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and severe; nowhere more so than with respect to the particular sort of training and education which it is the duty of this Institute to provide. The record of service and achievement of Technology's sons is legitimately a source of inspiration and encouragement. It is also a part of that splendid record made by college-trained men throughout the country, and we share the sense of pride and satisfaction which it occasions with our sister institutions, many of whose representatives are here today, and to whom, as a Faculty, we extend our greetings. Broadly considered, the test has been splendidly withstood, but flaws have also been discovered which are demanding and should receive consideration. The activities of the war enabled the public to discover that the college professor is, after all, a useful citizen, who can and does give good and practical account of himself in times of emergency; that he has, indeed, rendered service which was distinguished for maturity of conception and systematic execution. One material result of this discovery is a closer contact and a better understanding between the members of college faculties and the leaders in industrial and engineering fields, with the further result that the college men are afforded facilities for an acquaintance with the conditions which confront the young graduate, a knowledge of which on the part of a teacher is one of the most essential factors in effective educational service in this period of readjustments. These industrial contacts will, moreover, serve to vitalize instructional material, and to diminish the sometimes too rigidly academic character of present instructional methods, without sacrifice of intrinsic accuracy and thoroughness.

This increase in community of interest, again, bears directly upon a subject in support of which many voices have been raised and much has been written, namely, more effective general co-operative effort as between educational institutions and the industries. There is great enthusiasm for the principle; there are but few practicable working programs. This is not strange, for the problem is many sided and complex. An encouraging and valuable product of this agitation is the increasing tendency on the part of those in control of industrial plants to admit college men students and staff to participation in the operation of those plants during vacation periods, and to encourage co-operative schools, both undergraduate and graduate. The inauguration of co-operative Courses in Electrical Engineering and in Chemical Engineering has been one of the most important features of the educational development of the Institute within the last few years, and one of much significance for the future. The Course in Engineering Administration is conceived in the same spirit. These courses seem to offer the best approximation to a solution of the difficult problem of enabling a young graduate to enter his life work in the industrial field with some knowledge of the human factors with which he must deal; that is, to give him some knowledge of the much-talked-of problem of “human engineering."

The emergencies of war-time experience accentuated a situation which had begun to be recognized prior to 1914, namely, that the waste

ful habits of generations must be abandoned and a critical study of operating conditions and measures of conservation be substituted. A noteworthy growth of research organizations within the industries has been the result. These vary in character from those which are scarcely more than control laboratories to those in which a large staff of workers are employed and in which investigations in abstract as well as applied science are extensively supported. The personnel of these organizations has been recruited from the college-trained men, sometimes at the temporary expense of college staffs. But, notwithstanding the development of these organizations within the industries there remains much that educational institutions can do for these industries through co-operation. Most problems which relate to the improvement or development, rather than to the control of industrial operations, resolve themselves into abstract problems in physics, chemistry, mechanics or electricity. The smaller research organizations have neither time nor facilities for their solution; even the largest are confronted with questions which demand access to large libraries, or special equipment, or co-ordinated attack by several specialists, and to such problems the staff and facilities of a technical school can be brought to bear with peculiar effectiveness, and the findings will be regarded as authoritative and impartial.

Recognizing the need of such co-operative service, the Institute established about two years ago the Division of Industrial Co-operation and Research to carry out the purposes of the so-called "Technology Plan" which has as its objective the assistance of the industries along the lines thus briefly outlined. This Division operates through the members of the Instructing Staff and the Institute benefits by the reflex influence of the problems upon those participating in them, and a marked encouragement in research of all kinds. It is already evident. that the work of this Division is of far-reaching importance in the developments of the future.

However great the strain may be which the recent sudden increase in numbers of college students has placed upon educational plants and their equipments, the strain upon long-time methods and habits of instruction has, perhaps, been even greater. During the emergencies of the war expedients were permissible because unavoidable. We are now passing through a period in which excuses no longer avail and in which there should be courageous introspection and self-criticism. Conservatism in education, though often criticized, has its proper justification, but the situation now confronting us is one in which efficiency of instruction must be maintained against the odds of large numbers to be instructed, and instructional methods must be improved, and new and better selective agencies discovered.

You come to us, Mr. President, at a time when we have many of these problems of reconstruction as yet unsatisfactorily solved. You will approach them from an unfettered viewpoint and we shall look to you for counsel and guidance, believing that you will co-operate with us in maintaining what has been the tradition of the Institute since

its inception in the mind of President Rogers, that it shall, while making trustworthy engineers, not fail to inculcate in its students a knowledge and appreciation of the humanities.

Allusion has already been made to industrial research as associated with the operations of the "Technology Plan". In an institution such as our own, no sharp distinction can be drawn between research which may be termed "industrial" and that falling within the confines of abstract science. Our Research Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and that of Industrial Physics, for example, have many investigations of an abstract nature in progress; our Research Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, and our laboratories of Organic Chemistry are carrying on investigations of direct importance to the industries and the Federal Government; our Research Laboratory of Electrical Engineering draws no line between pure and applied problems. But it is not alone in the laboratories with somewhat formal organizations that the Instructing Staff of the Institute is adding its quota to the development of human knowledge. The fundamental task of the Institute is and must be the adequate training of its undergraduate students and the burden which this imposes upon its staff is here, as in all American institutions of learning, so great as necessarily to limit their scientific and scholarly productivity more than is desirable. But in spite of this, our graduate work and scientific output have grown rapidly in the last decade, and we believe that you will find the staff of instruction imbued with that desire for and spirit of research without which no body of educators can remain alert and effective. We welcome the incentive for further scholarly development which your wide experience in varied fields will bring to us.

We realize, Mr. President, that much is demanded of one who exercises the presidential functions. He must be a scholar, an educator, a man of large sympathies for youth and quick appreciation of their attitude toward college life, both academic and social. He must lead and inspire the members of his instructing staff and at the same time. exercise wise discrimination and make prompt decisions in complex situations. As Professor Cayley has said, "He must not only welcome suggestion from his associates of the Faculty, but invite it, and have the grace to know when to seem to take it, when to take it, and when to leave it. He must sometimes make two good professors grow where one poor one grew before." With all this, he must be ready to proclaim the institution at all times and be wise in matters financial. We realize that no one man can be or do all of these things in equal proportion, but, coming to us as you do, with such a breadth and fullness of experience and with distinguished achievement in the fields of science, education and industry, we look forward with confidence to your leadership. We trust that you will find in us, as a Faculty, a spirit of earnest conviction without undue egotism, of progressiveness with proper conservatism, and of loyal support in all that pertains to the increased prosperity and usefulness of the institution which it is our honor and happiness to serve.


President Nichols

THE Institute like every other educational enterprise, has its individual problems and needs, but these I do not yet sufficiently understand to make a public discussion of them profitable to anybody. What I shall say, therefore, bears on technical education in general without reference to the separate needs of this or any other school.


Many of you who have lately become familiar with Mr. H. G. Wells's interpretation of history will realize new significance in the fact that children are born into a world that is already old. For many thousand years before our generation men were experimenting with nature, with social, economic, political and religious ideas and practices. Our civilization today is the forward-borne product of this slowly and painfully acquired experience of the race.

The whole educational process, broadly seen, is the problem of putting our young people in touch with the more outstanding results of this age-old accumulation and of giving them exercise in the most direct thought processes by which this experience and knowledge have been acquired; processes by which present experience and knowledge may be enlarged and extended.

The education of boy or girl, therefore, consists in bringing them up to the present day, so that they can enter independent life as useful thinkers and doers in the world as it is. Dreams of what the world ought to be are not only stimulating but indispensable to human progress, but each generation must begin building on the world as it finds it.

Expressed otherwise, our educational effort is directed to give a young man of intellectual interests and possibilities, the main features of his racial background and especially to acquaint him with the best and most significant things which have been thought and done in the world, so that at maturity all new things which present themselves to him he can in some measure appraise in their relations to this background.

I know no better measure of a man's real education than the adequacy of his thought and action in whatever actual situations he may find himself, for adequacy of thought and action imply some hold on world experience. Our daily use of the phrase "common sense has no other meaning.

Vital possession, conscious or unconscious, of this world background enables a man sanely to face and interpret reality. You rarely find such a man seriously occupied in chasing rainbows or fighting windmills. His chief mental characteristics are breadth, balance, sanity. To train

such men and women should be the dominant ideal of the educational process. How often and how far, alas! do we fall short of attaining it.

Mr. Chesterton's recent amusing raillery at "The Ignorance of the Educated" would lose none of its charming humor and would gain in truth and pungency if he changed his title to "The Ignorance of the Half-Educated". These are the really dangerous men, for they are facile of speech and wholly unaware of their intellectual limitations. By contrast the adequately educated man knows always just where he stands. Ought not an engineer to know enough of philosophy and its uses not to be misled into dogmatizing upon its technical intricacies; and should not a philosopher be taught enough about bridges and dynamos to be satisfied with dwelling on the broad scientific principles they illustrate without venturing to criticize minor details of construction?

Education interpreted as a background builder is far wider than the schools and stretches endlessly from the cradle to the grave. Yet a careful scrutiny of the course of individual development shows that in the latter half of the period of adolescence, say from eighteen to twenty-five years of age, lie the strategic years of education. It is in this period that wisely directed teaching can do most to integrate and interpret this background, do most to give it unity of form and grouping, color, symmetry and depth. During this formative period no great department of human experience can be safely ignored, if our purpose is to train adequately educated men and women.

The department of human experience and action on which the major emphasis shall fall is a matter wisely left to the individual preference, aptitude and taste of the student. In schools of technology this emphasis falls naturally on the study of science. But studies in science can be made as narrow as can studies in philosophy and the arts. Narrowness of outlook, always a major defect in our efforts at education, we must strive unceasingly to avoid. All fields of knowledge and experience form a whole, and, in our teaching, their vital interdependence must be most clearly emphasized.

With his characteristic grasp of essentials, President Nicholas Murray Butler has stated these traits of the educated man: (1) Correctness and precision in the use of English

(2) Refined and gentle manners

(3) Power of reflection

(4) Power of growth

(5) Sound standards of feeling and appreciation

(6) The ability to do efficiently without nervous agitation

To these I venture to add yet another trait of the usefully educated man: Power to marshal the world's experience in at least one field, and to use it effectively for further constructive achievement.

Engineers have, surely, the same broad, educational rights and responsibilities as other professional and non-professional men, yet amid the growing complexities and perplexities of technical education there has been, and is, a steady and strong temptation to introduce

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