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religious creed, church, or sectarian purpose whatever; provided, that nothing in this section shall prevent the legislature granting aid pursuant to section twenty-two of this article. Public credit and money not to be given, loaned, or pledged.

Sec. 31. The legislature shall have no power to give or to lend, or to authorize the giving or lending, of the credit of the state, or of any county, city and county, city, township, or other political corporation or subdivision of the state now existing, or that may be hereafter established, in aid of or to any person, association, or corporation, whether municipal or otherwise, or to pledge the credit thereof, in any manner whatever, for the payment of the liabilities of any individual, association, municipal, or other corporation whatever; nor shall it have power to make any gift, or authorize the making of any gift, of any public money or thing of value to any individual, municipal, or other corporation whatever; provided, that nothing in this section shall prevent the legislature granting aid pursuant to section twenty-two of this article; and it shall not have power to authorize the state, or any political subdivision thereof, to subscribe for stock, or to become a stockholder in any corporation whatever. Extra compensation and claims.

Sec. 32. The legislature shall have no power to grant, or authorize any county or municipal authority to grant, any extra compensation or allowance to any public officer, agent, servant, or contractor, after service has been rendered, or a contract has been entered into and performed, in whole or in part, nor to pay, or to authorize the payment of, any claim hereafter created against the state, or any county or municipality of the state, under any agreement or contract made without express authority of law; and all such unauthorized agreements or contracts shall be null and void. Telegraph and gas chargesStorage and wharfage.

Sec. 33. The legislature shall pass laws for the regulation and limitation of the charges for services performed and commodities furnished by telegraph and gas corporations, and the charges by corporations or individuals for storage and wharfage, in which there is a public use; and where laws shall provide for the selection of any person or officer to regulate and limit such rates, no such person or officer shall be selected by any corporation or individual interested in the business to be regulated, and no person shall be selected who is an officer or stockholder in any such corporation. Special appropriation bills to contain but one item.

Sec. 34. No bill making an appropriation of money, except the general appropriation bill, shall contain more than one item of appropriation, and that for one single and certain purpose to be therein expressed, Lobbying and bribery of legislators. Sec

. 35. Any person who seeks to influence the vote of a member of the legislature by bribery, promise of reward, intimidation, or any other dishonest means, shall be guilty of lobbying, which is hereby declared a felony; and it shall be the duty of the legislature to provide by law for the punishment of this crime. Any member of the legislature who shall be influenced in his vote or action upon any matter pending before the legislature by any reward, or promise of future reward, shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and upon conviction thereof, in addition to such punishment as may be provided by law, shall be disfranchised and forever disqualified from holding any office or publio

trust. Any person may be compelled to testify in any lawful investigation or judicial proceeding against any person who may be charged with having committed the offense of bribery or corrupt solicitation, or with having been influenced in his vote or action as a member of the legislature, by reward, or promise of future reward, and shall not be permitted to withhold his testimony upon the ground that it may criminate himself or subject him to public infamy; but such testimony shall not afterwards be used against him in any judicial proceeding, except for perjury in giving such testimony.

ARTICLE V.

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT. Governor.

SECTION 1. The supreme executive power of this state shall be vested in a chief magistrate, who shall be styled the governor of the state of California. Election and term.

Sec. 2. The governor shall be elected by the qualified electors at the time and places of voting for members of the assembly, and shall hold his office four years from and after the first Monday after the first day of January subsequent to his election, and until his successor is elected and qualified. Qualifications.

Seo. 3. No person shall be eligible to the office of governor who has not been a citizen of the United States, and a resident of this state, five years next preceding his election, and attained the age of twenty-five years at the time of such election. Returns of election.

Sec. 4. The returns of every election for governor shall be sealed up and transmitted to the seat of government, directed to the speaker of the assembly, who shall, during the first week of the session, open and publish them in the presence of both houses of the legislature. The person having the highest number of votes shall be governor; but in case any or more have an equal and the highest number of votes, the legislature shall, by joint vote of both houses, choose one of such persons so having an equal and the highest number of votes for governor. Commander-in-chief.

Sec. 5. The governor shall be commander-in-chief of the militia, the army and navy

of this state. Executive business.

Sec. 6. He shall transact all executive business with the otticers of government, civil and military, and may require information, in writing, from the officers of the executive department, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices. Execution of laws.

Sec. 7. He shall see that the laws are faithfully executed. Filling of vacancies.

SEC. 8. When any office shall, from any cause, become vacant, and no mode is provided by the constitution and law for filling such vacancy, the governor shall have power to fill such vacancy by granting a commission, which shall expire at the end of the next session of the legislature, or at the next election by the people.

thereof, he shall continue commander-in-chief of all the military force of the

legislature, be out of the state in time of war, at the head of any military force

Special sessions of legislature.

Sec. 9. He may, on extraordinary occasions, convene the legislature by proclamation, stating the purposes for which he has convened it, and when so convened, it shall have no power to legislate on any subjects other than those specified in the proclamation, but may provide for the expenses of the session and other matters incidental thereto. Erecutive messages.

Sec. 10. He shall communicate by message to the legislature, at every session, the condition of the state, and recommend such matters as he shall deem espedient. Adjournment of legislature.

Sec. 11. In case of a disagreement between the two houses with respect to the time of adjournment, the governor shall have power to adjourn the legislature to such time as he may think proper; provided, it be not beyond the time fixed for the meeting of the next legislature. Disabilities.

Sec. 12. No person shall, while holding any office under the United States of this state, exercise the office of governor except as hereinafter expressly provided. Seal of state.

Sec. 13. There shall be a seal of this state, which shall be kept by the governor, and used by him officially, and shall be called “ The Great Seal of the State of California.” Grants and commissions. Sec

. 14. All grants and commissions shall be in the name and by the authority of the people of the state of California, sealed with the great seal of the state, signed by the governor, and countersigned by the secretary

Seo. 15. A lieutenant-governor shall be elected at the same time and places, and in the same manner, as the governor; and his term of office and his qualifications of eligibility shall also be the same. He shall be president of the senate, but shall have only a casting vote therein. If, during a vacancy of the office of governor, the lieutenant-governor shall be impeached, displaced, resign, die, or become incapable of performing the duties of his office, or be absent from the state, the president pro tempore of the senate shall act as governor until the vacancy be filled or the disability shall cease. The lieutenantgovernor shall be disqualified from holding any other office, except as specially provided in this constitution, during the term for which he shall have been When duties of governor to devolve on lieutenant-governor. Sec. 16. In case of the impeachment of the governor, or his removal from office , death, inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, resigor absence from the state, the powers and duties of the office shall the lieutenant-governor for the residue of the term, or until the

But when the governor shall, with the consent of the

of state.
Lieutenant-governor.

elected.

nation, devolve

upon disability shall cease.

state.

Other state officers.

Sec. 17. A secretary of state, a controller, a treasurer, an attorney-general, and a surveyor-general shall be elected at the same time and places, and in the same manner, as the governor and lieutenant-governor, and their terms of office shall be the same as that of the governor. Secretary of state.

Seo. 18. The secretary of state shall keep a correct record of the official acts of the legislative and executive departments of the government, and shall, when required, lay the same, and all matters relative thereto, before either branch of the legislature, and shall perform such other duties as may be assigned him by law. Salaries of state officers.

Sec. 19. The governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, controller, treasurer, attorney-general, and surveyor-general shall, at stated times during their continuance in office, receive for their services a compensation which shall not be increased or diminished during the term for which they shall have been elected, which compensation is hereby fixed for the following offices for the two terms next ensuing the adoption of this constitution, as follows: governor, six thousand dollars per annum; lieutenant-governor, the same per diem as may be provided by law for the speaker of the assembly, to be allowed only during the session of the legislature; the secretary of state, controller, treasurer, attorney-general, and surveyor-general, three thousand dollars each per annum, such compensation to be in full for all services by them respectively rendered in any official capacity or employment whatsoever during their respective terms of office; provided, however, that the legislature, after the expiration of the terms herein before mentioned, may, by law, diminish the compensation of any or all of such officers, but in no case shall have the power to increase the same above the sums hereby fixed by this constitution. No salary shall be authorized by law for clerical service in any office provided for in this article exceeding sixteen hundred dollars per annum for each clerk employed. The legislature may, in its discretion, abolish the office of surveyor-general; and none of the officers herein before named shall receive for their own use any fees or perquisites for the performance of any official duty. Governor not to be elected United States senator.

Seo. 20. The governor shall not during his term of office be elected a senator to the senate of the United States.

ARTICLE VI.

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT.

:

Judicial power.

Section 1. The judicial power of the state shall be vested in the senate sitting as a court of impeachment, in a supreme court, superior courts, justices of the peace, and such inferior courts as the legislature may establish in any incorporated city or town, or city and county. Supreme court.

Seo. 2. The supreme court shall consist of a chief justice and six associate justices. The court may sit in departments and in bank, and shall always be open for the transaction of business. There shall be two departments, denominated, respectively, Department One and Department Two. The chief justice shall assign three of the associate justices to each department, and such

assignment may be changed by him from time to time. The associate justices shall be competent to sit in either department, and may interchange with each other by agreement among themselves or as ordered by the chief justice. Each of the departments shall have the power to hear and determine causes and all questions arising therein, subject to the provisions hereinafter contained in relation to the court in bank. The presence of three justices shall be necessary to transact any business in either of the departments, except such as may be done at chambers, and the concurrence of three justices shall be necessary to pronounce a judgment. The chief justice shall apportion the business to the departments, and may, in his discretion, order any cause pending before the court to be heard and decided by the court in bank. The order may be made before or after judgment pronounced by a department; but where a cause has been allotted to one of the departments, and a judgment pronounced thereon, the order must be made within thirty days after such judgment, and concurred in by two associate justices, and if so made, it shall have the effect to vacate and set aside the judgment. Any four justices may, either before or after judgment by a department, order a case to be heard in bank. If the order be not made within the time above limited, the judgment shall be final. No judgment by a department shall become final until the expiration of the period of thirty days aforesaid, unless approved by the chief justice, in writing, with the concurrence of two associate justices. The chief justice may convene the court in bank at any time, and shall be the presiding justice of the court when so convened. The concurrence of four justices present at the argument shall be necessary to pronounce a judgment in bank; but if four justices, so present, do not concur in a judgment, then all the justices qualified to sit in the cause shall hear the argument; but to render a judgment, a concurrence of four judges shall be necessary. In the determination of causes, all decisions of the court in bank or in departments shall be given in writing, and the grounds of the decision shall be stated. The chief justice may sit in either department, and shall preside when so sitting, but the justices assigned to each department shall select one of their number as presiding justice. In case of the absence of the chief justice from the place at which the court is held, or his inability to act, the associate justices shall select one of their own number to perform the duties and exercise the powers of the chief justice during such absence or inability to act. Election and terms of supreme court justices.

Seo. 3. The chief justice and the associate justices shall be elected by the qualified electors of the state at large at the general state elections, at the times and places at which state officers are elected; and the term of office shall be twelve years, from and after the first Monday after the first day of January next succeeding their

election; provided, that the six associate justices elected at the first election shall, at their first meeting, so classify themselves, by lot, that two of them shall go out of office at the end of four years, two of them at the end of eight years, and two of them at the end of twelve years, and an entry of such classification shall be made in the minutes of the court in bank, signed by them, and a duplicate thereof shall be filed in the office of the secretary of state. If a vacancy occur in the office of a justice, the governor shall appoint a person to hold the office until the election and qualification of a justice to fill the vacancy, which election shall take place at the next succeeding general election, and the justice so elected shall hold the office for the remainder of the unexpired term.

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