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No. 109.

[Comprises elementary and secondary schools. The indemnity plan is a subsidy program to expand markets for agricultural products, maintain outlets for government-owned commodities, and support school-lunch programs. Sponsors of school-lunch programs are reimbursed by the Federal Government for local purchases of food on a basis of quality and quantity of meals served]

STATE OR OTHER
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United States.

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SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM (Indemnity Plan)—Schools AND CHILDREN
PARTICIPATINGg, by States and Other Areas: 1959

Towa

Kans

Ky.

La.

Maine.

Md...

Mass

Mich.

Minn

Miss.
Mo...

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Data are for December 1958 and represent average number of children participating in program for that month. The number of schools and children may have been higher in some States during other months but December was the peak month in terms of children participating nationally.

Source: Latest data available from the Office of Education. Enrollment data for public schools are for fall 1958. Private school enrollment is for 1955-56.

Excludes participation of the Type C, or milk only, lunch authorized under National School Lunch Program. Beimbursement for this type has been discontinued in other States. • Less than 500.

Source: Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service.

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ESTONIA

CZECHOSLOVAKIA

ITALY

GERMANY

GREECE

HUNGARY

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FIG. VII. IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED: 1950 TO 1959 [See table 120]

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YUGOSLAVIA

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FIG. VIII. DISPLACED PERSONS ADMITTED, 1948-1955, AND REFUGEES
ADMITTED, 1954-1959, BY COUNTRY OF BIRTH

[See table 119]

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THOUSANDS 3000 40

50

1958 1959

60

THOUSANDS 350

70

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ZZA DISPLACED PERSONS

REFUGEES

Source of figs. VII and VIII: Charts prepared by Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Da are from Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization Service.

Section 3

Immigration, Emigration, and Naturalization

This section presents statistics related to immigration, emigration, naturalization, and alien registration. The principal source of these data is the Annual Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. Statistics of immigration and emigration are prepared from passenger and crew lists or manifests, and land border station registrations. Statistics for naturalizations are compiled from periodic reports by courts conducting such proceedings, and those for alien registrations are compilations of data from alien address report cards.

Although the reporting of alien arrivals was required in certain of the colonies and original States, the continuous record begins in 1819. Under the Act of March 2, 1819, passenger lists for all vessels arriving from foreign places were to be delivered to the local collector of customs, copies transmitted to the Secretary of State, and the information reported to Congress. Immigration statistics were compiled by the Department of State from 1820 to 1874 and by the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department from 1867 to 1895. Since 1892 there has been a separate office or bureau of immigration, now a part of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. Annual reports were issued by this bureau from 1892 to 1932. From 1933 to 1940, a summary of the work of the Immigration and Naturalization Service was given in the Annual Reports of the Secretary of Labor. For 1941, the Annual Report of the Attorney General contained a report on immigration and naturalization. For subsequent fiscal years, Annual Reports of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (submitted by the Commissioner to the Attorney General) were published independently.

Immigration.—Since 1820 the official immigration statistics (see table 111) have changed considerably in coverage. The early figures were for arrivals at Atlantic and Gulf coast seaports of the United States. Pacific coast arrivals were first reported in 1850. Aliens arriving at Canadian seaports en route to the United States were included after 1893. The reporting of arrivals over the land borders began in 1904 and was gradually extended up to 1908. For reporting purposes, Hawaii in 1901, Puerto Rico in 1902, and Alaska in 1904 were treated as integral parts of the United States. Travel between the Philippine Islands and the United States was not treated as immigration or emigration between July 1, 1898 and May 1, 1934. Prior to 1868 arriving alien passengers were recorded; thereafter aliens coming for temporary stay were omitted. The passage of the Act of 1891 increased the number of excludable classes. The basis of reporting was then changed from arrivals to admissions, omitting aliens not permitted to enter the United States, except for the period 1895 to 1897 when the reporting of arrivals was resumed. Two classes of alien admissions are now reported, immigrant under either quota or nonquota status, and nonimmigrant.

Immigrant. An immigrant is defined as an alien, other than a returning resident, admitted for permanent residence.

Quota immigrant. Quotas limit immigration from countries other than those of the Western Hemisphere. Until 1920 there was only a qualitative limitation on immigration into this country. The 1921 Act placed the first numerical ceiling upon immigration. Each country's quota was to be 3 percent of the number of people born in that country who were residing in the United States as reported by the 1910 Census of Population. In 1924, a new formula was enacted for computing a country's quota, based on 2 percent of the number of people born in that country who were residing in the United States as determined by the 1890 Census of Population. The 1924 Act also provided that beginning July 1, 1929, the quota of any country shall have the

same ratio to 150,000 as the number of persons of that national origin living in the United States had to the total population living in the United States, as determined from the 1920 Census of Population. This Act also established minimum quotas of 100 for all quota areas and thereby raised the total quota authorized to 153,714. By 1952, this figure had become 154,277 by virtue of minor changes. The most recent step in legislation was in the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, which simplified the national origins formula of the 1924 Act by basing the annual quota on a flat one-sixth of 1 percent of the population in the 1920 Census. By Presidential proclamation effective January 1, 1953, new quotas were established for each quota area, totaling 154,657. Quotas were further revised during 1957, 1958, and 1959 by Presidential proclamation, and the total now stands at 154,857.

Nonquota immigrant.-Nonquota immigrants comprise immigrants born in Canada, Mexico, Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, the Canal Zone, and countries of Central and South America, and their spouses and children under age 21 if accompanying or following to join such immigrants; spouses and children of citizens of the United States; ministers of religious denominations, their spouses and children, if accompanying or following to join such ministers; refugees; and others.

Nonim migrant.- Nonimmigrants are aliens who enter the United States for temporary periods or resident aliens returning from a temporary stay abroad. Included in the nonimmigrant class are foreign government officials, their families, attendants, servants and employees; temporary visitors for business or pleasure; aliens in continuous transit through the United States; returning resident aliens; students; and others. Certain temporary admissions such as of persons in possession of border-crossing identification cards are not included in the nonimmigrant totals.

Displaced persons and refugees.—The Displaced Persons Act of 1948, as amended, authorized the entry of certain displaced persons and other refugees without regard to the current availability of quotas, but subject to charges made against future annual quotas. The major provisions of the Displaced Persons Program expired in December 1951, and the program was nearly completed by June 30, 1952.

The Refugee Relief Act of 1953 authorized the issuance of 214,000 special nonquota visas until the end of 1956 to German, Italian, Greek, Far-Eastern, and other refugees and expellees from the Soviet and other Communist-dominated countries. An act passed September 11, 1957, further provided for the reallocation of 18,000 of these visas which were unused. The act of July 25, 1958, authorized the adjustment of status to that of permanent resid nts for Hungarian parolees after they had acquired 2 years residence in the United States. The act of September 2, 1958, authorized admission as nonquota immigrants of Azores victims of earthquakes and of Netherlands nationals displaced from Indonesia.

Alien registration.— The Immigration and Nationality Act provides that each alien required to be registered under the Alien Registration Act of 1940, who is in the United States on January 1, must report to the Attorney General his current address during the month of January. Alien address report cards are distributed through the Post Offices of the United States or the local offices of the Immigration and Naturalization Service.

Emigration.- No official record of alien departures was kept prior to July 1, 1907. For statistical purposes an emigrant is an alien departing from the United States after a stay of one year or more with the declared intention of remaining permanently in a foreign country. Emigrant data are available through June 30, 1957.

Naturalization.—Naturalization statistics for the United States began with the fiscal year 1907. Prior to this time each court kept records of naturalizations but no national data were compiled. The Act of June 29, 1906, effective September 27, 1906, provided for periodic returns by all courts conducting naturalization proceedings, and for the filing with a central Federal agency of a duplicate copy of each declaration of intention and petition for naturalization filed, and of each certificate of naturalization

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issued. Naturalization statistics were originally compiled by the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization of the Department of Commerce and Labor, now the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the Department of Justice.

Alaska and Hawaii.-For a general statement concerning the treatment of data for Alaska and Hawaii, see preface. "Conterminous area" refers to the United States excluding Alaska, Hawaii, and outlying areas.

Historical statistics.-Tabular headnotes (as "See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1957, series C 139") provide cross-references, where applicable, to Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1957. See preface.

No. 110. ANNUAL IMMIGRATION QUOTAS, BY COUNTRY, UNDER SUCCESSIVE IMMIGRATION LAWS AND AMENDMENTS: 1921 To 1959

Quotas as first proclaimed. See table 114 for quota immigrants admitted. For explanation of the various acts, see text, p. 89. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1957, series C 139]

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Quota was 153,774 from 1934 to Feb. 8, 1944, when quota of 105 Chinese, authorized by Act of Dec. 17, 1943, increased the maximum quota to 153,879. On July 4, 1946, quota for Philippine Islands was increased from 50 to 100, thereby raising total quota to 153,929. Quota was increased to 154,206 on July 27, 1949, by establishment of separate quotas of 100 each for Israel, Syria, and Lebanon, and abolishment of combined quota of 123 established for Syria and Lebanon. Quota was increased to 154,277 on Oct. 31, 1950, when quota for Italy was reduced to 5,677, quota for Yugoslavia was increased to 938, and a separate quota of 100 was established for Trieste. Quota of 154,657 established by this Act effective Jan. 1, 1953, was increased by 200 by Presidential proclamathin 1957 (100 each for Sudan, Tunisia, and Ghana, minus 100 for British Togoland now part of Ghana). In 1 gratas of 100 each for Egypt and Syria were abolished and quotas of 100 each for United Arab Republic and Federation of Malaya were established, the total thereby remaining at 154,857.

All Ireland included with Great Britain prior to 1925, thereafter, Northern Ireland only.
Includes Philippines.

Source: Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization Service; Annual Report.

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