## The Psychology of Number and Its Applications to Methods of Teaching Arithmetic |

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Halaman 18

... and educational applications based upon it are necessarily mechanical and

formal ; they are generally but plausible abstractions , having little or no

application to the practical work of the classroom . The mind having been

considered ...

... and educational applications based upon it are necessarily mechanical and

formal ; they are generally but plausible abstractions , having little or no

**direct**application to the practical work of the classroom . The mind having been

considered ...

Halaman 21

... know this is to be able to

fruitfully , and to secure the best results , both in culture and discipline , that can

be had from the study of the subject . Application to Arithmetic . — In the following

pages ...

... know this is to be able to

**direct**the teaching of geography rationally andfruitfully , and to secure the best results , both in culture and discipline , that can

be had from the study of the subject . Application to Arithmetic . — In the following

pages ...

Halaman 28

In like manner all of us have become sufficiently familiar with numerical ideas to

know at a glance that a tree has a great many leaves , a chair a certain number of

parts , a cube a definite number of faces . Although this knowledge is now

In like manner all of us have become sufficiently familiar with numerical ideas to

know at a glance that a tree has a great many leaves , a chair a certain number of

parts , a cube a definite number of faces . Although this knowledge is now

**direct**... Halaman 40

There is , in reality , no measuring , no comparison , no selection , but simply

So an average child by the time he is six months old will reach out only for

objects ...

There is , in reality , no measuring , no comparison , no selection , but simply

**direct**response to the stimulus ; and there is , therefore , no sense of distance .So an average child by the time he is six months old will reach out only for

objects ...

Halaman 59

... merely as a set of symbols ; the other in treating it as a

. The former method , that of symbols , is illustrated in the old - fashioned ways—

not yet quite obsolete - of teaching addition , subtraction , etc. , as something to ...

... merely as a set of symbols ; the other in treating it as a

**direct**property of objects. The former method , that of symbols , is illustrated in the old - fashioned ways—

not yet quite obsolete - of teaching addition , subtraction , etc. , as something to ...

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abstract activity actual addition already amount applied arithmetic attention become begin carry cent child clear common complete conception conscious constructive cost counting decimal defined definite denotes digits direct divided division divisor dollar educational equal exact example exercises expressed factor facts feet figures five foot four fractions fundamental given gives groups hundred idea inches interest involved kind learned least less magnitude means meas measured quantity measuring unit mental method mind minor multiplicand multiplication nature necessary objects once operations original practice present primary principle problem psychological pupil rational reason recognition reference relation remainder repeated represents result root seen sense separate simply square stage subtraction taken teacher teaching tens things third tion true unit of measure unity ured vague whole yard