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happen that any of the persons whose names are here enumerated (unknown to me) should now be dead, or should die before me, that in either of these cases, the heir of such deceased person shall, notwithstanding, derive all the benefits of the bequest in the same manner as if he or she was actually living at the time. And, by way of advice, I recommend it to my executors not to be precipitate in disposing of the landed property (herein directed to be sold), if from temporary causes the sale thereof should be dull; experience having fully evinced, that the price of land, especially above the falls of the river and on the western waters, has been progressively rising, and cannot be long checked in its increasing value. And I particularly recommend it to such of the regatees (under this clause of my will), as can make it convenient, to take each a share of my stock in the Potomac Company in preference to the amount of what it might sell for ; being thoroughly convinced myself that no uses to which the money can be applied, will be so productive as the tolls arising from this navigation when in full operation (and thus, from the nature of things, it must be, ere long), and more especially if that of the Shenandoah is added thereto.

The family vault at Mount Vernon requiring repairs, and being improperly situated besides, I desire that a new one of brick, and upon a larger scale, may be built at the foot of what is commonly called the Vineyard Enclosure, on the ground which is marked out; in which my remains, with those of my deceased relations (now in the old vault), and such others of my family as may choose to be entombed there, may be deposited. And it is my express desire, that my corpse may be interred in a private manner, without parade or funeral oration.

LASTLY, I constitute and appoint my dearly beloved wife, Martha Washington, my nephews, William Augustine Washington, Bushrod Washington, George Steptoe Washington, Samuel Washington, and Lawrence Lewis, and my ward, George Washington Parke Custis (when he shall have arrived at the age of twenty-one years), executrix and executors of this my will and testament ; in the construction of which it will be readily perceived, that no professional character has been consulted, or has had any agency in the draft ; and that, although it has occupied many of my leisure hours to digest, and to throw it into its present form, it may, notwithstanding, appear crude and incorrect; but, having endeavoured to be plain and explicit in all the devises, even at the expense of prolixity, perhaps of tautology, I hope and trust that no disputes will arise concerning them. But if, contrary to expectation, the case should be otherwise, from the want of legal expressions, or the usual technical terms, or because too much or too little has been said on any of the devises to be consonant with law, my will and direction expressly is, that all disputes (if unhappily any should

arise) shall be decided by three impartial and intelligent men, known for their probity and good understanding, two to be chosen by the disputants, each having the choice of one, and the third by those two; which three men, thus chosen, shall, unfettered by law or legal constructions, declare their sense of the testator's intention; and such decision is, to all intents and purposes, to be as binding on the parties as if it had been given in the Supreme Court of the United States. In witness of all and of each of the things herein contained, I have set my

hand and seal, this ninth day of July, in the year one thousand seven hundred and ninety, and of the Independence of the United States the twenty-fourth.


1 It appears that the testator omitted the word “nine."

(1707 )



of Vice - President beneath his

talents, 1510; charged with advo-
ABERCROMBIE, General, appointed to cating monarchy, 1511; re-elected,

the general command in America, 1542; remarks on Washington's
187 ; encamps at Lake George, 191; speech about Genet, 1576; writes
failure of his rash assault, 193; to his wife about affairs in France,
superseded, 205.

1580 ; conversation with Washing-
Abraham, the Heights of, scaled by ton, 1581 ; declared President,
Wolfe, 213.

1631 ; present at a farewell dinner
Ackland, Lady Harriet, joins her given by Washington, 1632 ; takes

wounded husband in Burgoyne's the oath of office, speaks highly of
camp, 869; intrepidity of, 876; Washington in his Inaugural Ad-
distress of, 899; her heroism, 898; dress, 1633 ; issues a proclamation
her reception in the American camp, for a special session of Congress,
899; married to Mr. Brudenell, 1641; appoints three envoys ex-

traordinary to the French Republic,
Major, wounded, 797 ; again 1643 ; perplexed by the belligerent
wounded and taken prisoner, 893; duties devolving on him, writes to
killed in a duel, 908.

Washington, 1646 ; who replies,
Adams, a waggoner, killed, 157.

1647 ; states his reasons for the
John, on the first opposition nomination of Washington, 1647;
to the arbitrary claims of Great his reply to the letter of the Senate
Britain, 233; his conduct at town on the death of Washington, 1692.
meetings, 277; speech at the meet- Adams, Mrs, letter from her husband,
ing of the first Congress, 279 ; 281 ; letter to her husband in praise
letter to his wife, 281; opposes the of Washington, 348 ; her account
petition to the King, 314; extracts of his military compeer, General
from his diary, 317; letter from Lee, 349 ; account of an evening
his wife in praise of Washington, party at General Miffin's, 435; her
348; her account of General Lee, patriotic feelings, 477 ; present at a
349 ; letter to General Thomas, farewell dinner given by Washing-
422; account of a dinner party at ton, 1632.
General Mifflin's, 435 ; a member of - Samuel, presides at town
the Board of War and Ordnance, meeting, 277 ; speech at the meet-
505; speech at the Declaration of ing of the first Congress, 280
Independence, 528; member of a receives information of General
Committee, 590; Vice-President, Gage's movements from Dr. Joseph
1140; his opinions on ceremonial Warren, 301 ; irresolution of, 316;
matters, 1451 ; considers the post excepted from the proffered amnesty,
322; as Lieutenant-Governor of American Colonies, their treatment by
Massachusetts, receives Washington England, 231; debate on the right
at Cambridge, 1473.

of taxing, 234 ; Acts of Parliament
Adams, Sir Thomas, a British naval for levying taxes in, 242 ; armed
officer, 227.

vessels fitted out by the Congress to
Adet, Mr., succeeds Mr. Fauchet as defend the coasts of the, 403; Burke

minister from the French Republic on the state of affairs in the, 717.
to the United States, 1602; pre-

independence, declaration
sents the colours of France to

of, 528.
Washington, 1618, 1630.

Ames, Fisher, on the Congress, 1463 ;
Agnew, Brigadier-General, killed at opposed to Colonel Parker of Vir-
Germantown, 915.

ginia, 1581; remark upon the pub-
Agriculture, love of Washington for, lication of the Farewell Address,

Aix-la-Chapelle, treaty of, does not Amesbury, a British spy, seized, 772.

settle the boundaries in America, 33. Amherst, Major-General, expedition
Alarm-signals, for the Jerseys, 1051. under, 188 ; popularity of, 205;
Albany, panic at, on the approach of captures Ticonderoga, 207; re-
Burgoyne, 797.

pairs the works, ib. ; his orders to
Alexandria, grand council of war at, General Murray, 217; his expedi-

112; Washington's bequest to the tion against Montreal, which capi-
town, 1696.

tulates, 217.
Aliquippa, Queen, Washington's visit Anderson, Ephraim, his scheme against

to, 69; medal sent to her son, who the British ships at New York

received the name of Fairfax, 90. approved by Congress, 556; not
Allegany, River, crossed by Washing- carried out, 557.
ton on a raft, 68.

André, Major, pageant of the Mis-
Allen, Ensign, employed to drill the chianza got up by, 997; aide-de-
Virginians, 121.

camp to Sir Henry Clinton, 1153;
-, Ethan, and the “Green Moun-

correspondence with General Ar-
tain Boys,” 310; arrives at Ticonde- nold, 1153; his varied talents,
roga, 311; surprises and takes the

1156; his correspondence with Mrs.
fort, 312; rivalry between him and Arnold, ib.; his midnight confer-
Benedict Arnold, 373 ; his letter to ence with Arnold, 1159 ; uneasiness
the New York Congress, ib.; his of, 1160; his journey in disguise,
projects, 375; joins the army as a 1161 ; his capture, 1163; circum-
volunteer, 381 ; his enthusiasm, stances attending it, 1165; his de-
394 ; taken prisoner, 395; his jection, 1166 ; his papers sent to
letter to the British General, 396 ; Washington, ib. ; his letter to
his conduct censured by Washing- Washington, 1167; his propensity
ton, 397 ; letter concerning, 426 ; for caricature, 1168; orders for
his devotion and misfortunes, 723; his security, 1174; his conduct as
exchanged for Colonel Campbell, a prisoner, 1177.; conveyed to Tap-
999; his retirement, 1000.

pan, 1180; writes to Sir H. Clin-
Levi, brother of Ethan, his ton, 1182 ; his proposed exchange
fraternal zeal, 428 ; letter from, ib. for Arnold, 1183; his talents and
Amboy, evacuation of, by the British, accomplishments, 1184; interces-

sion of Sir H. Clinton on his behalf,
Ambuscade, the, captures the Grange, 1185 ; his affecting appeal rejected,

a British vessel, 1558 ; defeats the 1187; review of his conduct, 1188;
Boston, 1570.

his execution, 1190; his remains

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disinterred and buried in Westmin- tiny, in the, 1109; its inefficient
ster Abbey, ib.; his captors re- state, 1287 ; goes into winter quar-
warded, 1191; sympathy for his ters, 1352; discontents in the, 1361,
fate, 1193.

1365; its junction with the French
Angel, Colonel, his brave defence of a army, 1363; memorial of its offi-
bridge at Springfield, 1128.

cers to Congress, 1365; anonymous
Annapolis, the seat of government of papers circulated in the, 1366; bold
Maryland, described, 227.

but dangerous appeal to, 1368;
Apportionment Bill, the, 1520 ; ob- letter of Washington on behalf of,

jections of Washington, 1521; a 1372 ; dismissed on furlough, 1377 ;
new bill substituted, to which he discharged from service, 1385 ; part-
consents, ib.

ing address of Washington to, 1385.
Arbuthnot, Admiral, enters Charles- Army, British, why styled Ministerial,

ton harbour, 1112 ; fleet under, 318; its movements before New
1077 ;

his approach to Charleston, York, 593 ; its composition, 779;
1114; his action with the French capitulation of the, under Bur-
fleet, 1281.

goyne, 904; indolence and luxury
Armstrong, Captain, bravery of, 1310. in the, 978; under Lord Cornwal-

Colonel John, destroys lis, surrenders to the Americans,

savages at Kittanning, 172; 1348; ceremonies on the capitula-
wounded, 173.

Major, 710; his atten- Arnold, Benedict, particulars relative
tions to General Mercer, 713.

to, 311; surprises and takes St.
Major-General, his testi- John's, 313; rivalry between him
mony to Washington's services, and Ethan Allen, 373; throws up

928; particulars respecting, 1374. his command, 377; his impatience,
Army, American, why styled the Con- 378; important command entrusted

tinental, 318 ; its constitution, 322, to, 389; fears for, 392; progress
353; discontents among its officers, of, 398; his difficulties in the wil-
357; arrangements at head-quar- derness, 415; eulogized by Wash-
ters, 358; its distribution, 362; ington, 420 ; his proceedings at
rigid discipline in the, ib.; scarcity Point Levi, 437; lands at Wolfe's
of gunpowder, 366 ; difficulties in Cove, 438; withdraws to Point aux
fitting it out, 423; disbanded, 445; Trembles, 440 ; wounded, 460; his
defeated at Quebec, 461; regula- gallantry, 462, 753 ; blockades
tions in, 505; its condition at Quebec, 497 ; his difficulties, ib.;
Crown Point, 542; secret discon- disastrous news received by, 507 ;
tents among the troops at, 545; flotilla under, 636; his gallantry,
loss of, at Long Island, 577 ; its 638; his brave resistance, 639;
distressed state at New York, 585; slight put upon, 749; his miracu-
desertions in, 588; arrangements of lous escape, 752; declines command
the, 619; its sad plight, 627, 947, on the Hudson, 765 ; appointed
1201; its perilous situation, 659; to command in Philadelphia, 768 ;
crosses the Delaware, 687 ; wants enterprise headed by, 834 ; his
of the, 735, 1227 ; reinforced, stratagem to relieve Fort Stanwix,
870; retreats to Perkiomen Creek, 843; his success, 844; army under,
914; scarcity in the camp, 977 ; 873; his impetuous attack on the
disciplined, 985; its retreat, 1013; British, 875; his dispute with Ge-
its winter cantonments, 1051 ; its neral Gates, 878; his indignant
sufferings, 1081; impressment of letter, 879; impatient for battle,
supplies for it, 1083, 1105; mu- 891 ; wounded, 894; in command

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