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carried from there to Walker by the Institute truck. Last year flour was bought at $3 a bag just before the big raise in price and therefore much money was saved. Absolutely no commission is received by the superintendent from sellers as is the case of most buyers in the market. All of the fats are melted down and sold as well as the bones. A good price is paid for these by the New England Rendering Company.

What is called another cause by some is the fact that the Walker Service employs too much help. This is not true. Forty people are all employed and by comparing this figure with the employment lists of other restaurants and cafeterias, I find it low. Students receive the impression of too much help because they see the workers standing around at noon time who cannot clean silver, arrange dishes and set tables for the simple reason that all of these are in use.

Certain existing conditions must be dealt with. One is that a student would rather stint on food and pay $4.40 for a ticket to the theater than to pay more for food and miss the show.

Another is that a large number of Technology men cannot afford to pay the present prices in Walker, and therefore either bring their own lunches or eat where they can get as little as they please.

A third is that the cafeterias whose prices are compared to Walker's by the students serve three paying meals a day for seven days a week, while Walker serves but one paying meal and that for only five days a week. Cafeterias still do good business during the Christmas and spring vacations, as they do not rely on Technology trade alone, while Walker on the other hand must either lay off its help and pay them at the same time or else have a complete turnover and hire a new crew at the end of every vacation period.

The first and most important thing which Walker must attain is volume, for volume and variety go hand in hand. The Dining Service cannot expect a large crowd to come unless they first offer a change. The question which shall go first, variety or volume, must be answered with the word variety. I suggest that the Dining Service institute an advertising campaign announcing a change of policy with lower prices and more variety. Such a campaign must be entered into in a wholehearted manner, and must be adhered to, to the very last. A suggestion is that a ticket to one of the new kind of meals be given free to all students with a string attached that the user of the ticket express his opinion of the new system, if good to every one, and if adverse, criticism to the superintendent of the Service so that any fault may be corrected. Such a scheme will give volume of trade with increased returns and larger profit.

In order to alleviate the added expense of dances and convocations to the dining system, I suggest that either one of two things be done.

(1) Cause the Institute to bear all the expenses such as this club charge with the aid of the student tax, or (2) make the club service selfsupporting and paying as the Harvard Union does. There is no reason why caterers' charges should not be entered against the club giving a dance and no reason why the club should not pay all the cost for clearing and preparing for the event. The strange fact is that most of the clubs

give their dances with an idea of profit and thus they would not be hurt as the authorities feel they would by having to pay a high price. High prices can be charged for good dinners. A society that is willing to pay $2 to $3 in town for a meal would certainly be willing to pay the same in Walker were it offered the same meal. They could not get a meal in town for less than $1.50, so why should Walker offer them such a one at a loss? If the authorities will agree to allow the system to run on this basis it would soon become self-supporting, as is illustrated by the case of the Harvard Union which was in just such straits up to this year when they radically changed their policy.


PART of the training which is offered to the students of the Co-Operative Electrical Engineering course while they are at Lynn is an opportunity for becoming acquainted with non-technical literature. Although the list of recommended books contains the best of the Greek and Latin classics, Victor Hugo, Turgeniev and selected writers of our twentieth century, there was a request that Plato's works be included. Thus, while the experience which the students are obtaining is intensely practical, their reading is just as intensely humanistic. Approximately onethird of the class comes from other institutions such as Yale, Colgate and Annapolis, and several already hold degrees. Students of this calibre need little warning as to the danger of disregarding the cultural.

In continuance of the policy of making the course as practical as possible even on the literary side, arrangements are being made for a lecture before these men on "Writing For The Press," by the editor of a Boston paper. Reports of this lecture are to be made by the students and turned over to the editor to be judged in terms of their acceptibility for his newspaper. If the engineer is to make his influence felt in his community he should be able to place his ideas before the public in an effective manner. There is no better medium for this expression of himself than the local press.


The Boston Transcript reviews it and estimates its value-high praise for M. I. T.

IN a volume of nearly eight hundred pages the Alumni Association of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology presents for permanent record the services of the Institute's staff, its former students and its undergraduates to the country in the Great War. The mere assembling and publication of this material has been an undertaking of no mean magnitude, because the figures are so large and the services so numerous and varied, but it has been attacked with true Tech spirit, to do with its hands whatever is set before it. In ratio of number engaged in war work no other college has a record that is comparable, for out of 7900 former students whose addresses were known at the beginning of the war, 4897 served with the Army, Navy or Marines of the United States, 79 others with the forces of the Allies, with 2300 engaged in some civil capacity in employment related to the war. It is therefore true that more than ninety per cent of known former students went to the aid of their country in the emergency. So far as quality of service is concerned the showing is equally surprising, for 2528 or fifty-one per cent of those in military branches were commissioned officers. In this group were two major generals and five brigadiers, while the industries showed almost without exception a Technology man or men at the top.

With such a record the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has not only emphasized its place as a university, but it has actually played such part in the defense of the nation, "that it became, as it always must become in time of a great emergency, to all intents and purposes an integral part of the nation's military forces."

It is hopeless to attempt to touch any but the highest spots in such a story in the space of a brief review, but a few items may be noted to show the nature of the services rendered.

The roll of honor includes 126 men who gave their lives to the cause. Great lists are given of the services performed by the men in the Army and Navy-two hundred closely printed pages in all — while an equally concise list of civilian accomplishments requires one hundred and fifty pages more.

Altogether there were 451 Tech men who took part in battle, and spirited stories of individual experiences comprise the section of the volume devoted to this subject. There were M. I. T. men with the French infantry at Verdun and at Neuve Chapelle with the British, and with the American units at Cambrai and from that time till the armistice they saw constant service. In the great counter-offensive they were with American troops, quite largely in artillery, and one of them was a participant in that real battle of the Chateau-Thierry on

June 14, 1918, the real turning point of the War. A stirring story of Montfaucon is given by a participant and the various Argonne attacks and the pursuit to the Meuse conclude this portion of the description with some references to the airplane work, to which the Institute men took quite naturally. Personal relatings of experiences make here an interesting story.

One has difficulty in estimating the complexity of the situation in which this country found itself, carrying on war on foreign soil in a place where the inhabitants had their hands quite full in caring for their own needs. Ports, railway systems, shops, and other transportation facilities were necessary, to be constructed of materials shipped from here, and this was under the direction of Samuel Morse Felton, '73. The mechanism for carrying forward food and supplies was required, and hospitals were among the matters of vital importance. At Beau Desert the plans called for accommodations for 17,000 beds, and there were required no fewer than 1000 buildings with railways, roadways, sidewalks, telephones and fire system. Colonel Harold W. Jones, '98, was the commander of this extraordinary enterprise, which at the time of the signing of the armistice was caring for 12,000 patients.

With reference to war activities in this country, while they lacked the excitement of the presence of an enemy they were of utmost importance, since on them depended the preparation of the fighting force and its maintenance in France. We realize how hurried was every movement, but to leap at once from a condition of unpreparedness and even negligence to wartime strength and activity was a task that demanded every resource. Here the skilled engineer had his field and here the men of the M. I. T. did their marvelous work.

The first patrol squadron was organized by Loring Swasey, '98. He had designed an express cruiser for another alumnus, which proved so seaworthy that a mosquito fleet was suggested. When the shadow of war was evident to those with vision, he organized such a fleet of nine fast boats built by individuals with the purpose of turning them over to the Government if needed and began practice with them. This was in 1916. In due time the Navy took over this squadron and the owners became the first officers of the U. S. Naval Reserve Force.

Towards the close of 1916 Swasey together with Lester Gardner, '98, George E. Hale, '90, and Hollis Godfrey, '98, became assured that war was imminent and were active in suggesting a policy for Technology. This was practically adopted, but in the state of public opinion and the lack of official initiative on the part of the Government, the Institute was obliged for a while to "carry on" alone. Hale was probably the moving spirit in the formation of the National Research Council; Godfrey turned his energies to the industrial phases of the work and is credited with influence towards the formation of the Hay bill, which provided among other matters for the Reserve Officers' Training Corps and the Council of National Defense, while Gardner undertook publicity work. by way of educating the country.

President Maclaurin was named educational director of the Stu

dents' Army Training Corps. This was in addition to his regular work, magnified into extraordinary duties in fitting the courses at the Institute to the needs of the emergencies. Prof. William H. Walker began in 1917 the search for helium-producing gas fields, in October was made director of the work, but in the re-organization was transferred to the Edgewood Arsenal, which was built and administered by him till the close of the war. It was intended for the filling for toxic gas shells, but became the place of manufacture of phosgene, chloropicrin and mustard gas. The research laboratory here brought together a goodly number of men from the chemical department of the Institute, in fact to such an extent that some criticism was induced. Prof. James F. Norris, Prof. W. K. Lewis, '05; Bradley Dewey, '09; William Green, '05; William H. McAdams, '16; Norman J. Vile, '16; Robert E. Wilson, '16; and others from the institution constituted the staff. It was, however, a work of the Institute almost throughout, and fortunately for the Germans, who were to be out-fought with their own weapons many times intensified, the war came to an end. In chemistry especially the remark of the young soldier was true. "The armistice spoiled a perfectly good war."

A prime need of the situation was the withdrawing of nitrogen from the atmosphere, the only available source under the conditions, and three M. I. T. men comprised the experts to whom the development of the work was given. They were W. R. Whitney, '90, Elihu Thomson of the corporation and Prof. A. A. Noyes, '86. These men really developed the process, at the time in use only in Norway on a large basis, and they established the manufacture of nitrates to an extent quite equal to the usual importation from Chile.

The office of purchase, storage and traffic, with many purposes and manifold duties was under the command of General Goethals. His executive officer was Gerard Swope, '95, and the magnitude of operations may be judged by the budget which called for nearly eight billion dollars.

The military camps were constructed by a committee named by the council of national defense. These enormous enterprises were planned by a body of engineers under Charles T. Main, '76, George W. Fuller, '90 and Leonard Metcalf, '92. How rapidly they went forward towards completion is common knowledge today. The great army supply bases in Brooklyn and Boston were planned by Tech men. Cass Gilbert, '80, B. W. Latham, '03 and Charles A. Johnson, '09 for the former and Frederic H. Fay, '93, Charles M. Spofford, '93, and Sturgis H. Thorndike, '95, for the Boston buildings. The importance of these constructions is evidenced by the cost, $24,000,000 for Boston and $32,000,000 for Brooklyn. Hog Island, the marvel in construction of the twentieth century, was largely administered by M. I. T. men. It is the greatest undertaking ever committed to a private firm and surpassed only by the Panama Canal in the great works of this Government.

The ubiquity of Tech men in manufactures that were related to the war is one of the surprises of the book. Whether in airplane investiga

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