of the scriptural revelation to raised it to such eminence we can easily mankind. Satisfactory reasons for this supply, and from the most authentic method, in preference to one more regusources of information. They were nei- lar, logical, and systematic, may be found ther policy nor power. Fishermen--the in the salutary employment which it sons of fishermen, the very refuse of a affords to the human mind, and its benepeople, themselves universally despised — ficial operation upon the human characwere the insignificant agents that planted ter—thus harmonizing with the general the standard of the cross in every region. plan of Providence in the moral governThey conquered, not only without the aid ment of the world. It is evidently not of this world's mightiest thrones, but an accidental circumstance, but a deliwhen those thrones set to work the most berate and pre-ordained purpose. It was formidable engines to crush and destroy the intention of the Divine Majesty to them. Christianity triumphed when the speak unto men at sundry times, and in whole course of natural causes was opposed divers manners by prophets and holy to it. The reason is to be found alone in men themselves perhaps frequently unthe omnipotence of truth, and especially conscious of the full extent of their mesthe truth of God.

sage, even while they sought diligently From the reasonings and evidence thus to understand what the Spirit could mean, hinted at, and which might easily be when through them he testified of the drawn out into an elaborate treatise, it sufferings of Christ and the glory that may, we think, be clearly established, should follow. The command of the that Christianity, though the subject of Great Author of Christianity to “search such diversity of opinions, and the occa- the Scriptures," and which is of universal sion of so many bitter persecutions, can- | extent, implies that even the essential not fairly be charged with producing truths which they contain are not to be them; that its divine origin, high preten- discovered by a hasty perusal, but by sions, and immaculate purity, rest on close and persevering industry; that they their own basis, untouched and unaffected can only be known by diligent and patient by the mistakes, prejudices, and weak- inquiry, and by the cultivation of disponesses of its genuine friends, as well as sitions diametrically opposed to indolence, by the flagitious spirit and outrageous pride, and self-sufficiency; that the elewickedness of its pretended disciples. ments of a Divine philosophy do not lie

But here an important question pre- on the surface of the field of revelation, sents itself, the discussion of which will but are deposited in recesses which must still further remove from Christianity the be explored, and concealed in mines reproach we have thus far combated. which must be wrought; that its treasures

The question is, what are the probable are not poured in glittering profusion at designs of Heaven in permitting the evils our feet, but that we must go forth, and which we have stated and deplored, to penetrate the hidden places of the earth, before we can make them our own. Truth | Milton expresses it) still searching what is the reward of labour and deep research. we know not by what we know; still This arrangement of its Divine Author is closing up truth to truth as we find it, (for as wise as it is benevolent. It is adapted all her body is homogenial and proporto our nature, and promotes our happi- tional,) this is the golden rule in theology, ness by a moral process which secures the as well as in arithmetic, and makes up highest improvement of our character. the best harmony in a church. Thus it preserves our mental health, Can it be an objection to Christianity raises us to the dignity of thinking beings, that the Scriptures, by which it is revealed, and opens to us a scene of interminable demand such a labour as this, and that progression. While it invigorates all our the knowledge of its principles must be powers, it affords us the satisfaction arising attained precisely in the same manner as from the discovery of some new feature we acquire all other sciences in nature of beauty or sublimity. It is precisely and in religion. If the Author of our that toil that charms with anticipated being had forced upon the whole species delight, and which is ever and anon a uniform knowledge and belief of all the accompanied with the joyful Eureka of truths that each contains, and thus had the philosopher—"I have found it-Ireleased every man from the toil of thinkhave found it;" and as far surpassing ing—equalizing all minds and levelling the pleasures of mere human science, as all moral distinctions,—could virtue or the glories of the midnight heavens tran- happiness have existed in the world! scend in worth and splendour the dew- The wise and the good, the devout and drops of the morning.

the humble, receive nothing but advanThe Author of Nature has given us tage from the constitution of the Divine the book of many worlds; but he has not government, as it is displayed in His classified its subjects, nor reduced its works and in His word-while all the multiform contents to a system. We evils that arise from its abuse and misapmust study its ample page, and decipher prehension, are the portion only of the its mysterious characters according to our proud and the vicious, the indolent and best ability.

the impious! Philosophy and natural The Author of Christianity has given religion are not the less true and certain us a volume of another kind, but bearing in their principles, because the most conin this respect a near analogy to that of tradictory doctrines have been palmed the visible universe. Every line of it is upon the one, and atheists, idolaters, and radiant with instruction. God is every- sceptics have failed to perceive the existwhere seen in the majesty of his infinite ence of the other. The universe and the perfections; but distinctly to understand Bible, regarded as the organs of the Diwhat he has written, we must apply our vine manifestation, experience the same selves with intense interest to all the treatment. They proclaim a God who is varied sublimities by which we are daz- adored by his holy worshippers, but corzled, till the sense of obscurity induced temned and rejected by those who desire by excess of light passes away, and we not the knowledge of his ways. On are enabled to contemplate the scene whom does this reflect disgrace ? On the without confusion, in all its separate por- Deity, who thus condescends to reveal tions of grandeur and magnificence, by himself to his creatures or upon those the telescope of faith bringing distant rebels who proudly exclaim, “What is objects near, and by the microscope of the Almighty, that we should serve him; inquiry discovering a world where a su- and what profit shall we have if we pray perficial glance might have detected only unto him ?” an atom. With the Bible in our hands, No kind of revelation, even though the it is surely the noblest employment of our very one they should prescribe were intellectual and moral nature to be (as vouchsafed to them, would conciliate such

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