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V. SWITZERLAND.

1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT..

II. CANTONAL INSTITUTIONS or SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION.

803

805

VI DENMARK, NORWAY, SWEDEN.

1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT.....

II. INSTITUTIONS OF SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION.....

I. DENMARK.--IL. NORWAY.JIISWEDEN...

811

812

812

VII. RUSSIA.

I HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT.....

II. INSTITUTIONS AND STATISTICS OF SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION..

819

825

VII. GREECE AND TURKEY.

L HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT......

II. INSTITUTIONS AND STATISTICS or SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION..

J. GREECE.-II. TURKEY.......

835

835

837

IX. SPAIN AND PORTUGAL.

I. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT..

1. Institutions of the Church.

2. Arabic Culture........

3. Universities......

II. INSTITUTIONS AND STATISTIcs or SOPERIOR INSTRUCTION...

1. Spain.-II. PORTUGAL.

843

843

845

849

853

859

X. GREAT BRITAIN.

I. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT......

II. INSTITUTIONS OF SUPERIOR IŃSTRUCTION,,

I. ENGLAND.-II. SCOTLAND.—III. IRELAND..

867

871

871

XI. AMERICAN STATES.

I. HISTORICAL NOTICE.....

883

IL. INSTITUTIONS OR SUPERIOR AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION.........

885

I. UNITED STATES.-II. BRITISH DOMINION.—III. OTHER AMERICAN STATES.... 885

CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF UNIVERSITIES. 1100, Salerpo (confirmed).

1456, Greifswald. 1119, Bologna

1457, Freiburg 1139Oxford; University College 1249. 1460, Nantes. Pope Pius II. 1160, Modena.

1469, Offen ; transterred to Tyrnau, 1635 1180, Paris.

1469, Bourges.' 1196, Montpellier, confirmed, 1289. 1472, Ingoldstadt; tr. to Landshut, 1802. 1200, Ravenna.

1472, Siguenza. 1204, Vicenza.

1472, Treves, closed 1798. 1209, Palencia ; tr. 1237 to Salamanca. 1472, Bordeaux. Louis XI. of France. 1215, Arezzo,

1474, Saragossa. 1224, Naplos (reorganized 1234-1238). 1475, Copenbagen. 1225, Padna.

1476, Upsala. 1223, Vercelli.

1477, Tâbingen. Count Eberhard. 1223, Verrich.

1477, Mentz 1233, Toulouse, closed 1790.

1482, Parma. 1239, Salamanca. (See 1209, Paloncia.) 1482, Valencia (1492). 1240, Siena:

1494, Alcala of 'Henåses. 1248, Placenza.

1494, Aberdeen, King's College. 1245, Rome.

1499, Toledo. 1246, Angers, closed 1700.

1.502, Wittenberg, joined to Aalle in 1815. 1257, Cambridge (St. Peter's College). 1504, Seville, 1260, Camerino, reorganized in 1727. 1506, Frankfort on the Oder; joined to. 1260, Lyons, closed 1790.

Breslan in 1811. 1260, Trisisa.

1506, Aberdeen. 1264, Ferrara (1230). .

1512, St. Andrews (new college 1537). 71376, Reggio.

1527, Marburg. 1979, Coimbra (transferred to Lisbon in 1531, Santiago 1290, restored in 1300).

1533, Baeza. 1290, Macerata.

1538, Strasburg, new constitution 1872. 1290, Lisbon, closed 1307.

1539, Nimes. 1292, Gray. (transferred to Dole in 1423). 1544, Konigsberg. 1800, Lerida.

1548, Rheims. Henry II. of France. 1303, Avignon. Boniface VIII.

1549, Mestina. 1305, Orleans, closed 1790..

1549, Gandia.. 1318, Perugia

1549, Dillingen. 1832, Cahors. Pope Jean XXII.

1552, Orihuela. 1339, Grenoble; transferred to Valencia, 1452. 1552, Almagro. 1344, Palermo

1558, Jena. 1344, Pisa.

1564, Besançon, closed 1790. 1346, Valladolid

1565, Estella, 1348, Pragnie.

1570, Wilna. 1349, Perpignan, çlosed 1790.

1572, Saragossa. 1354, Huesca

1572, Douay, closed 1667. 136), Pavia. .

1572, Pont--Mousson, closed 1790. 1304, Cracow

1574, Urbiho. 1364, Anjou. Louis II. duke d'Anjou, 1575, Leyden. 1365, Vienna. Archduke Rudolph Iv. 1576, Helmstadt; dissolved 1809. 1365, Orange. Raymond V.

1576, Altorf; dissolved 1809 1868, Geneva.

1578, Evnisa, 1386, Heidelberg.

1580, (viodo. 1388, Cologne.

1580, Klausenburg. 1392, Erfurt.

1:81, Olmutz, closed 1853. 1400, Carovai..

1782, Edinbring. James VI. 1405, Turin.

1:382, Wurzburg. 1409, Leipsic. Pope Alexander V.

1585, Franeker, closed 1811. 1409, Aix. Pope Alexander V. 7

1586, Gratz. 1413, St. Andrews. Pope. Benedict XIII. 1390, Trinity College, Dublin. 1419, Rostock. (See Butzow, 1760.)

1592, Paderborn. 1423, Dole. . Joined to Besançon in1691. 1594, Zamosk, closed 1832. 1426, Louvain.

1596, Barcelona. 1431, Poitiers. Pope Eugene IV.

L1599, Parma. 1434, Messina

1600, Harderwįk, closed 1811. 1436, Caen. Henry IV. of England. - 1606, Cagliari (revived in 1764) 1438, Florence.

1607, Giessen. 1445, Catanja (1437, by Sicilian parliament 1614, Groningen. 1452 Valenco. (See 1339, Grenoble.) 1615, Paderborn. (See 1592.) 1452, Basle.

1618, Molsheim. 1454, Glasgow (1450).

1619, Stadthagen.

REEST

1621, Rinteln; dissolved in 1809.

1765, Kasan. 1623, Salzburg

1765, Milan. 1625, Mantua.

1765, Sassari (1558) 1632, Osnabruck.

1769, Nancy. Louis XV. of France. 1632, Dorpat.

1773, Genoa (school of law, medicine, 1513) 1685, Munster; transferred to Rome in 1818. / 1777, Pesth. 1635, Tyrnau. (See 1469, Offen.)

1778, Osma. 1636, Utrecht.

1781, Lemburg. 1636, Lioz.

1802, Landshut; tr. to Munich in 1826. 1638, Bamberg.

1803, Moscow. 1640, Abo; transferred to Helsingfors 1827. 1803, Wilna. 1654, Herborn.

1804, Karkov, 1655, Duisberg.

1905, Kasan. 1655, Durham,

180s, University of France. 1665, Kiel.

1209, Berlin 1666, Lund.

1811, Christiania. 1672, Innspruck.

1915, Bucharest. 1678, Modena (1222).

1816, Liege. 1680, Pamplona.

1816, Ghent. 1694, Halle. (See 1502, Wittenberg.)

1816, Warsaw. 1702, Breslau. (See : 506, Frankfort.) 1818, Bonn. 1710, Girona.

1819, St. Petersburg. 1717, Majoska.

1823, Corfu. (lonian Islands). 1717, Cassel, tr. to Marburg 1786.

1826, Munich. (See 1802, Landshut.) 1717, Toledo.

1927, Helsingfors, (Arbo in 1640). 1717, Cervera.

1832, Zurich 1720, Cagliari.

1833, Durham, 1837. 1722, Pan-en-Bearn. Louis XV.

1834, Berne. 1722, Dijon,

1834, Brussels. 1734, Fwda, closed 1814.

1836, University of London. 1734, Rennes.

1837, Athens, 1787, Gottingen.

1850, Queen's University, Ireland. 1742, Bairenth, tr. to Erlangen, 1793. 1865, Odessa. 1743, Erlangen.

1872, Strasburg 1760, Butzow; joined to Rostock 1789.

The above list contains the names of several institutions clothed with the privileges of a university (Studium Generale) which never attained a high or permanent reputation for superior instruction, and as little deserve the designation, as do the great mass of onr American colleges and universities, so-called in their charters, to be ranked among the bighest schools of national culture. Although many of the faculties of the present university organization of France are located at the seats of the old nniversities closed in 1790, the above list does not include all the places where, at least, these faculties are now located.

According to this list the different States of Europe, recognizing as such several now anited, established the university as follows:

1. Italy in the year 1100, (Solerno and Bologna). 2. France in the year 1180, (Paris). 4. England in the year 1201, (Oxford). 4. Spain in the year 1222, (Salamanca). 5. Portgal in the year 1279, (Coimbra). 6. Austria in the year 1848, (Prague). 7. Switzerland a the year 1368, (Geneva). 8. Germany in the year 1386, (Heidelberg). 9. Scotland in he year 1411, (Saint Andrews). 10. Belgium in the year 1425, (Louvain). 11. Hungary a the year 1465, (Buda), 12. Sweden in the year 1477, (Upsala). 13. Denmark in the ear 1479, (Copenhagen). 14. Poland in the year 1570, (Wilna). 15. Holland in the year 1575, (Leyden). 16. Ireland in the year 1591, (Trinity College, Dublin), 17. Finland in

ne year 1640, (Abo). 18. Russia in the year 1755, (Moscow). 19. Norway in the year 311, (Christiania). 20. Roumania in the year 1814, (Jassy.) 21. Greece in the year 1837, Athens).

A list of institutions of Superior Instruction in each county now in operation in each ountry, will be given further on.

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THE UNIVERSITY OF BOOKS, AFFAIRS, AND LIVING TEACHERS.

THE UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS.*

WHAT IS A UNIVERSITY? If I were asked to describe, as briefly and popularly as I could, what a University was, I should draw my answer from its ancient designation of a Studium Gener ale, or “ School of Universal Learning." This description implies the assemblage of strangers from all parts in one spot ;--from all parts; ela, how will you find professors and students for every department of knowledge ? and in one spot; else, how can there be any school at all? Accordingly, in its simple and rudimental form, it is a school of knowledge of every kind, consisting of teachers and learners from every quarter. Many things are requisite to complete and satisfy the idea embodied in this description ; but such as this a University seems to be in its essence, a place for the communication and circulation of thought, by means of personal intercourse, through a wide extent of country.

Mutual Education; the Press and Voice. Mutual education, in a large sense of the word, is one of the great and incessant occupations of human society, carried on partly with set purpose, and partly not. One generation forms another; and the existing generation is ever acting and reacting upon itself in the persons of its individual members. Now, in this process, books, I need scarcely say, that is, the litera scripta, are one special instrument. It is true; and emphatically so in this age. Considering the prodigious powers of the press, and how they are developed at this time in the never-intermitting issue of periodicals, tracts, pamphlets, works in series, and light literature, we must allow there never was a time which promised fairer for dispensing with every other means of information and instruction. What can we want more, you will say, for the intellectual education of the whole man, man, than so exuberant and diversified and persistent a promulgation of all kinds of knowledge? Why, you will ask, need we go up to knowledge, when knowledge comes down to us? The Sibyl wrote her prophecies upon the leaves of the forest, and wasted them; but here such careless profusion might be prudently indulged, for it can be afforded without loss, in consequence of the almost fabulous fe

* From Dr. Newman's Rise and Progress of Universities, first published in 1854, in success. ive numbers of the Dublin " Catholic University Gazette, and collected in a volume, 1856, under the title of Office and Work of Universities, and in 1872 issued with other treatises, under the title of Historical Sketches. By John Henry Newman, of the Oratory. London? Basil Montagu Pickering, 196 Plocadilly. 421 pages.

and for every

curdity of the instrument which these latter ages have invented. We have sermons in stones, and books in the running brooks; works larger and more comprehensive than those which have gained for ancients an immortality, issue forth every morning, and are projected onwards to the ends of the earth at the rate of hundreds of miles & day. Our seats are strewed, our pavements are powdered, with swarms of little tracts; and the very bricks of our city walls preach wisdom, by informing us where we can cheaply purchase it.

I allow all this, and much more; such certainly is our popular education, and its effects are remarkable. Nerertheless, after all, even in this age, whenever men are really serious about getting what, in the language of trade, is called “a good article," when they aim at something precise, something refined, something really luminous, something really large, something choice, they go to another market; they arail themselves, in some shape or other, of the rival method, the ancient method, of oral instruction, of present communication between man and man, of teachers instead of learning, of the personal influence of a master, and the humble initiation of a disciple, and, in consequence, of great centers of pilgrimage and throng, which such a method of education necessarily involves. This, I think, will be found to hold good in all those departments or aspects of society which possess an interest sufficient to bind men together, or to constitute what is called "a world.” It holds in the political world, and in the high world, and in the religious world; and it holds also in the literary and scientific world.

If the actions of men may be taken as any test of their convictions, then we have reason for saying this, viz. :-that the province and the inestimable benefit of the litera scripta is that of being a record of truth and an authority of appeal, and an instrument of teaching in the hands of a teacher; but that, if we wish to become exact and fully furnished in any branch of knowledge which is diversified and complicated, we must consult the living man and listen to his living voice. I am not bound to investigate the cause of this; and anything I may say will, I am conscious, be short of its full analysis ; perhaps we may suggest, that no books can get through the number of minute questions which it is possible to ask on any extended subject, or can hit upon the very difficulties which are severally felt by each reader in succession. Or again, that no book can convey the special spirit and delicate peculiarities of its subject with that rapidity and certainty which attend on the sympathy of mind with mind, through the eyes, the look, the accent, and the manner, in casual expressions thrown off at the moment, and the unstudied

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