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The source of the Nippersink is found in this township, in Mud Lake, a small sheet of water on the line between Sections 14 and 15, the lake itself having three inlets, the longest being from the southwest. The Kishwaukee also has its origin here on Sections 23 and 26, and the Piskasaw on the west side by three of its branches.

BURTON, TOWNSHIP 46, RANGE 9. The first settlement in Burton was made on the Neversink Creek and English Prairie by Jacob and Samuel Jackson, Robert and Francis Richardson, Thomas and Richard Wray, and John Sanburn, in 1836 or '37, and they soon built a log school house on the creek, where William Stearns taught the first school of fifteen scholars. A church was soon after (in 1872) built by the Methodists, at Spring Grove. At that time, the membership did noť number more than ten, and the name of the first pastor was Bundock.

In 1845, Blivins, Stillson & Co. built a grist-mill, that is still in operation. The town has one cheese factory, that takes the milk of some two hundred

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In 1845, John E. Mann opened a store at Spring Grove, the only village and post office in the township.

Burton is the smallest township in the county, consisting of the west third of Range 9, and having but twelve sections. The reason for this appears to be that, at the time of the adoption of township organization, it was left to the qualified voters on the fraction, to say whether they would form part of Richmond, and the majority were for having a town of their own.

Small as it is, Burton has a creek of its own, crossing the south end in a diagonal direction toward the Fox River, and it will have a railroad when the C. & P., so long ago surveyed, shall be in running order.

CHEMUNG, TOWNSHIP 45, RANGE 5. Chemung was settled in 1836 by Geo. Trumbull, Marcus Wheeler and Wesley Diggins, following in 1839–9, Alonzo Riley and Wm. Hart making their claims about the same time.

Some time, from 1840 to 1845, Wm. Sewer built a saw-mill which finally became a flouring-mill also, and, in 1853, Mr. Myer built the stone mill in Chemung village, now owned by the Sandersons, in which was placed the running gear of the old Sewer mill. This mill is now running and doing a large business in the manufacture of buckwheat flour for the Chicago market.

Elections in this township were first held in the village of Lawrence, but the voting place was subsequently moved to Chemung and thence to Harvard. The first precinct was composed of Lawrence and Chemung, the voting being done at Jackman's.

This was in the palmy days of Jackson Democracy; and Whigs were not very numerous, but the five of them, including W. G. Billings, at present Collector of Internal Revenue; Hayden Hutchinson and C. R. Brown, just enough for a caucus, kept up the party organization till they finally carried the county.

The first church in this township was erected by the Presbyterians, at Chemung village, and the first school house was built in Dolp Hutchinson's district, on Section 24 ; the next, at Ayer's Corners, and the third at Lawrence. The old church was, in 1873, replaced by a new one, and the old meeting house moved down town two blocks, now doing duty as a tin shop.

David Baker, in 1845, owned a place of trade in the village of Chemung, and the old store is still one of its institutions, having changed hands several times. Ten years after Baker commenced business, S. L. Puffer opened the brick store, where he still continues.

Chemung Township is well watered by the Piskasaw and its three branches which, flowing in a southwest, south, and southeast direction, unite on Sections 32 and 33. The main stream, after turning the wheel of the Sanderson Mill, leaves the township a little west of the village. This township is traversed by two railroads, the C. & N. W. R. R. and the R. & K. Railroad.

The village of Lawrence is on Section 27, and was settled in 1855, the depot being built in 1856. Bixby & Conklin first offered goods for sale, but their monopoly was broken by the opening of three more stores, as all residents seemed to think that Lawrence, having a railroad, would take the wind out of the sails of Chemung and become the leading village in the township. G. F. Kasson and G. Blakeslee next began business, soon after which Mr. Kasson sold out to Mr. Blakeslee, who was subsequently burnt out.

The village was named after Lawrence Bixby, its first merchant; and Harvard, after Harvard, Mass.

In 1857, a steam flouring mill was set in operation, but shortly after the enterprise was abandoned.

VILLAGE OF HARVARD.

The land occupied by the city of Harvard was claimed by Wesley Diggins in the spring of 1838. After making some little improvement, he sold a portion of it to William Carmack, who disposed a part of his purchase to Asahel Brainard, and he sold to Amos Page and others, by whom, about the time the railroad was built, the town of Harvard was platted and named. Located in the southeast corner of Chemung, it secures, almost without a rival, the trade of Chemung, Alden, Dunham and Hartland, beside no small part of Boone County, and being a railroad junction also, there was a time when it was thought by her citizens that Harvard might eclipse the county seat.

Harvard is the junior town of Chemung, and, like many other juniors, it has absorbed the substance of the seniors till it almost rivals the county seat in

size, containing five dry goods stores, four groceries, one boot and shoe store, two mixed stores of clothing, boots and shoes, two drug stores, two hardware stores, eight saloons, two livery stables, two bakeries, three confectioneries, two clothing stores, two jewelry stores, two furniture stores, one photograph gallery, three hotels, one bank, five doctors, two lawyers, two harness shops, one flouring-mill, one planing-mill, sash and blind factory, three milliner shops, one dentist, one news depot, two barber shops, two malt houses, one cheese factory, four blacksmith shops, three wagon shops, one paint shop, one car-repair shop, three meat markets, one agricultural warehouse, three churches and a school house.

The first public house was that now known as Ayer's Hotel, first opened by its present proprietor in 1856. It is much the largest house of the kind in the county and its reputation is second to none in the Northwest. It is close to the railway track, and, as three trains each day stop there for dinner, there is no lack of boarders. This house has thirty commercial rooms and its dining room will seat one hundred and fifty persons at once.

The Walker House, a little farther up the street, is also a first-class hotel, having been in business but little less time than the former.

Harvard has several brick stores, but none large enough to be dignified with the name of block. The first was built in 1863, and is occupied by the bank of J. C. Crumb. Ayer's Hall was built in 1867; Tahey's in 1868; two in 1870, one in 1875, and one last year just finished.

The steam flouring mill was built by Mr. Wood, in 1865, and as it now exists has cost about $15,000. It has all the business that the owner could desire.

Her two malt houses were erected in 1873 by “ Ed.” Ayer, one having a capacity of 30,000, the other 60,000 bushels yearly. They are kept running the most of the time. To use up some of this malt, a brewery was opened last fall, in the northeast part of the town, with a capital of about $5,000; so Harvard can drink her own beer.

Another establishment of some note is the planing and wagon shop of N. E. Blake & Co., which was opened in 1868, the investment at this time amounting to about $15,000. The wagons made at this shop are well and widely known, especially the one called the Platform Spring Wagon.

Her first store dates no further back than 1857, it having been opened by Holden Julius in a building that stood on the lot now occupied by the bank, which was opened in 1868. The first school house was built in 1859, of brick, since which time additions of wood have been made till the building ranks next to its more pretentious rival at the county seat, containing as it does eight rooms, and having an enrollment of 450.

The great artery that nourishes Harvard is the C. & N. W. R. R., which has in this small town nine miles of side track, a round-house with stalls for

eighteen iron horses, and the various machinery necessary for a large repair shop. The round-house alone furnishes employment for forty hands, the blacksmith shop eight, and eight to ten in the wood repair line.

All trains or cars shipped from Minnesota or Baraboo to Milwaukee have to be made up here. In one month, last year, 9,918 cars were left here to be made up into trains. Some days, as many as thirty trains are received, and it is no uncommon sight to see thirty engines in town at one time. Harvard is the headquarters for all division men to Baraboo. About 125 railroad men work here constantly, the coal sheds alone employing 30 men; the engines consuming 1,500 tons a month, and the company pays out here about $8,000 a month ; no small item for the support of so small a town. The village was chartered in 1868. The first church was built by the Methodists in 1859, then followed the Presbyterians in 1867 or 1868, the Catholics in 1865, and the Congregationalists in 1870. Harvard has an Association, Y. M. C. A., of about sixty members, in a flourishing condition, but no public library, however. Mr. “Ed.” Ayer has a very fine private library of one thousand volumes. The town has a good hall fitted with stage, curtains and all the paraphernalia of a theater, and the Harvard Dramatic Club furnish amateur theatricals of a high order of merit.

CORAL, TOWNSHIP 43, RANGE 6.

This township was originally named Pleasant Grove, and the first settlers were John Hamilton, James Van Vliet, Richard Simpkins, Lowell Vasey and Wm. M Jackson, all of whom, and some more, came in 1835 and 1836. Very near the same time a settlement was made at Harmony, and when the county was surveyed and divided into townships, these early settlers found themselves in different towns.

The first school was opened in 1837 by Caroline Cobbs (afterward Mrs. Philander Spencer), but the school house was not put up till 1839, when Wm. M. Jackson was engaged as teacher, and greenbacks not having been invented, but rails being in good demand, it was agreed that he should teach four months, and to pay him for his services his employers were to split for him one thousand rails for each month's teaching. The school house was of logs 20x28, was built on Section 8, and stood till S. K. Bartholomew became a teacher, when, at the close of his term, it was torn down by the scholars in a frolic.

As usual in church building, the Methodists took the initiative, erecting one at Harmony costing about $2,000. The Congregationalists next built one at Union, and they were followed by the Universalists, who, in partnership with the Masonic Lodge of Union, put up the stone building now used by the Free Methodists below and the Masons above. Upon the erection of the stone school house at Union, in 1867, the frame building was used for a wagon shop till, a

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year or two since, it passed into the hands of the Adventists, who fitted it

up a place of worship, and hold meetings there occasionally.

The Galena & Chicago Union Railroad was built in 1854, entering Coral on Section 13, near the southeast corner, running in a diagonal direction and passing out near the northwest corner of Section 5.

The oldest village is Coral, but Union is the larger.
A nursery was planted at Coral quite early, but finally moved to Marengo.
The only public library is at Union, and consists of about two hundred vol-

It was raised and is kept in existence, without difficulty, by subscription.

Fillmore & Anderson opened the first store at Coral. This store was subsequently burned and not rebuilt. At present, Coral Post Office has one small store, and Union two very fair ones for so small a place.

In 1837, the first post office was established in charge of Mr. Jackson, it being the only one on the route between Chicago and Galena, and Mrs. Jackson opened the first mail that came to the county. It first came on horseback once a week, till the fall of that year, when a two-horse wagon became necessary, and, in 1838, the wagon gave way to a stylish coach.

The mail was not assorted as now, but thrown into a bag holding about two bushels. This was thrown from the coach and carried into the house, overhauled by emptying the contents and assorting, put back into the bag and returned to the coach in just eight minutes. The next post office was established at Garden Prairie, in 1812.

Coral is watered by a branch of the Kishwaukee and one or two smaller creeks have their origin in the south and west.

It has two cheese factories and creameries combined, one of which was erected in 1874, on Section 31, by D. E. Wood, and is operated by hiin, manufacturing, yearly, 300,000 pounds of cheese and 60,000 pounds of butter. Connected with this is a steam mill for grinding feed; one run of stone ; capacity, forty bushels an hour. The other is owned by a stock company, in Section 29, of which Sherman Bartholomew is agent, manufacturing 100,000 pounds of cheese and 20,000 pounds of butter annually.

DORR, TOWNSHIP 44, RANGE 7.

The first settlement in this township was that mentioned elsewhere, under the head of the “ Virginia Settlement," in 1835, out of which grew the village of Ridgefield, at which place the first Presbyterian church was built.

The town itself, aside from Woodstock, has not much of a history, containing, as it does, but one cheese factory and no other manufacturing establishment. This factory was built, in 1870, by a joint stock company, who operated it three years, when, meeting with losses, it was closed, and has not been re-opened.

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