World Maps for Finding the Direction and Distance of Mecca: Examples of Innovation and Tradition in Islamic Science
BRILL, 1 Jan 1999 - 638 halaman
Two remarkable Iranian world-maps were discovered in 1989 and 1995. Both are made of brass and date from 17th-century Iran. Mecca is at the centre and a highly sophisticated longitude and latitude grid enables the user to determine the direction and distance to Mecca for anywhere in the world between Andalusia and China. Prior to the discovery of these maps it was thought that such cartographic grids were conceived in Europe ca. 1910. This richly-illustrated book presents an overview of the ways in which Muslims over the centuries have determined the sacred direction towards Mecca ("qibla") and then describes the two world-maps in detail. The author shows that the geographical data derives from a 15th-century Central Asian source and that the mathematics underlying the grid was developed in 9th-century Baghdad.
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Aspects of Islamic science
The determination of the sacred direction in Islam
The main sources of Safavid mathematical geography
New discoveries Two Meccacentred worldmaps from Safavid Iran
The geographical data on the maps
The cartographic grids
The makers of the Safavid instruments
Traces of European influence on the instruments
B6 The gazetteers on three astrolabes by Muḥammad Khalil MKL 494
B7 Extracts from the geographical data of Muhammad Zamān MZM 501
с Localities and coordinates featured on the Safavid worldmaps A and B 552
The geographical table of alKhāzini KHZN 564
E Miscellaneous Iranian sources 586
F Miscellaneous Egyptian Syrian and Ottoman Turkish sources 600
G Indexes of placenames 623
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World-maps for Finding the Direction and Distance to Mecca: Innovation and ...
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