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a great misdemeanor, if not a felony, 1 Hale P. C. 568; 2 East P. C. 1027; 2 Russ. 487. 3d. The burning must have been both malicious and wilful.
The offence of arson at common law does not extend further than the burning of the house of another. By statute this crime is greatly enlarged in some of the states, as in Pennsylvania, where it is extended to the burning of any barn, or out-house having hay or grain therein; any barrack, rack or stack of hay, grain or bark; any public buildings, church or meeting-house, college, school or library. Act 23 April, 1829; 2 Russell on Crimes, 486; 1 Hawk. P. C. c. 39; 4 Bl. Com. 220; 2 East, P. C. c. 21, s. 1, p. 1015; 16 John. R. 203; 16 Mass. 105; as to the extension of the offence by the laws of the United States, see stat. 1825, c. 276, 3 Story's L. U. S. 1999.
ARSURA. The trial of money by fire after it was coined. This word is obsolete.
ART. The power of doing something not taught by nature or instinct; Johnson. Eunomus defines art to be, a collection of certain rules for doing any thing in a set form. Dial. 2, p. 74. The arts are divided into mechanical and liberal arts. The mechanical arts are those which require more bodily than mental labour; they are usually called trades, and those who pursue them are called artisans or mechanics. The liberal are those which have for the sole or principal object, works of the mind, and those who are engaged in them are called artists; Pard. Dr. Com. n. 35. The act of congress of July, 4, 1836 s. 6, in describing the subjects of patents, uses the term art. The sense of this word in its usual acceptation is perhaps too comprehensive. The thing to be patented is not a mere elementary principle,
or intellectual discovery, but a principle put in practice, and applied to some art, machine, manufacture or composition of matter. 4 Mason, 1.
ART AND PART, in the Scotch law, is where one is accessory to a crime committed by another; a person may be guilty, art and part, either by giving advice or counsel to commit the crime; or, 2, by giving warrant or mandate to commit it; or, 3, by actually assisting the crime. nal in the execution.
In the more atrocious crimes, it seems agreed, that the adviser is equally punishable with the criminal; and that in the slighter offences, the circumstances arising from the adviser's lesser age, the jocular or careless manner of giving the advice, &c, may be received as pleas for softening the punishment.
One who gives a mandate to commit a crime, as he is the first spring of the action, seems more guilty than the person employed as the instrument in executing it.
Assistance may be given to the committer of a crime, not only in the actual execution, but previous to it, by furnishing him, with a criminal intent, with poison, arms, or other means of perpetrating it. That sort of assistance which is not given till after the criminal act, and which is commonly called abetting, though it be itself criminal, does not infer art and part of the principal crime. Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. 4, 4, 4; Mack. Cr. Treat. tit. Art and Part.
ARTICLES, chart, practice. An instrument in writing, filed by a party to a proceeding in chancery, containing reasons why a witness in the cause should be discredited. As to the matter which ought to be contained in these articles Lord Eldon gave some general directions in the case of Carlos v. Brook, 10 Ves. 49. "The court," says he," attending with great caution to an application to permit any witness to be examined after publication, has held, where the proposition was to examine a witness to credit, that the examination is either to be confined to general credit; that is, by producing witnesses to swear, that the person is not to be believed upon his oath; or, if you find him swearing to a matter, not to issue in the cause, (and therefore not thought material to the merits,) in that case, as the witness is not produced to vary the case in evidence by testimony that relates to matters in issue, but is to speak only to the truth or want of veracity, with which a witness had spoken to a fact, not in issue, there is no danger in permitting him to state that such fact, not put in issue, is false; and, for the purpose of discrediting a witness, the court has not considered itself at liberty to sanction such a proceeding as an examination, to destroy the credit of another witness, who had deposed only to points put in issue. In Purcell v. M'Namara it was agreed that after publication it was competent to examine any witness to the point, whether he would believe that man upon his oath. It is not competent even at law to ask the ground of that opinion; but the general question only is permitted. In Purcell v. M'Namara the witness went into the history of his whole life; and as to his solvency, &c. It was not at all put in issue whether he had been insolvent, or had compounded with his creditors; but, having sworn the contrary, they proved by witnesses, that he, who had sworn to a matter not in issue, had sworn falsely in that fact; and that he had been insolvent and had compounded with^ his creditors; and it would be lamentable, if the court could not find means of getting at it; for he could not be indicted for perjury, though swearing falsely; the fact not being material. The rule is, in general cases the cause is heard upon evi
dence given before publication; but that you may examine after publication, provided you examine to credit only, and do not go to matters in issue in the cause, or in contradiction of them, under pretence of examining to credit only. Those depositions," he continued, " appear to me material to what is in issue in the cause; and therefore must be suppressed." See a form of articles in Gresl. Eq. Ev. 140, 141; and also 8 Ves. 327; 9 Ves. 145; 1 S. & S. 469.
ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT, in contracts, relate either to real or personal estate, or to both. An article is a memorandum or minute of an agreement, reduced to writingto make some future disposition or modification of property; and such an instrument will create a trust or equitable estate, of which a specific performance will be decreed in chancery. Cruise on Real Pr. tit. 32, c. 1, s. 31. And see lb. tit. 12, c. 1.
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION. The compact which was made by the original thirteen states of the United States of America, bore the name of the " Articles of Confederation and perpetual union between the states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia." It was adopted and went into force on the first day of March, 1781, and remained as the supreme law until the first 'Wednesday of March, 1789; 5Wheat. R. 420. The following analysis of this celebrated instrument is copied from Judge Story's Commentaries on the constitution of the United States, Book 2, c. 3.
"In pursuanceof the design already announced, it is now proposed to give an analysis of the articles of confederation, or, as they are denominated in the instrument itself, the "Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union between the States," as they were finally adopted by the thirteen states in 1781.
"The style of the confederacy was, by the first article, declared to be, 'The United States of America.' The second article declared, that each state retained its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction and right, which was not by this confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled. The third article declared, that the states severally entered into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defence, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare; binding themselves to assist each other against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, on any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretence whatever. The fourth article declared, that the free inhabitants of each of the states (vagabonds and fugitives from justice excepted) should be entitled to all the privileges of free citizens in the several states; that the people of each state should have free ingress and regress to and from any other state, and should enjoy all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties and restrictions, as the inhabitants; that fugitives from justice should, upon demand of the executive of the state, from which they fled, be delivered up; and that full faith and credit should be given, in each of the states, to the records, acts, and judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates of every other state.
"Having thus provided for the security and intercourse of the states, the next article (5th) provided for the organization of a general Congress, declaring that delegates should be chosen in such manner, as the legisVol. i.—12.
lature of each state should direct; to meet in Congress on the first Monday in every year, with a power, reserved to each state, to recall any or all of the delegates, and to send others in their stead. No state was to be represented in Congress by less than two, nor more than seven members. No delegate was eligible for more than three, in any term of six years; and no delegate was capable of holding any office of emolument under the United States. Each state was to maintain its own delegates; and, in determining questions in Congress, was to have one vote. Freedom of speech and debate in Congress was not to be impeached or questioned in any other place; and the members were to be protected from arrest and imprisonment, during the time of their going to and from, and attendance on Congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the peace.
"By subsequent articles, Congress was invested with the sole and exclusive right and power of determining on peace and war, unless in case of an invasion of a state by enemies, or an imminent danger of an invasion by Indians; of sending and receiving ambassadors; entering into treaties and alliances, under certain limitations, as to treaties of commerce; of establishing rules for deciding all cases of captures on land and water, and for the division and appropriation of prizes taken by the land or naval forces, in the service of the United States; of granting letters of marque and reprisal in times of peace; of appointing courts for the trial of piracies and felonies committed on the high seas; and of establishing courts for receiving and finally determining appeals in all cases of captures.
"Congress was also invested with power to decide in the last resort, on appeal, all disputes and differences between two or more states concerning boundary, jurisdiction, or any other cause whatsoever; and the mode of exercising that authority was specially prescribed. And all controversies concerning the private right of soil, claimed under different grants of two or more states before the settlement of their jurisdiction, were to be finally determined in the same manner, upon the petition of either of the grantees. But no state was to be deprived of territory for the benefit of the United States.
"Congress was also invested with the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or that of the United States; of fixing the standard of weights and measures throughout the United States; of regulating the trade and managing all affairs with the Indians, not members of any of the states, provided, that the legislative right of any state within its own limits should not be infringed or violated; of establishing and regulating post-offices from one state to another, and exacting postage to defray the expenses; of appointing all officers of the land forces in the service of the United States, except regimental officers; of appointing all officers of the naval forces, and commissioning all officers whatsoever in the service of the United States; and of making rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces, and directing their operations.
"Congress was also invested with authority to appoint a committee of the states to sit in the recess of congress, and to consist of one delegate from each state, and other committees and civil officers, to manage the general affairs under their direction; to appoint one of their number to preside, but no person was to serve in the office of president more than one year in the term of three years; to ascertain the necessary sums for
the public service, and to appropriate the same for defraying the public expenses; to borrow money, and emit bills on credit of the United States; to build and equip a navy; to agree upon the number of land forces, and make requisitions upon each state for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in such state. The legislature of each state were to appoint the regimental officers, raise the men, and clothe, arm, and equip them at the expense of the United States.
"Congress was also invested with power to adjourn for any time not exceeding six months, and to any place within the United States; and provision was made for the publication of its journal, and for entering the yeas and nays thereon, when desired by any delegate.
"Such were the powers confided in congress. But even these were greatly restricted in their exercise; for it was expressly provided, that congress should never engage in a war; nor grant letters of marque or reprisal in time of peace; nor enter into any treaties or alliances; nor coin money, or regulate the value thereof; nor ascertain the sums or expenses necessary for the defence and welfare of the United States; nor emit bills; nor borrow money on the credit of the United States; nor appropriate money; nor agree upon the number of vessels of war to be built, or purchased; or the number of land or sea forces to be raised; nor appoint a commander in chief of the army or navy; unless nine states should assent to the same. And no question on any other point, except for adjourning from day to day, was to be determined, except by a vote of the majority of the states.
"The committee of the states or any nine of them, were authorized in the recess of congress to exercise such powers, as congress, with the assent of nine states, should think it expedient to vest them with, except such powers, for the exercise of which, by the articles of confederation, the assent of nine states was required, which could not be thus delegated.
"It was further provided, that all bills of credit, moneys borrowed, and debts contracted by or under the authority of congress before the confederation, should be a charge against the United States; that when land forces were raised by any state for the common defence, all officers of or under the rank of colonel should be appointed by the legislature of the state, or in such manner as the state should direct; and all vacancies should be filled up in the same manner; that all charges of war, and all other expenses for the common defence or general welfare, should be defrayed out of a common treasury, which should be supplied by the several states, in proportion to the value of the land within each state granted or surveyed, and the buildings and improvements thereon to be estimated according to the mode prescribed by congress; and the taxes for that proportion were to be laid and levied by the legislatures of the states within the time agreed upon by congress.
"Certain prohibitions were laid upon the exercise of powers by the respective states. No state, without the consent of the United States, could send an embassy to, or receive an embassy from, or enter into, any treaty with any king, prince or state; nor could any person holding any office under the United States, or any of them, accept any present, emolument, office or title, from any foreign king, prince or state; nor could congress itself grant any title of nobility. No two states could enter into any treaty, confederation, or alliance with each other, without the consent
of congress. No state could lay any imposts or duties, which might interfere with any proposed treaties. No vessels of war were to be kept up by any state in time of peace, except deemed necessary by Congress for its defence, or trade, nor any body of forces, except such, as should be deemed requisite by congress to garrison its forts, and necessary for its defence. But every state was required always to keep up a well regulated and disciplined militia, sufficiently armed and accoutred, and to be provided with suitable field-pieces, and tents, and arms, and ammunition, and camp equipage. No state could engage in war without the consent of congress, unless actually invaded by enemies, or in danger of invasion by the Indians. Nor could any state grant commissions to any ships of war, nor letters of marque and reprisal, except after a declararation of war by congress, unless such state were infested by pirates, and then subject to the determination "of congress. No state could prevent the removal of any property imported into any state to any other state, of which the owner was an inhabitant. And no imposition, duties, or restriction, could be laid by any state on the property of the United States or of either of them.
"There was also provision made for the admission of Canada into the union, and of other colonies with the assent of nine states. And it was finally declared, that every state should abide by the determinations of congress on all questions submitted to it by the confederation; that the articles should be inviolably observed by every state ; that the union should be perpetual; and that no alterations should be made in any of the articles, unless agreed to by congress, and confirmed by the legislatures of every state.
"Such is the substance of this