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Serg. Sf Lawb. Sergeant and Lowber's edition of the English Common Law Reports; more usually cited Eng. Com. Law Rep.

Serg. Sf Rawle. Reports of Cases adjudged in the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. By Thomas Sergeant and William Rawle, Jun. 17 vols. 8vo.

Sett. Co. Sessions Cases in K. B., chiefly touching settlements.

Shaw Sf Mad. Shaw and Maclean's Reports

Shelf. Lun. Shelford on Lunacy.

Shelf. en Mart. Sheltbrd on the Law of Mortmain.

Shelf, on R. Pr. Shelford on Real Property.

Shep. To. Sheppard's Touchstone.

Shepl. R. Shepley's Reports.

Show. P. C. Shower's Parliamentary Cases. Show. R. Shower's Reports in the Court of King's Bench.

Shub. Jut. Lit. Shuback de Jera Littoris.

Sid. Siderfin's Reports

Sim. Simon's Chancery Reports. In Coo. C . R.

Sim. Sf Stu. Simon and Stuart's Chancery Reports. In Con. C. R.

Skene, Verb. Sign. Skene de Vcrborum Signiiicatione; an explanation of terms, difficult words, &c.

Still. Skinner's Reports.

Skin. Und. Sher. Skirrow's Complete Practical Under Sheriff.

Sm. Ch. Pr. Smith's Chancery Practice.

Sm. on Pat. Smith on the Law of Patents.

Smith Sf Batty. Smith and Batty's Reports

Smith's For. Med. Smith's Forensic Medicine.

Smith's R. Smith's Reports in K. B., together with cases in the court of Chancery, from 44 to 46 Geo. III.

Sol. Solutio, the answer to an objection.

South Car. R. South Carolina Reports.

South. R. Southard's Reports.

Sp. of Lawt. Spirit of Laws, by Montesquieu.

Spel. OL Spelman's Glossary.

Spelm. Feudt. Spclman on Feuds.

St. usually put in small letters, is. Scilicet, that is to say.

St. or Stat. Statute.

Sr. Cat. Stillingfleet's Cases.

St. Tr. State Trials.

Stair's Inst. Stair's Institutions of the law of Scotland.

Staltm. on Eire, Sf Sat. Stallman on Election and Satisfaction.

Stark. Starkie's Ev. Starkieon the law of Evidence. Stark. Cr. PI. Starkie's Cri

minal Pleadings. Stark, R. Starkie's Reports. In E. C. L. R. Stark, on SI. Storkie on Slander and Libel. Stat. Statutes.

Stat. V/es. Statute of Westminster.

Stath. Statham's Abridgment.

Staunf. or Staunf. P. C. Stanford's Pleas of the Crown.

Steam. on R. A. Stcarncon Real Actions.

Steph. Comm. Stephen's New Commentaries on the Law of England (partly founded on Blackstone.)

Steph. Cr. Law. Stephen on Criminal Law. Steph. PL Stephen on Pleading. Steph. Proc. Stephen on Procurations.

Stem on Av. Stevens on Average.

Stem Sf B. on Av. Stevens and Bcncke on Average.

Stew. Adm. Rep. Stewart's Reports of Cases argued and determined in the Court of Vice Admiralty at Halifax.

Stew. R. Stewart's Reports.

Stew. Sf Port. Stewart and Porter's Reports.

Story on Bail. Story's Commentaries on the Law of Bailments.

Story on Const. Story on the Constitution of the United States.

Story on Eq. Story's Commentaries on Equity Jurisprudence.

Story's L. U. S. Story's edition of the Laws of the United States, in 3 vols. The 4th volume is a continuation of the same work by George Sharswood, Esq.

Story on Purim Story on Partnership.

Story on PI. Story on Pleading,

Story, R. Story's Reports.

Sir. Strangc's Reports,

Straec. de Mer. Straccha de Mcrcatura, Navibus et Assecurationibus.

Strah. Dom. Straham's translation of Domat's Civil Law.

Stroud's Dig. Stroud's Digest of the Laws of Pennsylvania.

Stuart's (L. C.) R. Reports of cases in the court of King's Bench in the Provincial court of appeals of Lower Canada, and appeals from Lower Canada before the Lords of the Privy Council. By George O'Kill Stuart, Esq.

Sty. Styles's Reports.

Sugd. Sugd. Pow. Sugden on Powers. Sugd. Vend. Sugden on Vendors. Sugd. Lett. Sugden's Letters.

Sail. Ltd. Sullivan's Lectures on the Feudal Law, and the Constitution and Laws of England.;

Sull. on Land Tit. Sullivan's History of Land Titles in Massachusetts.

Sum. Summa, the Summary of a law.

Sumn. R. Sumner's Circuit Court Re ports .

Siipp. Supplement Supp. to Vet. Jr. Supplement to Veaey Junior's Reports. This is an excellent collection of notes on the points decided in the Reports.

Stoun on Ecel. Ctt. Swan on the Jurisdiction of Ecclesiastical Courts.

Swnntt. Swunston's Reports.

Swift's Ed. Swift's Evidence.

Swift's Syt. Swift's System of the Laws of Connecticut. Swift's Dig. Switt'a Digest of the Laws of Connecticut.

Swinb. Swiuburn on the Law of Wills and Testaments. This work is generally cited by reference to the part, book, chapter , &c

Swinb. on Desc. Swinburn on the Law of Descents.

Swinb. on Mar. Swinburne on Marriage.
Swinb. on Spo. Swinburne on Spousal&.
Sytt. k'ttad. System ot Pleading.
T. Title.

T. Sf G. Tyrwhitt and Granger's Reports.

T. Jo. Sir Thomas Jones's Reports. T. L. Ternies de la Ley, or Terms of the Law.

T. R. Term Reports. Ridgcway's Reports are sometimes cited Iriih T. K. T. R. Teste Rege.

T. Sc. R. Turner and Russell's Chancery


T. R. E. or T. E. R. Tempore Regis Edwnrdi. This abbreviation is frequently used in D miead iy Book, and in the more ancient law writers. See Tyrrcl's Hist. Eng., Introd. mi. p. 49. See also Co. Inst, 86, u, where, in a quotation from Domesday Book, this abbreviation is interpreted Terra Regis Edwardi; but m Cownll's Diet. verb Revel md, it is B i id to be wrong.

T. Haym. Sir Thomas Raymond's Reports.

T. U. P. Charlt. T. U. P. Charlton's Rci«iris.

Tail on 7?o. Tait on Evidence.

T<imt. R. Tamlyn'* Re|Hirts of Cases dcci 'ed i Ch nccrv.

Tumi. T. Y. Tamlyn on Terms for Ye...s.

Tapia, Jur. Mer. Tralade de Jurisprudent Vleni.'ttttil.

Taunt. Taunton's Reports. In E.C. L. R.

T'iyl. Civ. L. Taylor's Civil

Taut. Imw Gus. Tayler's Law Glossary,

To'ijl. R. T iylnr's Reiwrts.

Trr.h. Did. Crabbe's Tcclmologioal Die tiouary.

7/i. Hr. Thesaurus Brevium.

Tt. Dig. ThclvallV Digest.

Then, I ret. lJto. Theory of Presumptive Proof , or an inquiry into the nature of circuiiistuiitiul evidence.

Tho. Co. Litt. Coke upon Littleton; newly arranged on the plan of Sir Matthew Hale's Analysis. By J. H. Thomas,


7 idd's Pr. Tidd's Practice,
7'it. Title,

Toll. Ex. Toller's Executors.

Tumi. L. D. Tomlin's Law Dictionary.

Toth. Tothill's Reports.

Touche. Sheppard's Touchstone.

Toull. Le Droit Civil Francois suivant l'ordre du Code; ouvrage dans lequel on a tranche de reunir la theoric a, la practique. Par M. C. B. M. Toullier. This work is sometimes cited Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. liv. 3, t. 2, c. I, n. 6; at other times, 3 Toull. n. 86, which latter signifies vol. 3 of Toullier's work, No. 86.

7Y. Eq. Treatise of Equity; the same as Fonbhinque on Equity.

Traill, Meil. Jur. Outlines of a course of Lectures on Medical Jurisprudence. By Thomas Stewart Traill, M. D.

7Veh. Jur. de la Med. Jurisprudence de la Medccine, de la Chirurgie, ct de lu Pharmacie. Par Adolpl.e Trebuchete.

Trem. Tremaine's Pleas of of Crown.

7'ri. per Pays. Trials per Pays.

Trin. Trinity term.

Tuck. Bl. Com. Blackstone's Commentaries, edited by Judge Tucker.

Turn, R. Turner's Reports of Cases determined in Chancery.

Turn. St Rut. Turner and Russell's Chancery Reports.

Tyl. R. Tyler's Reports.

Tyrw. Tyrwhitt's Exchequer Reports.

Tyrw. Sf Or a. Tyrwhitt and Granger's Re|Hirts.

Tyt. Mil. Law. Tytlcr's Essay on Military Law and the practice of Military Courts Martial.

V. S. United States of America.

U. S. Dig. United Stutes's Digest. Sec Mete. ae Perk. Dig.

Ult. Ultimo. ultima, the last, usually applied to the last title, paragraph or law.

Vmjrev. Off. of Cor. Umfreville's Office of Coroner.

Under Sher. Under Sheriff, containing the office and duty of High Sheriffs, Under Sheriffs, and Bailiffs.

Ux. et. Et uxor, ct uxnrem, and wire.

V. Versus, against, as A B v. C D.

V. Versiculo, in such a verse.

V. vide, see.

V. or o. Voce; as Spclm. Gloss, v. Can


V. Si B. Vcsey and Beames's Reports.
V. Sc S. Vernon and Scriven's Re|iort8.
Val. Cam. ValinV Commentaries.
Van Utytk. Mar. Ev. Van Hcytbuyicn'i

Essay upon Marine Evidence, in courts of law and equity.

Vand.Jud.Pr. Vanderlinden's Judicial Practice.

Volt. or Vattel. Vattel's Law of Nations.

Vaug. Vaughan's Reports.

Vend. Ex. Venditioni exponas.

Ventr. Vcntris's Reports

Verm. R. Vermont judge's Reports.

Vern. Vernon's Reports.

Vera. Sf Scriv. Vernon and Scriven's Reports of Cases in the King's Courts, Dubhn.

V'rpl. Contr. Verplanck on Contracts. Verpl. Ev. Verplanck on Evidence. Vet. Vesey Senior's Reports. Vet. Jr. Vesey Junior's Reports. Vet. Sf liea. Vesey and Beamcs'a Reports.

Vet. N. B. Old Natura Breviura. Vid. Vidian's Entries. Trim Ab. Vincr's Abridgment. Fin. Supp. Supplement to Viner's Abridgment. Kino. Vinnius. Viz. Videlicit, that is to say. Vs. Versus.

W. 1, W. 2. Statutes of Westminster, 1, and 2.

W. C. C. R. Washington's Circuit Court Reports.

W. St C. Wilson and Courtenay's Re ports.

W. Jo. Sir William Jones's Reports

W. Kel. William Kelynge's Reports

W. St M. William and Mary,

W. Sf S. Wilson and Shaw's Reports of Cases decided in the H. of L.

Wngr. on Disc. Wagram on Discoveries.

Waif, on Part. Walford's Treatise on the law respecting Parties to actions.

Walk. Am. L. or Wal*. lntrod. Walker's Introduction to American Law.

Wmlk. R. Walker's Reports.

Wall, R. Wallace's Circuit Court Re ports.

Ward on Leg. Ward on Legacies

Ware't R. Reports of cases argued and determined in the District Court of the United States, for the District of Maine.

Warr. I,. 8. Warren's Law Studies.

Wash. C. C. Washington's Circuit Court Reports.

W.iL Cop. Watkin's Copyhold.

Watk Conv. Watkins's Principles of Conveyancing.

Watt, on Arb. Watson on the Law of Arbitrations and Awards.

Watt, on Partn. Watson on the Law of Partnerships.

Watt. on Sher. Watson on the law relating to the office and duty of Sheriff.

Wo/fa's R. Watte's Reports. We//, on Eq. Plead. Wellbrd on Equity Pleading.

Mellw. Ab. Wellwood's Abridgment of Sea Laws. N

Wend. R. Wendell's Reports.

Wentw. Wentworth. Wentic. Off. Ex. Wentworth's Office of Executor. Wentte. PI. Wenlworth's System of Pleading, in 10 vols.

Weak. Ins. Weskctt on the Law of Insurance.

West's Rep. West's Reports of Lord Chancellor tiardwicke.

West's Symb. West's Symboliography, or a description of instruments and precedents, 2 parts.

Wetjt. on Av. Quintin Van Weyden on Average.

Whart. Dig. Wharton's Digest.

Whart. R. Wharton's Reports.

Wheat. W beaton. Wheat. R. Wheaton's Reports Wheat. on Capt. Wheaton's Digest of the Law of Maritime Captures and Prizes.

Wheel. Ab. Wheeler's Abridgments.

Wheel. Cr. Cas. Wheeler's Criminal Cases.

Wheel. on Mao. Wheeler on the Law of Slavery.

Whish. L. D. Whishaw's Law Dictionary.

Whit. on Trans. Whitaker on Stoppage in Transitu.

WAiic's New Coll. A new collection of the Laws, Charters, and Local ordinances of the governments of Great Britain, France, and Spain, &c.

Whit. on Liens. Whitaker on the law of Liens.

Whitm. B. L. Wlutmursh's Bankrupt Law.

Wicq. L'Ambassadeur ct Bcs fonctions, par De Wicquefort.

Wightvo. Wightwich's Reports in the Exchequer.

Wile, on Nun. Cor, Wilcock on Municipal Corporations.

Wile. R. Wilcox's Reports.

Wilk. Leg. Ang. Sax. Wilkin's Leges Anglo-Saxonicss.

Wilk. on Lim. Wilkinson on Limitations.

Wilk. on Pub. Funds. W ilkinson on the law relating to the Public Funds, including the practice of Distringas, &c.

Wilk. on Repl. Wilkinson on the law of Replevin.

Will. Auct. Williams on the law of Auctions.

Will, on Eq. Pl. Willis's treatise on Equity Pleadings.

Witt, on Inter. Willis on Interrogatories.

Will. L. D. Williams's Law Dictionary. Will, (PO Rep. Peere Williams's Reports.

Willc. Off. of Const. Willcock on the Office of Constable.

Willet's R. Willes's Reports

Willi on Cir. En. Wills on Circumstantial Evidence.

Wilm. on Mortg. Wilmot on Mortgages.

Wilm. Judg. Wilmot's Notes of Opinions and Judgments.

Wilt. onArb. Wilson on Arbitrations.

Wilt. Ch. R. Wilson's Chancery Reports

Wile, if Co. Wilson and Courtenay's Reports.

Wilt. Ex. R. Wilson's Exchequer Reports.

Wilt, if Sh. Wilson and Shaw's Reports decided by the House of Lords.

Wilt. R. Wilson's Reports.

Win. Winch's Entries Win. R. Winch's Reports.

Wing. Max. Wingate's Maxims.

Wms. Jutl. Williams's Justice.

Wmt. R., more usually, P. Wmt. Pecre Williams's Reports.

Wood's Inst., or Wood's Inst. Com. L. Wood's Institutes of the Common Law of England. Wood's Inst. Civ. Law. Wood's Institutes of the Civil Law.

Woodes. Wooddesson. Wooden El. Jur. Wooddesson's Elements of Jurisprudence. Woodet. Led. Wooddesson's Vincrian Leetares.

Wood/. L. if T. Woodfall on the Law of Landlord and Tenant.

Wool. Com. L. Woolrych's Commercial Law.

Wool. L. W. Wooolrych's Law of Waters.

Wool, on Ways. Woolyrch on Ways.

Worth, on Jur. Worthington's Inquiry into the Power of Juries to decide incidentally on questions of law.

Worth. Pre. Wills. Worthington's General Precedents for Wills, with practical notes.

Wright's R. Wright's Reports. Wright, Fr. Soc. Wright on Friendly Societies.

Wright, Ten. Sir Martin Wright's Law of Tenure.

Wy. Pr. Reg. Wyatt's Practical Register."

X. The Decretals of Gregory the Ninth, are denoted by the letter X, thus, X.

Y. B. Year Books, (q.v.)

Y. if C. Younge and Collyer's Exchequer Reports.

Y. if C. A. C. Younge and Collyer's New Cases.

Y. if J. Younge and Jervis's Exchequer


Yeates, R. Yeates's Reports.

Yelv. Yelverton's Reports

Yerg. R. Yerger's Reports.

Yo. if Col. Younge and Collyer's Exchequer Reports

Yo. if Col. N. C. Younge and Collyer's New Cases.

Yo. Rep. Young's Reports.

Yo. if Jer. Younge and Jervis's Reports

Zouch's Adm- Zouch's Jurisdiction of the Admiralty of England, asserted.

ABBROCHMENT, obsolete. The forestalling of a market or fair.

ABDICATION, government. 1. A simple renunciation of an office, generally understood of a supreme office. James II. of England; Charles V. of Germany; and Christiana, queen of Sweden, are said to have abdicated.—2. When inferior magistrates decline their offices, they are said to make a resignation, (q. v.);

ABDUCTION, crim. law, the carrying away of any person by force or fraud. This is a misdemeanor punishable by indictment. 1 East, P. C. 458; 1 Russell, 569; the civil remedies are recaption, (q. v.) 3 Inst. 134; Hal. Anal. 46; 3 Bl. Com. 4; by writ of habeas corpus; and an action of trespass, Fitz. N. B. 89; 3 Bl. Com. 139, n. 27; Roscoe, Cr. Ev. 193.

ABEREMURDER, obsolete. An apparent, plain, or downright murder. It was used to distinguish a wilful murder, from chance-medley, or manslaughter.

TO ABET, crim. law. To encourage or set another on to commit a crime. This word is always taken in a bad sense. To abet another to commit a murder, is to command, procure, or counsel him to commit it. Old Nat. Brev. 21; Co. Litt. 475.

ABETTOR, crim. law, is one who encourages or incites, encourages or sets another on to commit a crime. Such a person is either a principal or

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an accessory to the crime. When present aiding where a felony is committed, he is guilty as principal in the second degree; when absent, he is merely an accessory. 1 Russell, 21; 1 Leach, 66; Foster, 428.

ABEYANCE, estates, from the French aboyer, which in a figurative sense means to expect, to look for, to desire. When there is no person in esse in whom the freehold is vested, it is said to be in abeyance, that is, in expectation, remembrance and contemplation of law. The law requires, however, that the freehold should never, if possible, be in abeyance. Where there is a tenant of the freehold, the remainder or reversion in fee may exist for a time without any particular owner, in which case it is said to be in abeyance. Thus, if an estate be limited to A for life, remainder to the right heirs of B, the fee simple is in abeyance during the life of B, because it is a maxim of law, that nemo est hares vieentis. 2 Bl. Com. 107; 1 Cruise, 67—70; 1 Inst. 342; Merlin, Repertoire, mot Abayance; 1 Com. Dig. 175; 1 Vin. Abr. 104. Another example may be given in the case of a corporation. When a charter is given and the charter grants franchises or property to a corporation which is to be brought into existence by some future acts of the corporators, such franchises or property are in abeyance, until such acts shall be done, and when the corporation is thereby brought into life, the franchises instantaneously attach. 4 Wheat. 691. See, generally, 2 Mass. 500; T Mass. 445; 10 Mass. 93; 15 Mass. 464. 9 Cranch, 47, 293; 5 Mass. 555.

ABIDING BY PLEA, in the English law. A defendant who pleads a frivolous plea, or a plea merely for the purpose of delaying the suit; or who, for the same purpose, shall file a similar demurrer, may be compelled by rule in term time, or by a

judge's order in vacation, either to abide by that plea, or by that demurrer, or to plead peremptorily on the morrow; or if near the end of tho term, and in order to afford time for notice of trial, the motion may be made in court for rule to abide or plead instanter; that is within twenty- four hours after rule served,Imp.B. R. 340, provided that the regular time for pleading be expired. If the defendant when ruled, do not abide, he can only plead the general issue. 1 T. R. 693; but he may add notice of setoff. Ib. 694, n. See 1 Chit. Rep. 565, n.

ABJURATION. A renunciation of a country by oath. 1. The act of Congress of the 14th of April, 1802, 2 Story's Laws U. S. 850, requires that when an alien shall apply to be admitted a citizen of the United States, he shall declare on oath or affirmation before the court where the application shall be made, inter alia, that he doth absolutely and entirely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity which he owes to any foreign prince, &C., and particularly, by name, the prince, &c, whereof he was before a citizen or subject. Rawle on the Const. 98.—2. In England the oath of abjuration is an oath by which an Englishman binds himself not to acknowledge any right in the pretender to the throne of England. —3. It signifies also according to 25 Car. II., an oath abjuring to certain doctrines of the church of Rome.— 4. In the ancient English law it was a renunciation of one's country and taking an oath of perpetual banishment. A man who had committed a felony, and for the safety of his life flew to a sanctuary, might within forty days confess the fact and take the oath of abjuration and perpetual banishment; he was then transported. This was abolished by stat. 1 Jac. 1, c. 25. Ayl. Parerg. 14.

ABLEGATI, diplomacy. Papal

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