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THE

AMERICAN ALMANAC,

FOR

THE

YEAR

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1844, Being the latter part of the 68th, and the beginning of the 69th,

year of the Independence of the United States of America; the 6557th year of the Julian Period; " the latter part of the 5604th and the beginning of the

5605th, year since the creation of the world, according to

the Jews; the 2597th year (according to Varro) since the foundation

of Rome; the 2591st year since the era of Nabonassar, which has been

assigned to Wednesday the 26th of February of the 39671h year of the Julian Period, which corresponds, according to the chronologists, to the 747th, and, according to the as

tronomers, to the 746th year, before the birth of Christ; the 2620th year of the Olympiads, or the fourth year of the

655th Olympiad, beginning in July, 1843, if we fix the era of the Olympiads at 7754 years before Christ, or at or about the beginning of July of the year 3938 of the Julian

Period; the latter part of the 1259th, and the beginning of the 1260th

year (of twelve lunations) since the Hegira, or flight of Mahomet, which, as is generally supposed, took place on the 16th of July, in the year 662 of the Christian era.

I. THE CALENDAR AND CELESTIAL PHENOMENA FOR THE YEAR.

SIGNS OF THE PLANETS, &c. The Sun.

Mars.

? Ceres. The Earth.

Vesta.

Jupiter. DOO The Moon. Juno.

h Saturn. Mercury

Pallas.

H Herschel or Uranus. Venus.

* A fixed star. o Conjunction, or having the same Longitude or Right Ascension. o Quadrature, or differing 90° in 8 Opposition, or 180° in

The ascending, U the descending node.

The sign + is prefixed to the latitude, or declination, of the Sun, or other heavenly body, when north, and the sign – when south; but the former prefixed to the hourly motion of the Moon in latitude, indicates that she is approaching, and the latter that she is receding from, the north pole of the ecliptic.

The letters M. A., m. a., denote Morning and Afternoon.

CHRONOLOGICAL CYCLES. Dominical Letters,

G, F.

Solar Cycle, Epact

11 Roman Indiction, Lunar Cycle, or Golden Number, 2 Julian Period,

5

2 6557

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h. m. S. Sun enters V (Winter begins) 1843, Dec. 22d, 5 40 26 M.

op (Spring 1844, March 20th, 6 45 58 M. / M. Time (Summer

June 21st,

3 37 54 M. at - (Autumn

Sept. 22d, 5 48 51 A. Wash'ton. ve (Winter

Dec. 21st,

11 22 56 M.)

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d. hm. S. Sun in the Winter Signs

89 1 5 32 Spring

92 26 51 56 Summer

93 14 10 57 Autumn

89 17 24 5 “north of Equator, (Spring and Summer) 186 11 2 53 u south of

Winter and Autumn) 178 18 29 37

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Length of the tropical year, commencing

at the winter solstice, 1843, and termi- 365 5 32 30

nating at the winter solstice, 1844, Mean or average length of the tropical year, 365 5 48 48

MOVABLE FESTIVALS OF THE CHURCH, IN 1844. Septuagesima Sunday, Feb. 4th | Rogation Sunday,

May 12th Quinq. or Shrove do.

18th Ascen. Day, or Holy Th. Ash Wed. Lent begins, 21st Whitsunday or Pentecost, 26th Mid Lent Sunday, Mar. 17th Trinity Sunday,

June 2d Palm do 31st | Corpus Christi Day,

6th Easter

Apr. 7th Fête Dieu, Low do 14th Advent Sunday,

Dec. 1st

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JEWISH CALENDAR.

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[The anniversaries marked with an asterisk (*) are to be strictly observed.] Year. Names of the Months. 5604 Thebet begins

Dec. 24, 1843. 10th Fast for the Siege of Jerusalem Jan. 2, 1844. Sebat begins

22,
Adar begins

Feb. 21,
14th
*Purim

Mar. 5, « 15th Schuscan Purim

6, Nisan begins

21,
15th *Beginning of the Passover

Apr. 4,
16th *Second Feast, or Morrow of the
Passover

5,
21st *Seventh Feast

10, 22d *End of the Passover

“ 11,
Ijar begins

20,
18th
Lag Beomer

May 7,
Sivan begins

19,
6th

*Feast of Weeks or Pentecost
7th *Second Feast
Thammus begins

June 18,
17th Fast for the taking of the Temple
Ab begins

17,
9th *Fast for the burning of the Temple 25,
Elul begins
5605 Tisri begins *Feast for the New Year

Sept. 14,
2d *Second Feast for the New Year
4th Fast of Gedaljah,
10th *Fast of the Reconciliation or Atone-

ment
15th *Feast of the Huts or Tabernacles 28,
16th *Second Feast of the Huts

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Year. Names of the Months.
5605 Tisri 21st Feast of Palms or Branches Oct. 4, 1844,

22d *End of the Hut, or Congregation Feast" 5,
23d *Rejoicing for the discovery of the Law “

6,
Marchesvan begins

14, Chisleu begins

Nov. 12,
25th Consecration of the Temple

Dec. 6,
Thebet begins

12,
10th Fast for the Siege of Jerusalem
Sebat begins

Jan. 10, 1845. The Jewish year generally contains 354 days, or 12 lunations of the Moon, but, in a cycle of 19 years, an intercalary month (Veadar) is 7 times introduced, for the purpose of rendering the average duration of the year quite or nearly correct.

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MAHOMETAN CALENDAR,

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Year. Names of the Months 1259 Dsu'l-hejjah begins,

Dec. 23, 1843. 1260 Muharrem

Jan. 22, 1844.
Saphar

Feb. 21,
Rabia I.

Mar. 21,
Rabia II.

April 20,
Jomadhi I.

May 19,
Jomadhi II.

June 18,
Redjeb

July 17,
Chaban

Aug. 16,
Ramadan
(Month of Fasting)

Sept. 14,
Schewall (Bairam)

Oct. 14, "
Dsu'l-kadah

Nov. 12,
Dsu'l-hejjah

Dec. 12, 1261 Muharrem

Jan. 10. 1845. The Mahometan Era dates from the flight of Mahomet to Medina, July 16th, A. D. 662.

The Mahometan year is purely lunar; it consists of 12 synodical periods of the Moon, or of 354 days, 19 times in a cycle of 30 years, and 11 times of 355 days. The average length of this year is therefore 354}days, which differs only thirty-three seconds from the truth; a degree of exactness that only could have been attained by a long series of observations. But as no allowance is made for the excess of 11 days in the length of a tropical year over the time of 12 revolutions of the Moon, it is obvious that in about 33 years, the above months will correspond to every season and every part of the Gregorian year.

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HEIGHT OF THE GREATEST OR SPRING TIDES IN 1844.
Computed by the formula of Laplace (Mécanique Céleste, Vol. II. pp. 289

Puris ed., and (2858] Bowd. ed.)
New or Full
Height of | New or Full

Height of Moon. the tide, Moon.

the tide. d. h.

d. h. Full Moon, Jan. 5, 1 A. 0.84 New Moon, July 15, 9 M. 0.81 New 19, 1 A. 0.94 | Full

29, 10 M. 0.97 Full Feb. 4, M. 0.97 New Aug. 13, 10 A. 0.93 New 18, 4 M. 0.95 Full

27, 8 A. 0.97 Full March 4, 4 A. 1.08 New Sept. 12, 8 A. 104 New

18, 7 A.
0.91 Full

26, 8 A. 0.93 Full April 3, 2 M. 1.11 New

11, 6 A. 1.08 New

17, 0A.
0.83 Full

26, 0 M. 0.84 Full May 2, 10 A. 1.05 New Nov. 10, 5 M. 1.05 New 17, 4 M. 0.75 Full

24, 7 A. 0.77 Full 31, 6 A. 0.98 New

Dec. 9, 3 A. 1.01 New June 15, 7 A. 0.74 Full

24, 2 A. 0.77 Full

30, 1 M. 0.96

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The unit of altitude at any place, is the height at that place of that tide which arrives about a day and a half after the time of New or Full Moon, when the Sun and Moon at the moment of conjunction or opposition are at their mean distance from the Earth, and in the plane of the celestial equator.

This unit of altitude, which must be derived from observation for each place, multiplied by the quantities in the above table, gives the height of the spring tides at that place during the present year.

By the above table it appears, that the highest tides of 1844 will be those of March 5, April 4, May 3, September 13, October 12, and No. vember 11.

The actual rise of the tide, however, depends so much upon the strength and direction of the wind, that it not unfrequently happens that a tide, which would, independently of these, have been small, is higher than another, otherwise much greater. But when a tide, which arrives when the Sun and Moon are in a favorable position for producing a great elevation, is still further increased by a very strong wind, the rise of the water will be uncommonly great, sufficient perhaps to cause damage.

The formula, from which these tides were computed, is, however, strictly true only for Brest and its vicinity, and must be regarded as a very uncertain approximation for the coast of the United States.

For tables exhibiting the rise of the tide, and the differences between the times of high water at many places on the American coast and at Boston, see the American Almanac for 1840, pages 7, 8, and 9.

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