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XL METEOROLOGICAL TABLE FOR BLOOMINGTON, Iowa.

For the Year 1841 ; by Mr. T. S. Parvin. 1c11. Thermometer. Barometer.

Weather.

Winds.

Months.

SMeun tem

perature.
Maximum

Maximum.

Mean

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Rain.
Northeast.

Northwest
.. Snow.

n Southeast

25 Lt. Wind.

5 Hg. Wind.

9

.38

9. 21

Jan. 20.8 52 2375 29.36 29.90 29.901.00 166 6 5 2 20 4 14 17
Feb 36.1 62 14 76 .36 .70 .80 .90 1971 2 6 1 17:10 19
Mar. 37.268 18 50 .36 .80 .80 1.00 15 7 9 8 1 15 11 5 16' 15
Apr. 51.3,77 27 50 .80 .60 1.20 77 16 8 1 8 11 12 9
May 58.1 90 33 57 .37 .60 29.10 .50 19 2 10 8

710 20 11 June 71.1 4649 47

.32
.50 .00 .50 14 4 12 10

12 2 412 20 10 July 70.4 96 36 40 .41

.60 .20 40 19 1' 1111 7 1 4'19, 27 Au. 65 596 18 48 .49 .60 .20 .40 17 2 12 9 10 5 13 3 27 4 Sep, 58 5 96 36 60 .36 .60 29.90 .70 12 101 810 6 12 6 21 9 Oct. 53.0 72 18 54 .35 .70 29.00 .70 12 9 10 6 1 10 15 4 17 Yov.35.266 4 70 .37 .70 28.70 1.00 14 8 8 5 4 2 4 15 9 19 11 Dec. 28.8.17 8 55 .35 .70 .10 1.60 13 14 4 5 2 3 6 15 7 25 6 Yr. 48.4 96 23 119 29.37 29.90 28.10 1.80 177 77,111,5021 78 44 145.98 234 131

The warmest day was June 7th; mean, 83° above 0. The coldest day was Jan. 17th ; inean, 13.40 below 0. The highest temperature, July 19th ; 90° above 0. The lowest temperature, Jan. 17th; 23° below 0. Mean temperature for the year, 48.41° Range of temperature, 119o. Mississippi river opened, March 1st; closed, January 3d, 1842.

(Note. — The minimum for January, February, November and December, should be taken as below zero, for the number of degrees expressed in that column opposite those months. XII. METEOROLOGICAL TABLE FOR BLOOMINGTON, Iowa,

For the Year 1842; by Mr. T. S. Parvin. 1842. Thermometer.

Barometer.
Weather.

Winds.

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en Snow.

19 Northeast.

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L. Wind.

Hg. Wind.

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Jan. 26.2 52-10 62 29.86 29.60 28.90 .70 23 3 5

5 195 22 9 Feb 28.0 56 -13 69 .20 .70 .80.90, 15 8 5 5 5 6 12 10 20 8

Mar. 15.8.81 13 71 42 .70 .70 1.00 18 1126 1 5 8 12 6 13 18 Apr. 53.3 81 26 58 .26 .50 .90 .60 20 5 5 7 3 7 12 8 16 14 May 57.8 86 33' 53 .3-11 .70 29.00 .70 20 8 3 6 3 8 il 9 27 June 65.6 92 43 49 .30 .50 28.80.70 18 4 8 8 1 11 16 2 271 3 July 68.391 50 44 .50 29.10 .40 24 4 3 7 6 13 6 6 25, 6 Au. 66.8 42 14 51 .46 .80 .00 .80 24 5 2 3 2 17 7 5 19, 12 Sep. 61.4 92 35 57

.70 .20.50 21 3 67 6 9 5 10 17 13 Oct. 53.4 80 23 57 41 .70 .10 .60 25 4 2 2 1 6 4 20 9 22 Nov. 30.2 69-11 80 .39 .70 28.90 80 10 13 7 4 6 7 17, 6 22 8 Dec.21.6 48 -21 69 .10 .80 .00 .80 1213 6

5 3 4 21 3 25 6 Yr. 48.4 94-21115 29.38 29.80 28.70 1.10 230 71 64 57 19 32 101 152 90 242 123

The warmest day was Sept. 11th, 81° 20' above 0. The coldest day was Dec. 220, 6° below 0. The highest temperature was July 18th, 94° above (); the lowest was Dec. 220, 21° below 0. Mean temperature for the year, 48° 46!. Range of temperature, 115o. Mississippi River opened, Feb. 28; closed, Nov. 26.

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.

Perkins Professor of Astronomy in Harvard University. On the 27th of February, this comet was seen nearly at midday in Conception, S. A. Captain Peleg Ray, "a man of sound judgment, a very accurate observer, and correct man,” observed it in that city, and on that day, at 11 A. M., at the East of the Sun, its bearing from the Sun being almost precisely East, with very little perceptible Southing. Its distance from the Sun was only 5 minutes, or of the Sun's apparent diameter." He did not,” says William Mitchell, of Nantucket, in a letter describing this observation, “ measure the angle, his instruments being on board of the ship, some distance below the city; but he took great pains to estimate the apparent distance, and, being so near the Sun, thinks he has done it very nearly. I have tested the day and hour in a most satisfactory manner.”

On the 28th of February, the comet was seen by day in various parts of New England, the East and West Indies, and the South of Europe. The only exact observation upon its place was made by Mr. F. G. Clarke, of Portland, Maine ; and this is much the most valuable single observation which was made upon the comet, and more so, probably, than any

observation which has ever been made upon any comet. The time of observation was 3h. 2m. 15s. Portland mean solar time, and the observed dis. tance, which Mr. Clarke thinks may be depended upon to 10", was 4° 6' 15" from the farthest limb of the Sun to the nearest limb of the comet; the bearing, as nearly as it could be ascertained by the compass, was E. by S., S. of the comet from the Sun. Mr. Clarke says, “ the opacity of this comet was remarkable; I fully believe that it might have been seen on the Sun's disk. It resembled a white cloud of great density.” He thought, that the tail was fully equal to the nucleus in brilliancy, and adds, “ I observed no difference throughout.” He also described the head as being definitely distinct from the tail; and the extremity of the tail, most remote from the Sun, was perfectly well defined, and distinctly rounded off. This last observation is insisted upon quite positively by Mr. Clarke, although it seems to be at variance with that of other observers, whose accounts agree much more closely with that of Amici of Florence. Amici saw the comet at noon, and stated " the mass, examined by an opera glass, to be like a flame, badly defined, three times as long as it was wide, very luminous towards the Sun, and a little smoky at the East.” An observer at Woodstock, Vt., says that “on viewing the comet through a common three-feet telescope of moderate

power, it presented a distinct and most beautiful appearance, exhibiting a very white and bright nucleus, and a tail dividing near the nucleus into two separate branches, with the outer sides of each branch convex, and of nearly equal length, apparently go or 10°, and a space between their extremities of 5 or 6°.” This account appears irreconcilable with the same observer's estimate of the length of the comet's tail, which was only 3*, and which is the same with that of the observers at New Bedford and Waterbury.

During the first week of March, the splendor of the comet in the Southern hemisphere is described as altogether surpassing any thing which it afterwards exhibited to Northern observers. On the 1st of March, it was seen at Pernambuco, and on the 4th, it is described by H. A. Cooper, Esq., the British Consul in that city, “ as particularly small, without any nebulosity, but of extreme brightness, of a golden hue, and a line of the same bright color may be distinctly traced, running directly from it into the tail, for 4 or 5°; the tail is perhaps 30° in length, and is of a brilliant silver color, perfectly opaque, but becoming less and less dense until it is lost in space.”

Commander Close, of the ship Ellenborough, estimated the nucleus " to be of equal brightness with a star of the second or third magnitude, and said that the tail had a darkish line from its nucleus through the centre to the end; it was occasionally brilliant enough to throw a strong light on the sea. The tail was observed to have considerable curvature.” This dark line was also noticed on the 4th by Capt. Hopkins, on a voyage to India from the Cape of Good Hope, and by Mr. David Sears, Jr., and Mr. Appleton, of Boston, who were in latitude 10%. South, and exerted themselves to obtain observations of the comet. At the Cape of Good Hope, the nucleus was seen on the 3d of March, and is described by Piazzi Smyth, Esq., of the Royal Observatory, as consisting of a "planetary disk, from which rays emerged in the direction of the tail. To the naked eye there appeared a double tail, about 25 in length, the two streamers making with each other an angle of about 15', and proceeding from the head in perfectly straight lines. From the end of the forked tail, and on the North side of it, a streamer diverged at an angle of 6° or 7 towards the North, and reached a distance of upwards of 65' from the comet's head; a similar, though much fainter, streamer was thought to turn off South of the line of direction of the tail. On the 5th, the appearance of the comet was considerably changed; the angle of the North streamer with the direction of the tail had been diminishing, and was now South ; it had also diminished in brightness. The total length was about 35. All the rays proceeding from the head were now of uniform brightness, excepting one bright streak, which could be traced along the tail. On the 6th, the nucleus is the broadest part of that end of the comet; all the rays come from the posterior side, and are pretty equal in brightness, with the exception of a narrow bright streak in the middle, which runs for 3' or 4° along the middle of the tail, and then verges to the North side. The tail this evening was about 27° long. On the 9th, the angle of the two sides of the tail at the head appeared to have undergone a gradual diminution, and the middle part was becoming more and more equal in brightness to the sides."

The only observers who seem to have noticed any color in the comet, are Mr. Cooper of Nice, who notices the change in the color from a reddish tint upon the first day of its appearance, to a pure white; and John Belan, Esq., master of the British sloop of War Albatross, who observed it on the 7th of March, and says that“ the part of it from which the tail is produced is of a reddish appearance."

The lengths of the tail, given at different times, by different observers, are contained in the following table.

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9 Mar. 15

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Bond,

130 50 521 50 43 40 41 Sears & Appleton,

25

35 38 383 39 Clarke, Wookstock Obser.

3 Piazzi Smyth,

:25 3527 Captain Close, 321

431 Captain Hopkins, 30 Lieut. Pollock,

23 Caldecott,

36

45 Lieut. Downes,

35 J. Belam, Esq.,

Mitchell, Lieut. Jacob,

36 Cowper, Captain Geale,

46

32 30 24 Yale Observatory,

31 Laugier,

40 Malta,

36 Galle,

40 Meani,

22531 32 31 36 31 33 48 45 52 34 45 13 10' 41 32 30 24 Actual obs'd length 5,31,42 44,45 51 52,52 102 100 191 92, 200, 156, 109, 209, 213, 169 186 150 in millions of miles.

The diameter of the head of the nucleus was measured by Mr. Calde. cott, of the Royal Observatory at Trevandrum, and found to be about 11", or five thousand miles, and that of the nebulosity surrounding it, about 45'', or twenty thousand miles.

The elements of the orbit of the comet have been computed by many different astronomers, and are contained in the following table:

Greens.

mean time of Perihel. Passage.

Long. of the Perihelion.

Long.

Periof the Incli

helion
Ascendog nation.

Distance.
Node.

Ecceniricity.

Computers.

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Febr’y. d.

[Kendall. 20.1:22

72 6 197 44 25 15 0.41051 1.00000 D Walker and 126.2513 232 50 31 166 1 25 39 022 0.00834

(6

1.00000 D 27.448750 276 59 32 1 16 21 35 40 52 0.00818296 1.00000

(6

R 27.436953 277 43 54 1 55 19 35 34 1 0.00701906 1.00000 27.54 275 30 359 0 36 1 0.0104 1.00000 R 27.53065 290 47 1 66 8 3 17 14 52 0.00207512 1.00149 R 27.52939 20 44 4 15 57 434 19 52 0.00110367 1.0009050 R 27.2013 272 19 356 31 36 37 0.0147 1.00000 R Nooney and (a) 27.293424 274 49 38 359 8 46 35 56 38 0.0102517 1.0000 R Alexander, N.J. 27.330903 273 32 31 14 51 9 33 6 49 0.0227511 1.0000 R Smith, Conn. 27.6 347 160 30 45 30 0.16 1.0000 D H. M. P. Maine. 26.6887 290 24 25 160 10 39 41 9 1 0.007167 1.0000 D Loomis, Ohio. 27.50 279 29 359 43 35 58 0.001107 1.0000 R Henderson. 27.910 186 33 352 5 40 53 0.5767 1.00000 R

Littrow. 27.4209 274 30 5357 43 25 36 22 20 0.011323 1.00000 R Galle, Berlin. 27.4711 279 12 11 359 53 21 36 0 27 0.0045 1.0000 R Plantamour, (b) 27.4290 278 18 3 051 435 45 39 0.005907 1.00000 R 27.42 279 50 1 24 35 39 0.0052 1.0000 R Valz. 27.42 278 28 5359 29 1035 39 50 0.0032 1.0000 R Valz. 27.36579 281 21 20 5 51 835 034 0.0030361 1.0000 R

Encke. 1:27.46195 279 2 30 4 15 25 35 12 38 0.0052197 1.0002182 R Encke. 27.461 277 29 21

0 58 19 35 44 22 0.007174 1.0000 R Argelander. 27.3598 280 32 25 4 36 035 10 39 0.003697 1.0000 R Nicolai. 27.4132 279 59 7 3 55 17 35 15 42 0.001280 1.0000

Capocci. 27.5643 277 52 35 354 48 50 35 56 55 0.00538 1.0000 R Capocci. 27.630 289 51 25 353 0 59 40 29 37 0.0050313 1.0000 R

Plana. 27.5 243 33 353 45 38 0 0.1542 1.0000

R Carlini. 27.432 279 6 3 7 35 3

0.0019 1.0000 R Caldecott. 27.55 267 42 357 42 36 7

0.0511

1.0000 R Anderson, N. Y. 27.57956 279 40 35 15 0 56 34 21 6 0.00415697 1.0008560 R Anderson, N. Y. 27.42291 278 45 39 2 10 035 31 30 0.005198 1.0000 R Laugier and (c) 27.39561 278 36 20 0 44 235 46 11 0.0056779 0.9998185 R 175 27.33960 278 17 33'357 52 4 36 20 33 0.00601691 0.999140 R 35.1 27.39583 278 34 18 0 47 43 35 46 12 0.0056712 0.9998187 R 175 Gould. 27.40173 279 35 32 0 21 38 35 50 14 0.0055824 0.9998308 R 189) Gould. 27.21 200 31 348 33

39 16 0.00872 1.0000 R Peirce, 27.3100 277 36 28 356 03 35 36 46 1510.00700000 0.9991050 R 21, Peirce. 27.2 500 276 49 22 355 28 43 36 54 100.00-00000 0.9989772 R 21 Peirce. (a) Hadley, of Yale. (b) Of Geneva, (c) Mauvais, Paris.

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