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of House may send and Clerk of the House of Representatives, may send and receive through and receive by the mail free, all public documents printed by order of Congress; and mail public docu; the name of each Senator, Representative, Delegate, Secretary of the December after ex- Senate, and Clerk of the House shall be written thereon with the proper piration of term of designation of the office he holds, and the provisions of this section shall office. apply to each of the persons named herein until the first Monday of DeR. S., §§ 3896cember, following the expiration of their respective terms of office. 3913. 1874, ch. 456, § 13. 1875, ch. 128, § 3. 1875, March 3, ch. 128, § 3. 1877, March 3, ch. 103, § 7. 1877, Dec. 15, ch. 3, § 1.
Estimates for railway mail serv
[Par. 5.] That hereafter, in making his estimates for railway mail ice; how to be service, the Postmaster General shall separate the estimate for postalcar service from the general estimates; and in case any increase or diminution of service by postal cars shall be made by him, the reasons therefor shall be given in his annual report next succeeding such increase or diminution.
R. S., § 414.
increase of postal
And the proviso to the act entitled "An act to provide for a deficiency in the appropriation for transportation of mails by railroads for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth, eighteen hundred and seventy-nine", approved December twenty first, eighteen hundred and seventy eight, is hereby 10 (20 Stat. L., repealed:
[Par. 6.] That postal clerks, route agents, and mail route messengers required to wear shall not be required to wear uniform other than a cap or badge. no uniform except
R. S., § 3867.
Postal cards at [Par. 7.] And the Postmaster-General is hereby authorized to furnish two cents each for and issue to the public postal cards with postage stamps impressed upon foreign postal serv- them, for circulation in the mails exchanged with foreign countries unice to be provided. der the provisions of the Universal Postal Union Convention of June first, eighteen hundred and seventy eight, at a postage charge of two cents each, including the cost of their manufacture.
R. S., § 3916.
On what trains, SEC. 3. The Postmaster General shall, in all cases, decide upon what &c., mails shall be trains and in what manner the mails shall be conveyed. R. S., § 4000. How postal cars SEC. 4. That all cars or parts of cars used for the railway mail service shall be construct- shall be of such style, length, and character, and furnished in such manner, as shall be required by the Postmaster General, and shall be constructed, fitted up, maintained, heated, and lighted by and at the expense of the railroad companies.
R. S., § 4005.
SEC. 5. (Rep.) [That the Postmaster General shall deduct from the pay when railways pay of the railroad companies, for every failure to deliver a mail within fail to deliver mail its schedule time, not less than one half of the price of the trip, and where the trip is not performed, not less than the price of one trip, and not 1878, June 17, ch. exceeding, in either case, the price of three trips:
R. S., § 4002.
259, § 1, par. 4.
Repealed by 1880,
June 11, ch. 206.
Provided, however, That if the failure is caused by a connecting road, then only the connecting road shall be fined.
And where such failure is caused by unavoidable casualty, the Postmaster General, in his discretion, may remit the fine. And he may make deductions and impose fines for other delinquencies.]
SEC. 6. That the Postinaster General shall request all railroad comeral may require panies transporting the mails to furnish, under seal, such data relating certain data of to the operating, receipts and expenditures of such roads as may, in his railways. judgment be deemed necessary to enable him to ascertain the cost of R. S., § 4002. mail transportation and the proper compensation to be paid for the same; And he shall, in his annual report to Congress, make such recommendations, founded on the information obtained under this section, as shall, in his opinion, be just and equitable.
- to report to Congress.
R. S., § 414.
Classes of mail
R. S., § 3875.
SEC. 7. That mailable matter shall be divided into four classes:
Second, periodical publications;
Third, miscellaneous printed matter;
SEC. 8. Mailable matter of the first class shall embrace letters, postal FIRST-CLASS MATcards, and all matters wholly or partly in writing, except as hereinafter provided.
SEC. 9. That on mailable matter of the first class, except postal cards and drop letters, postage shall be prepaid at the rate of three cents for each half ounce or fraction thereof;
Postage on firstclass matter. R. S., § 3903.
Postal cards shall be transmitted through the mails at a postage charge on postal cards. of one cent each, including the cost of manufacture;
R. S., § 3916.
R. S., § 3904.
And drop letters shall be mailed at the rate of two cents per half-on drop letters. ounce or fraction thereof, including delivery at letter carrier offices, and one cent for each half ounce or fraction thereof where free delivery by carrier is not established.
The Postmaster General may, however, provide, by regulation, foron soldiers', sailtransmitting unpaid and duly certified letters of soldiers, sailors, and ors', &c.; when may not be premarines in the service of the United States to their destination, to be paid. paid on delivery.
SEC. 10. That mailable matter of the second class shall embrace all newspapers and other periodical publications which are issued at stated intervals, and as frequently as four times a year and are within the conditions named in section twelve and fourteen.
R. S., § 3902. SECOND - CLASS
R. S., § 3877.
- rates of postage
R. S., §§ 3872,
SEC. 11. Publications of the second class except as provided in section twenty five, when sent by the publisher thereof, and from the office of on. publication, including sample copies, or when sent from a news agency 3905. to actual subscribers thereto, or to other news agents, shall be entitled 1874, June 23, ch. to transmission through the mails at two cents a pound or a fraction 456, § 5. thereof, such postage to be prepaid, as now provided by law.
SEC. 12. That matter of the second class may be examined at the office of mailing, and if found to contain matter which is subject to a higher rate of postage, such matter shall be charged with postage at the rate to which the inclosed matter is subject:
Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to prohibit the insertion in periodicals of advertisements attached permanently to the same.
SEC. 13. That any person who shall submit, or cause to be submitted, penalty for false for transportation in the mails any false evidence to the postmaster rela- evidence concerning. tive to the character of his publication, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof in any court of competent jurisdiction, shall for every such offense be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred nor more than five hundred dollars.
SEC. 14. That the conditions upon which a publication shall be admitted to the second class are as follows:
First. It must regularly be issued at stated intervals, as frequently as four times a year, and bear a date of issue, and be numbered consecutively.
Second. It must be issued from a known office of publication. Third. It must be formed of printed paper sheets, without board, cloth, leather, or other substantial binding, such as distinguish printed books for preservation from periodical publications.
Fourth. It must be originated and published for the dissemination of information of a public character, or devoted to literature, the sciences, arts, or some special industry, and having a legitimate list of subscribers; Provided, however, That nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to admit to the second class rate regular publications designed primarily for advertising purposes, or for free circulation, or for circulation at nominal rates.
on what conditions publications admitted as.
16 Opin. Att'yGen., 303.
SEC. 15. That foreign newspapers and other periodicals of the same foreign periodigeneral character as those admitted to the second class in the United cals admitted as. States may, under the direction of the Postmaster General, on application of the publishers thereof or their agents, be transmitted through the mails at the same rates as if published in the United States.
to be mailed in violation of copyright law.
Supplements to publications may
Postage on. R. S., § 3878. 1876, July 12, ch. 179, § 15.
in foreign mails free of duty, except certain books.
Printed matter defined.
Nothing in this act shall be so construed as to allow the transmission through the mails of any publication which violates any copyright granted by the United States.
SEC. 16. That publishers of matter of the second class may without subjecting it to extra postage, fold within their regular issues a supplement; but in all cases the added matter must be germane to the publication which it supplements, that is to say, matter supplied in order to complete that to which it is added or supplemented, but omitted from the regular issue for want of space, time, or greater convenience, which supplement must in every case be issued with the publication.
SEC. 17. That mail matter of the third class shall embrace books, transient newspapers, and periodicals, circulars, and other matter wholly in print (not included in section twelve), proof sheets, corrected proof sheets, and manscript copy accompanying the same, and postage shall be paid at the rate of one cent for each two ounces or fractional part thereof, and shall fully be prepaid by postage stamps affixed to said matter.
Printed matter other than books received in the mails from foreign countries under the provisions of postal treaties or conventions shall be free of customs duty, and books which are admitted to the international mails exchanged under the provisions of the Universal Postal Union Convention may, when subject to customs duty, be delivered to addresses in the United States under such regulations for the collection of duties as may be agreed upon by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Postmaster General
SEC. 18. That the term "circular" is defined to be a printed letter, which, according to internal evidence, is being sent in identical terms to several persons. A circular shall not lose its character as such, when the date and the name of the addressed and of the sender shall be written therein, nor by the correction of mere typographical errors in writing. SEC. 19. That "printed matter" within the intendment of this act is defined to be the reproduction upon paper, by any process except that of handwriting, of any words, letters, characters, figures, or images, or of any combination thereof, not having the character of an actual and personal correspondence.
SEC. 20. That mailable matter of the fourth class shall embrace all matter not embraced in the first, second, or third class, which is not in its form or nature liable to destroy, deface, or otherwise damage the contents of the mail bag, or harm the person of any one engaged in the postal service, and is not above the weight provided by law, which is Package above hereby declared to be not exceeding four pounds for each package weight of four thereof, except in case of single books weighing in excess of that amount, pounds not to be and except for books and documents published or circulated by order of R. S., 3879, Congress, or official matter emanating from any of the departments of
sent, except, &c.
1876, July 12, ch. 186.
the government or from the Smithsonian Institution, or which is not declared non mailable under the provision of section thirty eight hundred and ninety three of the Revised Statutes as amended by the act of July twelfth, eighteen hundred and seventy six, or matter appertaining to lotteries, gift concerts, or fraudulent schemes or devices.
-rate of postage SEC. 21. That all matter of the fourth class shall be subject to examon fourth-class ination and to a postage charge at the rate of one cent an ounce or fraction thereof, to be prepaid by stamps affixed.
Proceedings in If any matter excluded from the mails by the preceding section of this case of non-maila- act, except that declared non mailable by section thirty eight hundred ble matter reach- and ninety three of the Revised Statutes as amended, shall, by inading office of delivvertence, reach the office of destination, the same shall be delivered in ery. accordance with its address:
Provided, That the party addressed shall furnish the name and address of the sender to the postmaster at the office of delivery, who shall immediately report the facts to the Postmaster General.
If the person addressed refuse to give the required information, the postmaster shall hold the package subject to the order of the Postmaster General.
All matter declared non mailable by section thirty eight hundred and Obscene ninety three of the Revised Statutes as amended, which shall reach the in mail, &c., not office of delivery, shall be held by the postmaster at the said office sub. to be delivered. ject to the order of the Postmaster General.
R. S., § 3893. 1876, July 12, ch. 183.
What may be written on second.
class mail-matter. R. S., §§ 3886,
1876, July 12, ch. 179, § 15.
SEC. 22. That mailable matter of the second class shall contain no writing, print, mark, or sign thereon or therein in addition to the original print, except as herein provided, to wit, the name and address of the person to whom the matter shall be sent, and index figures of subscription book, either written or printed, the printed title of the publi- 3887. cation, the printed name and address of the publisher or sender of the same, and written or printed words or figures or both, indicating the date on which the subscription to such matter will end. Upon matter of the third class, or upon the wrapper inclosing the -on third class. same, the sender may write his own name or address thereon, with the word "from" above and preceding the same, and in either case may make simple marks intended to designate a word or passage of the text to which it is desired to call attention.
There may be placed upon the cover or blank leaves of any book or of any printed matter of the third class a simple manuscript dedication or inscription that does not partake of the nature of a personal correspondence.
Upon any package of matter of the fourth class the sender may write or print his own name and address, preceded by the word "from", and there may also be written or printed the number and names of the articles inclosed;
And the sender thereof may write or print upon or attach to any such articles by tag or label a mark, number, name, or letter for purpose of identification.
-on fourth class.
and sender liable to penalty.
SEC. 23. That matter of the second, third, or fourth class containing When other any writing or printing other than indicated in the preceding section, or writing thereon or inclosed, letter made in the manner other than therein indicated, shall not be delivered postage to be except upon the payment of postage for matter of the first class, deduct- charged. ing therefrom any amount which may have been prepaid by stamps affixed to such matter; and any person who shall conceal or inclose any matter of a higher class in that of a lower class, and deposit, or cause the same to be deposited, for conveyance by mail, at a less rate than would be charged for both such higher and lower class matter, shall, for every such offense, be liable to a penalty of ten dollars: Provided, however That nothing herein contained shall be so construed publishers may inclose bills and as to prevent publishers of the second class and news agents from inreceipts. closing, in their publications, bills, receipts and orders for subscription thereto; but such bills, receipts, and orders shall be in such form as to convey no other information than the name, location, and subscription price of the publication or publications to which they refer.
SEC. 24. That the Postmaster General may prescribe, by regulation, the manner of wrapping and securing for the mails all packages of matter not charged with first class postage, so that the contents of such packages may be easily examined; and no package the contents of which cannot be easily examined shall pass in the mails, or be delivered at a less rate than for matter of the first class.
Regulations for wrapping second
county of publica
SEC. 25. That publications of the second class, one copy to each actual subscriber residing in the county where the same are printed, in whole to subscribers in or in part, and published, shall go free through the mails; but the same tion. shall not be delivered at letter carrier offices, or distributed by carriers, unless postage is paid thereon at the rate prescribed in section thirteen of this act:
Provided, That the rate of postage on newspapers, excepting weeklies, when deposited and periodicals not exceeding two ounces in weight, when the same are offices for delivery deposited in a letter carrier office for delivery by its carriers, shall be to pay postage, exuniform at one cent each;
Periodicals weighing more than two ounces shall be subject, when
delivered by such carriers, to a postage of two cents each, and these rates shall be prepaid by stamps affixed.
Post-paid letters SEC. 26. That all mail-matter of the first class upon which one full to be delivered on rate of postage has been prepaid shall be forwarded to its destination, ciency by special charged with the unpaid rate, to be collected on delivery;
payment of defi
R. S., § 3898.
postmasters on spe-
Regulations may be made for freedelivery offices.
Penalty for failing to account for postage, or to cancel stamps, &c., hy officials.
But postmasters, before delivering the same, or any article of mailmatter upon which prepayment in full has not been made, shall affix, or cause to be affixed, and canceled, as ordinary stamps are canceled, one or more stamps equivalent in value to the amount of postage due on such article of mail-matter, which stamps shall be of such special design and denomination as the Postmaster-General may prescribe, and which shall in no case be sold by any postmaster nor received by him in prepayment of postage.
That in lieu of the commission now allowed to postmasters at offices of the fourth class upon the amount of unpaid letter-postage collected, such postmasters shall receive a commission upon the amount of such special stamps so canceled, the same as now allowed upon postage stamps, stamped envelopes postal cards, and newspaper and periodical stamps canceled as postages on matter actually mailed at their offices: Provided, The Postmaster General may, in his discretion, prescribe instead such regulation therefor at the offices where free delivery is established as, in his judgment, the good of the service may require. SEC. 27. That any postmaster or other person engaged in the postal service who shall collect, and fail to account for, the postage due upon any article of mail-matter which he may deliver, without having previously affixed and canceled such special stamps, as herein before provided, or who shall fail to affix such stamp, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, on conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine of fifty dollars.
for washing, SEC. 28. That any person who shall use, or attempt to use, in payselling, using, &c., ment of postage, any canceled postage-stamp or postage-stamps, whether canceled stamps, the same have been before used or not, or who shall by any means restamped envelmove, or attempt to remove, or assist in removing, marks from any postopes, &c. R. S., § 3922- age-stamp or postage-stamps, with intent to use the same in payment of postage, or who knowingly shall have in bis possession any postagestamp or postage-stamps canceled, with intent to use the same, or from which such cancellation-marks have been removed, or who shall sell or offer to sell any such stamp or stamps or who shall use or attempt to use the same in payment of postage, or who shall remove the superscription from any stamped envelope or postal card that has once been used in the payment of postage, with intent to again use the same for a like purpose, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall, conviction thereof, be punished by imprisonment for not less than six months nor more than one year, or by a fine of not less than one hun dred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars for each offense, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court. Letters, &c., on SEC. 29. The provisions of the fifth and sixth sections of the act en official business titled "An act establishing post-routes, and for other purposes", apmay be sent free of proved March third, eighteen hundred and seventy-seven, for the transpostage by all officers of government mission of official mail-matter, be, and they are hereby, extended to all and of Smithsonian officers of the United States Government, and made applicable to all Institution in offi- official mail-matter transmitted between any of the officers of the United cial envelopes. States, or between any such officer and either of the executive departments or officers of the government, the envelopes of such matter in 16 Opin. Att'y- all cases to bear appropriate indorsements containing the proper desigGen., 455. nation of the office from which the same is transmitted, with a statement of the penalty for their misuse.
1877, March 3, ch. 103, §§ 5, 6.
- except by pen
And the provisions of said fifth and sixth sections are hereby likewise extended and made applicable to all official mail-matter sent from the Smithsonian Institution:
Provided, That this act shall not extend or apply to pension-agents sion agents and or other officers who receive a fixed allowance as compensation for their some other officers. services, including expenses for postage.