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STATE STATISTICS OF 1872. Schools of all kinds. Number of Persons

School Area in Population Taxable

houses, Cost of Pub

Permanent

School
Miles,

lic Schools

ground,
Number.

Cost.
Can not Can not and 18. Schools. Fund.

and

in 1812.
read.
write.

equipnients.
50.722 996.992 $156,770,387 2 969 3,364 75,866 $976,351 349.771 383,012 342.976 2,500 $2,000,000 $500,000 $700.000
52,198 484.471 94,168,847 1.978 2,297

1.90) 500,000 400,000 600,000
182.981 560,247 269,644.068 1.548 2,444 85,507 2,946,308 24,877

1.400 3,000,000 2,000 000 2.000,000 4,750

1,600 2,800 000 3,000,000 1,503.617 2,120 125,015 64,787,223

330 300.000 200.000 2100,000 59.268 187.748 32,480.843 377 482

63,897 400 300,000 200,000
58.000 1,184,109

80,000
227,219,519 1,880 2.432 66,150 1,253,299 418,553

468.593
407,516 300 300,00

200,000

700.000
55,410 2.539,891 482.899,575 11.835 24,056 767,775 9.970,009 86,36 333,581 818,766 11.156 6,382,248 18.373.880 7.000,000

86,634 127.14 567,175 8,759 7,282,639 8,000,000
55,045 1.194.792

4.000.000 302.515,418 7,496 9.319

217,654 3,570,093 24,115 45,671 394,696 7,716 3.174,578 6,764.551 3,265,000 364.399 81,318 92.125,861 1.689 1,955 59,882 787,226 16.369

104.710 3.400 1,000,000) 2,845,226 1,700,950 37.680 1,321.011 407.544,294

6.346 245,139 2,538,429 249.567 332,176 454,539 5.068 2.500,000 500,000 1.000.000 41,346 726.915 254,371,830 592 1.902 60,171 1,199,1 84 257,184

226,114 600 1,340,000 500,000
35,000

800,000
626.915 204.253,781)
6,986 162.636 1.106 203 13,486 19,052

175,588 4,1100 317,902 2.644,264 1.112,373
11,124
780.894 423.834,918

3.287 107.384 1,998,215 114.100 135.499 244,454 1,500 1,000,000 2.000.000 1,200.000 7.800 1,457,351 1,417,127,376 5,7-26

2,112,419 17.559.71€ 1,184,059

3,594,( 86 56.451

272.242,917 5,595 9,559 266,627 2,550,018 34,613 53.127 358,530 5,500 2,700.000 6.234,797
83,531 439,706 84,135,332

4.000.000
2.479

2,886 107,266 1,011,769 12,747 24.413 142,665 2,700 2,831,000 1,700,000 4,000,000
47,156 827.922 177.288.892 1,564 1,728 43,451 780,339 291,718 313,310 278 999 3,450

1,000,000 200,000 500,000
65,350 1,721,295 566,129,909 6,750 9,028 370,337 4,340,805 146,771 222.411 577.-03 7,547 3,271,581 4,000,000 2,000,000
75,995 122.993 56.584,656 796
840 17.614 270,560 2,365 4,861

34.523 1,050 1,000,000 500.000 363.000
104,125 42.491 25,740,973 53

53 500,000 200,000 100,000 9,280 318,300 149,065,200 2,542 3,355 64,677 574.498

7,618 9.926 78,766 2,452 300,000 1,870,000 468.000
8.320 906.096 624,868,97) 1.8.33 3,889 129 800 2,982,250 37,057

262.862 2.597 1,556,860 500,000 2.003,000
47 000 4,382,759 1,964,001,185 13,020 28,918 862,022 15,936,783 163.501 239.27) 1,230.988 12.500 7.000.000 23,168.266 9,000,000
50.704 1,071,361 130.378.622 2.10) 2,692 64.958 635,892 339.789 397,690 359.930 1,398 1.632.000 200,000 400.000
39.964 2,665,
260 1,167,731,097 11.952

790.795 10,244,648 92,720 173.172 845.971 14,201 4.000.000 17,168, 196 5,293,221
95.274 90,923 31,798,510 637 426 32,593 248,092 2.609 4,427 29.400

600

1,000,000 100.000 150.000 46.000 3,521.951 1,243,367,852 14,872 19,522 811.863 9,628,119 131,728 222,356 1,076.040 16,000

18,689,624

8,345,1172 1,306 217,353 213,570,353 561 95] 32,596 565,012 15,416 21.921 55,775 720

250,000 1,000,000 465.263 34,000 705,606 183,913,337

750
1,103 38, 249 577,953 265,F92 290,379 233 915 700

200,000 500.000
45.600) 1.258,520 257,673,792 2,794 3,587 125 831 1,650,692 2901,549 364,697 429,592 2,000 2.400,000 500,000 800 000
274,356 818,579 149,734 792 548 706 23.076 414,840 189.423 221.703 2H4,851 500 2,267,971 J00.000 300.000
10,212 330.551 102,548.528 3.084 5,160) 32.913 707,292 15,185 17,706 89,831 3,000

1.265.387 526.000
38,348 1,225. 163 365,439,937 2,1124 2,697 61,019 1,155,585 390.913 445,843 396,812 3,695 1,595,069 387.672 993,318
23,000 442,014 140.538,273 2.445 2,88 104.949 698,061 48.802 81.490 150,844 2.303 250.000 2.527.744 600,000

53,924 1.054,670 333,447.568 4,943 7,955 344.014 2,600,310 35,031 55,44) 354,016 5,300 2,482,771 3.295 268 2,174 771 1,984,467 38,115,332 13,646,448,450 141,629 220,022 | 7,178,737 95,533,170 4,438,206 5,552,488 12,045,443 144,971 70,417,038 150,194,513 72,438,271

[graphic]

TABLE.— Population, Taxable Property, Schools, Illiteracy, &c.

States.

5,119

4,723

Alnbama........
Arkansas.........
California........
Connecticut. .....
Delaware......
Florida......
Georgia.
Illinois.
Indiana..
Iowa.....
KANSAS ....
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine.....
Maryland.
Massachusetts.
Michigan.....
Minnesota....
Mississippi.
Missouri...
Nebraska....
Nevada....
New Hampshire
New Jersey.
New York.......
North Carolina..
Ohio......
Oregon ..........
Pennsylvania..
Rhode Island.....
Sooth Carolina..
Tennessee..
TeXr9...
Vermont.
Virginis..
West Virginia...
Wisconsin...

NATIONAL CENSUS or 1870.

over 10 years of

No. of

Persons
Square

age, who
in
Property in

1870.
1870,

Public

between 5 Pupils. Teachers.

81.526 681,962 111.799

165,492 133,339

31,16
137,129

322.553,489
537.454

1,917
2,926 98,621 1,856,279 J9.680

29,616 138.262

375 510 19.577 212,712 19.350 23, 100

39.807

14,670 154,569 66,238

71,803

1,680,637
33,809

663.455,044
9,073 11,652 464,477 2.499,511

24.550

276,158

1,779

7,561 269,337 4.817,939 74.935

97,742

5,076
371,820

84 2,373 110,493

727 872 5,337

54 687

23,589

Total........

IOWA.

Iowa was organized as a territory in 1838 and admitted into the Union in 1846, with an area of 55,045 sq. m., and a population in 1850 of 192,214, wbich has increased to 1,191,792 in 1870, with taxable property valued at $302,515,418. The constitution of 1846 provides for the inviolability of the school and university funds, and the election by the people of a superintendent of pul lic instruction, to hold his office for three years, directs the General Assembly to encourage intellectual, scientific, moral, and agricultural improvements, and provide a system of common schools, by which a school shall be kept up and supported in each school district at least three months in every year. The amended constitution of 1857 goes into much detail, respecting the powers of a • Board of Education for the State of loua,' to which was given full power to legislate and make all needful rules and regulations in relation to common schools, and other educational institutions ailed from the school or university funds, subject to the revision and repcal of the General Assembly.' Power was reserved to the General Assembly to abolish or reorganize the Board of Education at any time after 1863, and provide for the educational interests of the State in such manner as shall seem to them best and proper. The action of the Board, instituted according to the provisions of this constitution, did not prove acceptable to the people, and in 1864 the school system was reorganized by the General Assembly.

By the act of 1863 and its subsequent amendments #1:e school authorities are: (1,) State Superintendent, elected by the people for two years; (2,) County Superintendents, one for each county, elected for two years; (3,) Township Board of Directors, made up of three or more sub-directors for each township, who have the management of the township school fond; and (4) Sub-director for each sub-district, for the local management of the school.

According to the report of 1871, there were 1,260 district townships, 344 independent districts (cities and villages), and 7,716 sub-districts, with 7,823 schools, of which 289 are graded, in which were 40 high schools; ont of 460,629 school population (between 5 and 21 years) 341,938 attended school during the year, under 14,070 different teachers, at an aggregate salary of $1,900,893, in 7,594 school houses, erected at a cost of $6,764,551, in which was school apparatus to the value of $104,359. In 1871, 7,500 teachers met in 76 teachers' institutes. According to the census of 1870 there were 24,115 persons over 10 could not read, and 45,671 (24,979 natives) could not write.

KANSAS.

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Kansas organized as a Territory in 1854, was after many tribulations, admitted as a State in 1859, with an area of 91,318 sq. m., and a population in 1860 of 107,206, which had increased in 1870 to 364,399, and a taxable property of $92,125,861. Total value of farms and live stock in 1870 was $126,992,538.

The constitution adopted in 1858, provides for a superintendent of public instruction for the State, and one for each county, and directs the legislature to encourage the promotion of intellectual, moral, scientific and agricultural improvement by establishing a uniform system of common schools, and schools of higher grade, embracing normal, preparatory, collegiate and university departments.' • The proceeds of lands donated by the United States or the State for the support of schools, and the 500,000 acres granted to the new State in 1841, and all estates of persons dying without heirs or will, and such per cent. as may be granted by Congress on the sale of lands in this State are made a perpetual school fund, which shall not be diminished, the interest of which with such other means as the legislature may furnish by tax or otherwise, shall be inviolably appropriated to the support of common schools.' vision shall be made by law for a State University for the promotion of literature and the arts and sciences, including a normal and agricultural department,' and ‘no religious sect or sects shall ever control any part of the common school or university funds of the State.'

Schools are organized on the basis of cities incorporated by general law), and of the congressional township distribution of territory. Each city by general law has a board of education somewhat differently constituted, but all with full powers to establish and maintain public schools according to its population, while each congressional township, embracing an area of six miles square, is constituted one school district. Each district is divided into sub-districts of any convenient size, by the county superintendent. Each sub-district elects a director, and all the directors of sub-districts constitute a school district board for the township, with power to levy taxes, locate, and erect school-houses, employ teachers for the schools of the township, and with power to erect a higher school for the older children of all the sub-districts.

The school authorities are: (1.) State Superintendent, elected for two years, with the usual powers; (2.) County Superintendents, one for each county, elected for two years, with power to divide the congressional townships into districts, examine (when associated

with two competent persons appointed by the County Commissioners, who together constitute a County Board of Examiners,) teachers, hold institutes, and generally adıninister the system for the county; (3,) Township Buards, composed of a director from each sub-district into which the township district is divided; (4,) District Boards, composed of the director, clerk, and treasurer; (5) City Boards of Education, charged with full powers of local management of public schools in the several incorporated cities.

According to the report of the superintendent for 1872 there were 3,419 sub-districts, containing 165,982 persons between the ages of 5 and 21 years. Of this number 106,663 were enrolled in the public schools, with an average daily attendance of 61,538 pupils under 3,835 different teachers (2,048 females), to whom was paid for their services $596,611, The entire expenditure on account of public schools in 1871 was $1,701,950, of which $217,810 was received from the State (interest from the permanent fund and taxes), $22,680 from county funds, $822,644 from district tax, and $431,382 from tuition and other sources. The total number of school-houses for 3,419 organized districts was 2,437, valued, with lots and apparatus, at $2,845,262. Beside the public schools there are two State Normal Schools (at Emporia and Leavenworth), with buildings erected at a cost of $140,000.

Out of section 16, and 36 in each township, and the 500,000 acres (total nearly 3,000,000 acres), only $759,095 has yet been converted into a permanent school fund. The university received 46,000 acres, out of which only $10,000 has yet been realized as a permanent fund. The grounds and improvements have cost $164,000, mainly contributed by the city of Lawrence. The Agricultural College receives $90,000 from Congressional grants, out of which $189,745 have been realized, leaving land unsold estimated at $180,797, or a total of $378,542. The State University was crippled at the start by the incorporation of two denominational institutions (Baker University and Washburne College), on which $200,000 have already been expended.

The census of 1870 returns a school attendance of 63,183, out of a school population (between the ages of 5 and 18) of 108,710, with 16,369 persons 10 years of age who could not read, and 24,550 who could not write. In the table of schools there were 1,663 public schools (1 normal, 4 high, 1 grammar, 118 graded, 1,539 ungraded), with 1,955 teachers ; 2 universities with 13 teachers (1 female), and 292 students ; 5 special schools (1 agricultural, 2 commercial, 1 blind, 1 deaf mutes), with 277 pupils,

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KENTUCKY.

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Kentncky was settled from Virginia, of which it was part antil 1791, when it was admitted as a State, with a population of 73,077, which in 1870 had increased to 1,321,011. In its educational and economical policy it followed the mother State-relying on colleges, academies, and private tutors for families who could pay, and making no general provision for common schools until 1821, when a Literary Fund was established out of one-half of the clear profits of the Bank of the Commonwealth.

From 1783 to 1798, upward of thirty academies and seminaries, including Transylvania Seminary, were incorporated, and in the year last named, a general law appropriating all vacant and unappropriated land in a large section of the State to the endowment of these higher institutions was passed, with a preamble setting forth that it is expedient for the public happiness that those persons whom nature hath endowed with genius and virtue should be rendered by liberal education worthy to receive and able to guard the sacred deposit of the rights and liberties of their fellow-citizens, and to aid and accelerate this most desirable purpose, by institutions for their education, is one of the first duties of every wise government.' By this and subsequent acts, creating at least one such seminary of liberal education in each county, 6,000 acres of public lands, and in 1820 all fines and forfeitures in the several counties, were appropriated to these institutions.

In 1821, in the act to create the Literary Fund, the county courts were instructed to lay off their respective counties into any number of school districts, not less than four, por more than sixteen, in each; and the tax commissioners were directed to take down in th«ir book of taxable property the number of all children in each school district as above established, and communicate the same to the county auditor. The clerks of the county courts and the auditors were instructed to communicate the boundaries of the districts and the number of children to a State Board, consisting of six commissioners, to enable them to digest a plan of schools of common education suited to the condition of the State.' This Board presented, in 1822, a report drawn up by Amos Kendall, at that time a teacher in Frankfort, and containing valuable letters from Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, James Madison, Robert Y. Hayne, and others, respecting common schools in their respective States. The plan was not adopted, and in its stead, in 1825, a system of private schools was established by incorporating any

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