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PREFACE.

This work has been prepared with great care, for the purpose of supplying a want long felt by the reading public, and especially by Heads of Families. Every important event in the history of the United States, from the Aboriginal period to the present time, is presented in a concise, but perspicuous and comprehensive manner, without giving those minute and often tedious details, which are valuable to the student, but irksome to the common reader. The History of our Republic is herein popularized, and adapted to the use of those who may not find leisure to peruse more extensive works upon the subject. The materials have been drawn from the earlier, most elaborate, and most reliable historians and chroniclers of our continent. The work is constructed upon a new plan, which, it is believed, will be found to be the most acceptable yet offered to the public, for obtaining, with facility, and fixing in the memory, a knowledge of the great events of our truly wonderful history. And having visited a greater portion of the localities made memorable by important occurrences in our country, the writer claims, in that particular, an advantage over his predecessors in this special field, for he has been able to correct errors and give truthful impressions of things and events. An endeavor has also been made to show the cause of every importánt event, and thus, by developing the philosophy of our history, to make it more attractive and instructive than a bald record of facts. And wherever the text appeared to need further elucidation, additional facts have been given in foot-notes.

The arrangement of the work is new. It is in six Periods, each commencing where the history naturally divides into distinct epochs. The first Period exhibits a general view of the Aboriginal race who occupied the continent when the Europeans came. The second is a record of all the Discoveries and preparations for settlement, made by individuals and governments. The third delineates the progress of all the Settlements until colonial governments were formed. The fourth tells the story of these Colonies from their infancy to maturity, and illustrates the continual development of Democratic ideas and Republican tendencies which finally resulted in a political

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confederation. The fifth has a full account of the important events of the War for Independence, and the sixth gives a concise history of the Republic, from its formation to the present time. The Supplement is composed of the most important State Papers connected with that formation, such as the Stamp Act, and papers put forth by the Stamp Act Congress ; the papers presented to the consideration of the world by the First and Second Continental Congresses ; the Declaration of Independence; the Articles of Confederation; and the Federal Constitution, with the admirable Farewell Address of Washington. These documents, thus grouped and preserved, will be found valuable as embodying the principles of our government. The original draft, with the amendments, of the Declaration of Independence, is given ; and, in foot-notes, every charge made against the king of Great Britain, in that manifesto, is proven from History. The Federal Constitution is also accompanied by important commentaries.

The system of concordance interwoven with the notes throughout the entire work, is of great importance to the reader. When a fact is named which bears à relation to another fact elsewhere recorded in the volume, a

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of this relationship of separate events is often essential to a clear view of the subject, and without this concordance, a great deal of time would be spent in searching for that relationship. With the concordance the matter may be found in a moment. Favorable examples of the utility of this new feature may be found on page 289. If strict attention shall be given to these references, the whole subject will be presented to the mind of the reader in a comprehensive aspect-of unity not to be obtained by any other method.

The engravings are introduced not for the sole purpose of embellishing the volume, but to enhance its utility as an instructor. Every picture is intended to illustrate a fact, not merely to beautify the page. Great care has been taken to secure accuracy in all the delineations of men and things, so that they may not convey false instruction. Geographical maps have been omitted, because they must necessarily be too small to be of essential service. History may be read for the purpose of obtaining general information on the subject, without maps, but it should never be studied without the aid of an accurate Atlas.

The author has endeavored to make this work essentially a FAMILY HISTORY, attractive and instructive; and the Publishers have generously co-worked with him in producing a volume that may justly claim to be excellent in every particular. With these few observations concerning the general plan and merits of the work, it is presented to the public, with an entire willingness to have its reputation rest upon its own merits.

ILLUSTRATIONS.

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PAGE 1. FRONTISPIECE......

67. PENN'S HOUSE..........

162 2. Sioux INDIANS.....

68. PLAN OF CHARLESTON IN 1680...

166 3. PORTRAIT OF RED JACKET..

69. EARLY NEW ENGLAND House..

176 4. A WIGWAM ..

70. DUTCHMAN, 1660.......

176 5. WAMPUM ................

71. PLAN OF FORT DU QUESNE....

186 6. INDIAN HIEROGLYPHICS

72. PORTRAIT OF BRADDOCK........ 7. INDIAN WEAPONS......

73. BURIAL OF BRADDOCK ............ 8. CALUMETS..............

74. PLAN OF FORT EDWARD.......... 9. INDIAN BURIAL-PLACE......

75. POPTRAIT OF SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON... 10. INDIAN TOTUM......

76. PLAN OF FORT WILLIAM HENRY...

191 11. PROFILE OF BLACK HAWK.....

77. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL ABERCROMBIE

191 12. UNCAS'S MONUMENT............

78. PLANS OF FORTS AT OSWEGO.. 13. PORTRAIT OF SAMUEL KIRKLAND...

79. BLOCK HOUSE....

192 14. SOUTHERN INDIANS...

80. MAP OF LAKE GEORGE AND VICINITY

19+ 15. COLUMBUS BEFORE THE COUNCIL OF SALAMANCA

81. PORTRAIT OF LORD AMHERST...

196 16. PORTRAIT OF AMERIGO VESPUCCI..

82. PLAN OF TICONDEROGA......... 17. NORTIMAN.......

83. KUINS OF TICONDEROGA....

197 18. NORMAN SHIP................

84. PORTRAIT OF LORD HOWE.......

197 19. OLD TOWER AT NEWPORT..

85. PLAN OF CROWN POINT.... 20. PORTRAIT OF COLUMBUS.....

86. PLAN OF FORT NIAGARA... 21. PORTRAIT OF ISABELLA.

87. GENERAL WOLFE........ 22. THE FLEET OF COLUMBUS...

88. MILITARY OPERATIONS AT QUEBEC..... 23. BANNER OF THE EXPEDITION...

89. MONUMENT TO WOFLE AND MONTCALM... 24. BALBOA...

90. PATRICK HENRY DEFORE TIIE VIRGINIA ASSEM25. PORTRAIT OF DE SOTO........

BLY .......................................

207 26. PORTRAIT OF SEBASTIAN CABOT

91. PORTRAIT OF JAMES OTIS.........

207 27. PORTRAIT OF VERAGAZZI......

92. PORTRAIT OF BENJAMIN WEST.........

210 28. CARTIER'S SHIP...........

93. PORTRAIT OF DAVID RITTENIIOUSE 29. ARMS OF FRANCE.......

94. PORTRAIT OF PATRICK HENRY......

214 30. FRENCII NOBLEMAN, 1511) ..

95. A STAMP.........................,

215 31. RALEIGII'S EXPEDITION AT ROANOKE

96. PORTRAIT OF CADWALLADER COLDEN

216 32. PORTRAIT OF SIR WALTER RALEIGI

97. PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM PITT..

217 33. RALEIGJI's Suips.....

98. PORTRAIT OF JOIN DICKENSON..

219 34. ENGLISH GENTLEMAN, 1580.....

99. PORTRAIT OF SAMUEL ADAMS ...

221 35. PORTRAIT OF HENRY HUDSON ....

59 | 100. PORTRAIT OF LORD NORTII.... 36. THE HALF-Moox............

101. FANEUIL IIALL................ 37. BUILDING JAMESTOWN........

102. SNAKE DEVICE.... 38. PORTRAIT OF CAPTAIN JOHN SMITII.

103. PORTRAIT OF CIIARLES THOMSON...

227 39. PORTRAIT OF POCAHONTAS .

104. CARPENTER'S HALL.............. 40, SEAL OF NEW NETHERLAND..

73 | 105. JOHN BIANCOCK..... 41. A PURITAN...................

75 106. PLAN OF BUNKER HILL BATTLE. 42. THE MAYFLOWER...

107. BUNKER HILL MONUMENT..... 43. GOVERNOR CARVER'S CHAIR.........

108. PORTRAIT OF JOSEPI WARREN..... 44. PORTRAIT OF CECIL, LORD BALTIMORE....

109. PORTRAIT OF PHILIP SCHUYLER...... 45. HOOKER'S EMIGRATION TO CONNECTICUT...

110. PLAN OF THE WALLS OF QUEBEC...

242 46. FIRST MEETING-IIOUSE IN CONNECTICUT

111. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL MONTGOMERY

242 47. PORTRAIT OF ROGER WILLIAMS....... 90112, CULPEPPER FLAG.......

243 48. PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM PENN.... 95 113. UNION FLAG....................

245 49. TUE ASSEMBLY HOUSE, PENNSYLVANIA ..

114. BILL OF CREDIT OR CONTINENTAL MONEY 50. OGLETHORPE ON TIIE SITE OF SAVANNAH..

115. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL LEE............ 248 51. EMBARKATION OF THE PILGRIMS...

| 116. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL MOULTRIE........ 249 52. PORTRAIT OF JAMES EDWARD OGLETHORPE..

117. STATE HOUSE, PHILADELPHIA.......

250 53. CHURCH TOWER AT JAMESTOWN..........

118. PORTRAIT OF BENJAMIN RUSI.......

251 54. FIRST COLONY SEAL, MASSACIIUSETTS...... .... 117 | 119. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL PUTNAM.......

253 55. PORTRAIT OF JOHN WINTHROP.....

120. PLAN OF THE BATTLE ON LONG ISLAND... 254 56. FIRST MONEY COINED IN THE UNITED STATES.. 122 121. PLAN OF FORT WASHINGTON.. 57. PORTRAIT OF KING PHILIP..

124 122. RETREAT OF TIIE AMERICANS FROM LONG ISL AND) 257 59. PALLISADED BUILDING... 127 123. TIE JERSEY PRISON-SHIP.......

259 59. PORTRAIT OF CAPTAIN CHURCII....

124. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT TRENTON......

263 60. PORTRAIT OF COTTON MATHER......

133 125. PORTRAIT OF ROBERT MORRIS.......... 264 61. WILLIAMS'S HOUSE, DEERFIELD...... 135 | 126. PORTRAIT OF SILAS DEANE...........

266 62. PLAN OF THE SIEGE OF LOUISBURG..

137 127. PORTRAIT OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN..... 63. PORTRAIT OF PETER STUYVESANT....

128. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT PRINCETON..... 269 64. CITY OF NEW YORK IN 1664.....

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144 129. PORTRAIT OF LA FAYETTE.......... 65. STUYVESANT SURRENDERING FORT AUSTERDAM 130. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT TIIE BRANDYWINE... 278 TO TIIE ENGLISH..... 145 | 131. CHEVAUX-DE-FRISE .....

274 66. THE CHARTER OAK......

156 | 132. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT GERMANTOWN...... 275

129. PLAN AUX

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PAGE 133. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL ST. CLAIR.........

1 208. PORTRAIT OF MARTHA WASHINGTON...... 387 134. PORTRAIT OF KOSCIUSZKO....

209. PORTRAIT OF THOMAS JEFFERSON

389 135. PORTRAIT OF JOSEPH BRANT.....

210. PORTRAIT OF COMMODORE BAINBRIDGE.... 391 136. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL BURGOYNE.........

211. UNITED STATES FRIGATE.. 137. A TREATY................................

212. PORTRAIT OF LIEUTENANT DECATUR...... 392 138. BURGOYNE SURRENDERING HIS SWORD

213. MOHAMMEDAN SOLDIER..........

392

214. BURNING OF THE PHILADELPHIA AT TRIP 139. PLAN OF OPERATIONS AT BEMIS's HEIGIITS.... 215. PORTRAIT OF RUFUS KING...

395 140. PORTRAIT OF FRANCIS HOPKINSON...... .... 1 216. PORTRAIT OF AARON BURR......

396 141. PLAN OF ENCAMPMENT AT VALLEY FORGE.... 217. PORTRAIT OF ROBERT FULTON.

398 142. PORTRAIT OF SIR HENRY CLINTON.....

218. FULTON'S FIRST STEAMBOAT.

399 143. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT MONMOUTH.

| 219. PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM PIXKNEY..

400 144. PORTRAIT OF COUNT D'ESTAING.....

220. A FELUCCA GUN-BOAT.......

401 145. PORTRAIT OF BARON STEUBEN......

221. PORTRAIT OF JOHN RANDOLPHI ......

403 146. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL LINCOLN...

| 222. PORTRAIT OF JAMES MADISON....

405 147. PLAN OF STONY POINT.............

298 223. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL DEARBORN...... 410 148. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL WAYNE......

298 224. PORTRAIT OF STEPHEN VAN RENNSSELAER 149. PORTRAIT OF DANIEL BOONE.......

225. SLOOP-OF-WAP.............. 150. PORTRAIT OF GEORGE ROGERS CLARKE

226. PORTRAIT OF GOVERNOR SHELBY.. 151. CLARKE'S EXPEDITION ACROSS THE " DROW

227. PLAN OF FORT MEIGS.... LANDS. ..............................

228. PLAN OF FORT SANDUSKY.. 152. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL SULLIVAN......

229. MAJOR CROGIAN.... 153. PLAN OF THE SIEGE OF SAVANNAH.. 305 230. PERRY ON LAKE ERIE...........

421 154. PORTRAIT OF COUNT PULASKI.... 305 231. PORTRAIT OF COMMODORE PERRY.

423 153. PORTRAIT OF JOHN PAUL JONES... 307 232. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL PIKE......

425 156. A GUN-BOAT AT BOSTON........ 307 233. FORT NIAGARA IN 1813.....

427 157. PORTRAIT OF ADMIRAL HOPKINS..... 308 234. PORTRAIT OF CAPTAIN LAWRENCE....

429 158. CIPHER ALPHABET.... 309 235. PORTRAIT OF COMMODORE PORTER....

431 159. PORTRAIT OF GOVERNOR RUTLEDGE.... 310 236. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL BROWN...

432 160. PORTRAIT OF COMMODORE WHIPPLE.

310 237, MAP OF THE NIAGARA FRONTIER.. 161. PLAN OF THE SIEGE OF CHARLESTON ..

238. PORTRAIT OF COMMODORE MACDONOUGII... 435 162. PORTRAIT OF DAVID RAMSAY.........

239. PLAN OF THE BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS.. 439 163. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL GATES.... 314 240. PORTRAIT OF W.C. C. CLAIBORNE.

440 164. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL SUMTER...... 315 241. JACKSON AT NEW ORLEANS.........

441 165. PLAN OF BATTLE AT SANDERS'S CREEK

315 | 242. PORTRAIT OF JAMES MONROE..... 166. PORTRAIT OF BARON DE KALB........ 316 243. CAPTURE OF PENSACOLA.........

449 167. PORTRAIT OF COLONEL TARLETON..... 316 244. PORTRAIT OF EDWARD LIVINGSTOX...

452 168. PORTRAIT OF GENEPAL: MARION......

215. PORTRAIT OF JOIN QUINCY ADAMS.

455 169. PORTRAIT OF LORD CORNWALLIS,

246. PORTRAIT OF DEWITT CLINTON.

456 170. MARION'S ENCAMPMENT ON THE PEDEĽ..

247. PORTRAIT OF JOIN C. CALHOUN .

458 171. PORTRAIT OF GOVERNOR TRUMBULL..

323 243. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL JACKSON .... 172. PORTRAIT OF BENEDICT ARNOLD.....

249. PORTRAIT OF ROBERT Y. HAYNE..... 173, THE CAPTORS' MEVAL.......

250. PORTRAIT OF OSCEOLA............

466 174. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL GREENE.....

331 | 251. MAP OF TIIE SEAT OF THE SEMINOLE WAR. 175. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL MORGAN.....

252. PORTRAIT OF MARTIN VAN BUREN......

470 176. PORTRAIT OF COLONEL WASHINGTON....

253. PORTRAIT OF WILLIAM H. IIARRISOX..

474 177. PORTRAIT OF COLONEL HENRY LEE. 333 251. PORTRAIT OF JOIN TYLER..........

476 178. PLAN OF THE BATTLE AT GUILFORD)......

255. PORTRAIT OF JAMES K. Polk.....

479 179. PLAN OF TIIE BATTLE AT HOBKIRK'S IIILL. 334 256. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL SCOTT.....

485 180. PORTRAIT OF REBECCA MOTTE....

335 257. MAP OF THE REGION OF TAYLOR'S OPERATIONS 486 181. PLAN OF FORT NINETY-SIX.......

258. PORTRAIT OF JOIN C. FREMONT.....

488 182. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL PICKENS........

259. PLAN OF INTREXCIIMEYTS AT VERA CHU2...... 489 183. PORTRAIT OF COUNT DE ROCHIAMBEAV...

260, MAP OF THE ROUTE OF SCOTT'S ARMYIN VIEXICO 490 184. PORTRAIT OF COUNT DE GRASSE......

261. BOMBARDMENT OF VERA CRUZ............... 491 185. PLAN OF THE SIEGE OF YORKTOWN..

262. OPERATIONS NEAR MEXICO................... 493 186. PORTRAIT OF BENJAMIN THOMPSON (COUNT 263. GENERAL SCOTT ENTERING TIIE CITY OF MEXICO 495 'RUMFORD)...... ..................

346 | 264. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL TAYLOR. 187. PORTRAIT OF JAMES JACKSON... 347 \ 265. PORTRAIT OF HENRY CLAY..

500 188. PORTRAIT OF GEORGE CLINTOX...

266. PORTRAIT OF MILLARD FILLMORE 189. PORTRAIT OF JOJIN MARSHALL....

267. PORTRAIT OF DANIEL WEBSTER..

503 190. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL MIFFLIN....

263. PORTRAIT OF JOSEPH SMITII..... 191. ORDER OF THE CINCINNATI....

269. MORMON EMIGRATION.... 192. PORTRAIT OF BISHOP CARROLL..

270. PORTRAIT OF PROFESSOR MORSE ... 193. FRANKLIN BEFORE TIIL CONSTITUTIONAL CON

271. PORTRAIT OF DR. KANE.........

510 VENTION ... 272. PORTRAIT OF FRANKLIN PIERCE

514 194. PORTRAIT OF OLIVER ELLSWORTH..

273. PORTRAIT OF SANTA AYNA..... 195. PORTRAIT OF ALEXANDER HAMILTON......

274. Av OCEAN STEAMSIIIP...

516 196. PORTRAIT OF RUFUS PUTNAM..........

275. CRYSTAL PALACE IN NEW YORK.

517 197. INAUGURATION OF WASHINGTON...

276. PORTRAIT OF CAPTAIN INGRAHAM

518 198. PORTRAIT OF GOUVERNEUR MORRIS. 364 277. PORTRAIT OF JAMES BUCHANAN.

532 199. PORTRAIT OF WASHINGTON..........

278. FOUNDING NEW STATES.............

537 200. PORTRAIT OF ROBERT R. LIVINGSTOX..

279. PORTRAIT OF THOMAS JEFFERSON..

589 201. PORTRAIT OF TENCH COXE..

280. PORTRAIT OF JOHN ADAMS........

589 202. PORTRAIT OF GENERAL Knox..

370 251. PORTRAIT OF DR. FRANKLIN....... 203. WAYNE'S DEFEAT OF THE INDIANS 375 282. PORTRAIT OF ROBERT R. LIVINGSTOX.

589 204. PORTRAIT OF JOIIN JAY...... 379 283. PORTRAIT OF ROGER SIERMAN..

589 205. PORTRAIT OF FISHER AMES..... 380 234. PORTRAIT OF CHAPLES CARROLL..

601 206. PORTRAIT OF JOHN ADAMS.....

383 | 285. PORTRAIT OF JUDGE STORY.... 207. PORTRAIT OF C. C. PINCKNEY......

384

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HISTORY

OF

THE UNITED STATES.

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EVERY cultivated nation had its heroic RED JACKET.

age—a period when its first physical and

moral conquests were achieved, and when rude society, with all its impurities, was fused and refined in the crucible of progress. When civilization first set up its standard as a permanent ensign, in the western hemisphere, northward of the Bahamas and the great Gulf, and

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