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No. 337. VETERANS RECEIVING VOCATIONAL TRAINING AND EDUCATION: 1950 To

1959

[As of November 30. Includes data for all veterans, regardless of place of residence]

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

Vocational rehabilitation: 1
Entered training (cumula-
tive).
In training..

Institutions of higher
learning....

Schools below college level.
Institutional on-farm..
On-the-job....

Education and training: ?
Entered training (cumula-
tive).
In training..

Institutions of higher
learning...

STATUS

Schools below college level.
Institutional on-farm..
On-the-job... ..

Total, 1944 to 1959.

1951.

1952.

1953.

1954

1955

1956.

1957.

1958.

1959

YEAR

1951

1952

1953.

1954.

1955.

1956.

1957.

1958 ?

1959 2

1950

Number

567,388
110,906

YEAR

Total, 1944 to 1959.

28,652
18,866

37,976

25, 412

7,249, 524
1,759, 021

580, 597
731,831
292, 335
154, 258

5,735, 510 493, 494 339, 049 2, 790, 666 335, 977 3, 100, 827 419, 327 4,284, 078 657, 276 7, 185, 710 512, 722 5,888, 409 310, 414 3,774, 808 148, 154 1,874, 123 215, 122 2,796, 550 Source: Veterans Administration; records.

TOTAL

Amount
of
loans

629, 618
27, 493

9,720

8,624

3,920

5, 229

Loans repaid in full, number

8,608,807
708, 171

1,670, 376

87,647

109, 871

152, 500

153, 490

364, 645
241,359
44,743

57, 424

210, 330

213, 271

187, 607
158,027
216, 518

Amount of
guaranty
and in-
surance

1 Authorized under Public Law 16, 78th Congress, and Public Law 894, 81st Congress.
'Authorized under Public Law 346, 78th Congress, and Public Law 550, 82d Congress.
Source: Veterans Administration; Annual Report of Administrator of Veterans Affairs and records.

645, 247
25, 458

9,994

8,066

2,693

4,705

9,085, 996
784, 428

Number

50,791

3,604

2,478

2,478

2,417

450,880
235, 439
36,690
61, 419

Home

3,399

4,433

6, 049 7,428 10.596

No. 338. VETERANS GUARANTEED AND INSURED LOANS-NUMBER AND AMOUNT OF

LOANS CLOSED, BY TYPE OF LOAN: TOTAL AND 1951 To 1959 [Money figures in thousands of dollars. Includes data for all veterans, regardless of place of residence]

48, 168, 131 26, 009, 8845, 429, 607 47, 230, 846

3,713, 2282, 145, 144

1, 602, 699
1,788, 973
2,447, 102
4,031,376
3,247, 117
2, 030, 828

3, 614, 479
2,717, 919
3,060, 917
4, 256, 296
7, 154, 236
5,866, 004
3,757,970
1,863, 919
2,788, 113

979, 769
1,455, 689

Number

HOME

447,373 306, 466 322, 053 410, 746 649, 412 507, 500 306, 437 145, 874 213, 283

656, 623
19, 110

Percent of outstanding loans 1

8, 682

5,130

1,564

3,734

9, 511, 614
762, 497

0.186

0.108

0.098

0.089

0.113

0.130

474, 657
192, 763
38,006

57,071

0. 161

0. 191
0.274

Amount
of
loans

664, 650
16, 213

7,331

4, 462

Number

1,268

3, 152

2,279

370

224

171

148

9,800,023
703, 876

65

69

35

39

26

446,348
185, 783

31, 884

39, 861

FARM

Num-
ber

3, 630
1, 945
1, 451
1, 424
1,866
1,312
821
253
194

No. 339. VETERANS GUARANTEED AND INSURED

LOANS REPAID IN FULL, AND CLAIMS PAID BY VETERANS ADMINISTRATION: TOTAL AND 1951 To 1959 [As of June 25, or for years ending June 25, except as noted. Includes data for all veterans, regardless of place of residence]

CLAIMS PAID BY VA

Farm

671,560

13,367

5,645

4,410

910

2, 402

Percent of outstanding loans 1

10, 011, 239
588, 365

Amount
of
loans

0.962

0.630

0.536

0.515

380,271
165, 079

23, 545

19, 470

0.244

0.281 0. 160 0.205 0.155

Num-
ber

71,403 283, 170 234, 500 654, 116

16, 020
7,892
6, 264
6, 465

82, 729 64, 855 33,646 21,317 21, 669 15,787 13, 123 8, 60g 7.196

42, 491

30, 638
12, 473
7,157

BUSINESS

5, 998
3, 910

10, 110, 218 410, 369

9, 805
6,618
3,715 3,156
1,595 2,027
1,241 1,645

1959

677,041 10, 200

Number

14,961

825

638

958

1, 486

3,919 3,898 617 1,766

978

1,157

584

340

259

Business

271, 343

116, 165

13, 695

9, 166

1 Based on average number of loans outstanding during year.

2 As of June 30.

Source: Veterans Administration; Annual Report of Administrator of Veterans Affairs and records.

Amount of loans

Percent of outstanding loans 1

1.245 0.708

0.950

0.941

1.805

3.056

2. 204 1.876 1.867

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FIG. XVII. SOCIAL WELFARE EXPENDITURES UNDER SELECTED PUBLIC PROGRAMS: 1935 TO 1958

[See table 340]

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SOCIAL
INSURANCE

PUBLIC AID

1935 40 45 50 '55 '58

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1935 40 45 50 55 '58 1935 40 45 50 '55 '58 1935 40 45 50 55 58 1935 40 45 50 55 '58 Source: Chart prepared by Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Data from Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Social Security Administration.

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Section 10

Social Insurance and Welfare Services

This section presents data related to governmental programs for old-age, survivors, and disability insurance, public and railroad employee retirement, unemployment and temporary disability insurance, aid to the needy, and maternal, child, and other welfare services. Also included here are selected data concerning private pension plans and financial data relating to corporate pension funds, the American Red Cross, the Community Chest, and philanthropic trusts and foundations.

There are several principal sources for these data. The Social Security Bulletin, an official monthly publication of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, presents current data on many of these programs and summarizes annual data for them in a statistical supplement published each year. A large volume of statistics flows frorn employers' wage reports submitted under the Social Security Act and used in the accounting operations of the Bureau of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance. Information on workers and beneficiaries and on establishments, employment, and payrolls covered by this Act is published in detail in the Social Security Administration's Handbook of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Statistics. Establishment data showing employment and payrolls, by industry, for counties, are also available in the cooperative report of the Bureau of the Census and the Social Security Administration, County Business Patterns. Current data on employment security activities are published monthly in the Department of Labor's Labor Market and Employment Security and its supplements. Data on retirement and other benefits for railroad workers are published by the Railroad Retirement Board in its Monthly Review and Annual Report.

Social insurance under the Social Security Act.-Social insurance programs established by the Social Security Act provide protection against wage loss resulting from old age, prolonged disability, death, or unemployment. Under old-age, survivors, and disability insurance, protection against wage loss due to old age, disability, or death is available to nearly all the gainfully employed (excluding chiefly self-employed doctors of medicine and most civilian employees of the Federal Government).

Old-age, survivors, and disability insurance provides monthly retirement benefits to fully insured workers at 65 or over (or, for women workers, at age 62 if they elect to receive a reduced benefit) and supplementary benefits to their wives, if they are aged or have a child of the earner in their care, to aged dependent husbands, and to dependent children under age 18, or older, if the child has a disability that began before 18. Monthly survivor benefits are payable to certain dependents of fully or currently insured workers. Monthly disability benefits are payable to fully and currently insured workers between the ages of 50 and 65 with a disability that meets the definition in the Act, and to the dependents of these workers, on the same basis as dependents of retired workers. A lump-sum death payment is made in the case of all insured deaths.

Covered workers and their employers each pay contributions of 3 percent on the worker's wages, not counting amounts above the first $4,800 in a year. The rate is scheduled to rise by steps until it reaches 4 percent each in 1969. Self-employed persons pay 1.5 times the employee rate. An amount equal to the contributions collected is appropriated for deposit in the old-age and survivors insurance trust fund, from which benefits and administrative costs are paid. One-fourth of 1 percent of the contributions collected from employees and from employers and 3 of 1 percent of the contributions from the self-employed are allocated to a separate disability trust fund, from which the costs of the disability benefits are paid.

Both unemployment insurance and the public employment (placement) service are administered through the Bureau of Employment Security of the Department of Labor and a State employment security agency in each State. Under agreements with the Secretary of Labor, the State agencies also administer unemployment compensation for eligible Korea veterans, ex-servicemen, and Federal employees.

State unemployment insurance laws pay benefits to unemployed covered workers who meet the qualifying conditions specified in the State law. In most States, a waiting period of 1 week must be served before payments begin. Benefits are payable for a maximum number of weeks, ranging from 18 to 39 weeks among the States; maximum weekly benefits without dependents' allowances range from $26 to $55 under the several State laws. In 12 States maximum allowances for dependents ranging from $3 to $25 raise the range of maximum augmented benefits to $30 to $70.

Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act, a 3-percent tax is levied on the payroll of employers of 4 or more workers in industries covered by the Act, although smaller employers are also covered by some State laws. Principal industries excluded from coverage, as of January 1960, are agriculture, State and local government, domestic service, nonprofit organizations, and railroads (see below). Employers subject to the Federal law are allowed a credit offset of 90 percent of the Federal tax, or 2.7 percent of taxable payrolls, for contributions paid to State agencies under State unemployment insurance laws. The Federal Government, therefore, collects only 0.3 percent, which is earmarked for employment security purposes. The Congress appropriates funds each year to cover administrative costs of the employment security system.

The standard rate of contributions payable by employers in all areas is 2.7 percent of the first $3,000 a year paid to an employee (except in California, Delaware, Nevada, Oregon, and Rhode Island, where the 2.7 percent applies to the first $3,600 and in Alaska to the first $4,200). All States except Alaska may adjust employer contribution rates according to individual employer experience with the risk of unemployment. Contributions collected by States are deposited to State accounts in the Federal Unemployment Trust Fund, from which States withdraw amounts needed for benefit payments.

Social insurance for railroad workers.—The social insurance programs administered by the Railroad Retirement Board under the Railroad Retirement Act and Railroad Un ployment Insurance Act cover employees of railroads or companies and organizations affiliated with railroad transportation, including the Railway Express Agency and the Pullman Company.

The Railroad Retirement Act provides retirement annuities for aged and disabled workers and for wives of retired employees, and benefits to survivors of deceased workers. The credits of employees who die or retire with less than 10 years of railroad service are transferred to the Social Security Administration for the payment of old-age, survivors, and disability insurance under the Social Security Act Funds for the railroad retirement and survivor benefit system come from a tax on earnings up to $400 a month under the Railroad Retirement Tax Act. The tax, divided equally between the employer and employee, is now 1342 percent; for 1962–64, it will be 144 percent; it will rise thereafter by the number of percentage points that the old-age, survivors, and disability insurance tax rates (for employers and employees combined) exceed 572 percent.

The Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act provides benefits for unemployment and sickness, including maternity. The unemployment insurance program is financed entirely by contributions from covered employers, paid directly to the Board. The contribution rate for any year depends upon the balance in the unemployment insurance account and may vary from 142 to 3% percent of payrolls (exclusive of individual earnings in excess of $400 a month). Contributions during 1960 are at the maximum rate.

Social insurance for Federal Government employees.—One contributory retirement system for Federal civilian employees and two noncontributory systems for special classes of employees are administered by the Civil Service Commission. In addition, there are separate retirement systems in operation for the uniformed services (supplementing old-age, survivors, and disability insurance under which they are covered on a contributory basis) and for special classes of Federal employees.

The Civil Service Retirement Act provides for age, optional, disability, and discontinued service annuities for employees in the executive, judicial, and legislative branches of the United States Government and in the municipal government of the District of Columbia if not subject to another retirement system or excluded by statute or by administrative order. It also provides annuities for the widows and minor children of deceased employees, and under certain conditions to the survivors of deceased annuitants. The employee contribution rate, computed on base pay, was increased from 6 percent to 634 percent in October 1956, at which time liberalized benefit provisions became effective. Beginning in July 1957, employing agencies pay into the Retirement Fund amounts equal to the contributions of their employees.

Workmen's compensation.--All States now have programs providing protection against work-connected injuries and deaths. In addition to the State laws, there are Federal workmen's compensation laws covering employees of the Federal Government, private employees in the District of Columbia, and longshoremen and harbor workers. Most of the State workmen's compensation laws exempt such employments as agriculture, domestic service, and casual labor; the majority exempt employers who have fewer than a specified number of employees. Occupational diseases, or at least specified diseases, are compensable under most laws.

In most States total payments to injured workers or to sury or families are limited as to time, amount, or both. All compensation acts require that medical aid be furnished to injured employees; in about one-fourth of the laws there are either duration or cost limitations-or both-on the amount of medical benefits provided.

Public assistance.—Public assistance is provided through five major programs, all administered by the States and localities. Payments to four groups of needy persons—the aged, the blind, the permanently and totally disabled, and children whose need arises from certain causes-are financed in part from Federal funds granted to States under the Social Security Act. The Federal aspects of these programs are the responsibility of the Bureau of Public Assistance of the Social Security Administration. Aid to other needy persons is furnished for the most part through general assistance, toward which the Federal Government makes no contribution.

To receive a Federal grant for assistance payments and administrative expenses under any of the four programs established by the Social Security Act a State must have a plan approved as meeting the requirements of the Federal act. Each State establishes the conditions under which needy people may receive assistance and determines how much they shall receive.

Health and welfare services.—Programs providing health and welfare services are aided through Federal grants to States for maternal and child-health services, services for crippled children, child-welfare services, vocational rehabilitation, and public health services (including water-pollution control, hospital survey and construction, and control of specific diseases). The Children's Bureau, a part of the Social Security Administration, administers the first three of these programs; the others are administered by the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation and the Public Health Service; all are units of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

Alaska and Hawaii.- For a general statement concerning the treatment of data for Alaska and Hawaii, see preface.

Historical statistics.—Tabular headnotes (as "See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1957, series H 1-45”) provide cross-references, where applicable, to Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1957. See preface.

540262°-60

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