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1844, Being the latter part of the 68th, and the beginning of the 69th,
year of the Independence of the United States of America; the 6557th year of the Julian Period; " the latter part of the 5604th and the beginning of the
5605th, year since the creation of the world, according to
the Jews; the 2597th year (according to Varro) since the foundation
of Rome; the 2591st year since the era of Nabonassar, which has been
assigned to Wednesday the 26th of February of the 39671h year of the Julian Period, which corresponds, according to the chronologists, to the 747th, and, according to the as
tronomers, to the 746th year, before the birth of Christ; the 2620th year of the Olympiads, or the fourth year of the
655th Olympiad, beginning in July, 1843, if we fix the era of the Olympiads at 7754 years before Christ, or at or about the beginning of July of the year 3938 of the Julian
Period; the latter part of the 1259th, and the beginning of the 1260th
year (of twelve lunations) since the Hegira, or flight of Mahomet, which, as is generally supposed, took place on the 16th of July, in the year 662 of the Christian era.
I. THE CALENDAR AND CELESTIAL PHENOMENA FOR THE YEAR.
SIGNS OF THE PLANETS, &c. The Sun.
? Ceres. The Earth.
Jupiter. DOO The Moon. Juno.
h Saturn. Mercury
H Herschel or Uranus. Venus.
* A fixed star. o Conjunction, or having the same Longitude or Right Ascension. o Quadrature, or differing 90° in 8 Opposition, or 180° in
The ascending, U the descending node.
The sign + is prefixed to the latitude, or declination, of the Sun, or other heavenly body, when north, and the sign – when south; but the former prefixed to the hourly motion of the Moon in latitude, indicates that she is approaching, and the latter that she is receding from, the north pole of the ecliptic.
The letters M. A., m. a., denote Morning and Afternoon.
CHRONOLOGICAL CYCLES. Dominical Letters,
Solar Cycle, Epact
11 Roman Indiction, Lunar Cycle, or Golden Number, 2 Julian Period,
h. m. S. Sun enters V (Winter begins) 1843, Dec. 22d, 5 40 26 M.
op (Spring 1844, March 20th, 6 45 58 M. / M. Time (Summer
3 37 54 M. at - (Autumn
Sept. 22d, 5 48 51 A. Wash'ton. ve (Winter
11 22 56 M.)
d. hm. S. Sun in the Winter Signs
89 1 5 32 Spring
92 26 51 56 Summer
93 14 10 57 Autumn
89 17 24 5 “north of Equator, (Spring and Summer) 186 11 2 53 u south of
Winter and Autumn) 178 18 29 37
Length of the tropical year, commencing
at the winter solstice, 1843, and termi- 365 5 32 30
nating at the winter solstice, 1844, Mean or average length of the tropical year, 365 5 48 48
MOVABLE FESTIVALS OF THE CHURCH, IN 1844. Septuagesima Sunday, Feb. 4th | Rogation Sunday,
May 12th Quinq. or Shrove do.
18th Ascen. Day, or Holy Th. Ash Wed. Lent begins, 21st Whitsunday or Pentecost, 26th Mid Lent Sunday, Mar. 17th Trinity Sunday,
June 2d Palm do 31st | Corpus Christi Day,
Apr. 7th Fête Dieu, Low do 14th Advent Sunday,
[The anniversaries marked with an asterisk (*) are to be strictly observed.] Year. Names of the Months. 5604 Thebet begins
Dec. 24, 1843. 10th Fast for the Siege of Jerusalem Jan. 2, 1844. Sebat begins
Mar. 5, « 15th Schuscan Purim
6, Nisan begins
10, 22d *End of the Passover
*Feast of Weeks or Pentecost
Year. Names of the Months.
22d *End of the Hut, or Congregation Feast" 5,
14, Chisleu begins
Jan. 10, 1845. The Jewish year generally contains 354 days, or 12 lunations of the Moon, but, in a cycle of 19 years, an intercalary month (Veadar) is 7 times introduced, for the purpose of rendering the average duration of the year quite or nearly correct.
Year. Names of the Months 1259 Dsu'l-hejjah begins,
Dec. 23, 1843. 1260 Muharrem
Jan. 22, 1844.
Oct. 14, "
Dec. 12, 1261 Muharrem
Jan. 10. 1845. The Mahometan Era dates from the flight of Mahomet to Medina, July 16th, A. D. 662.
The Mahometan year is purely lunar; it consists of 12 synodical periods of the Moon, or of 354 days, 19 times in a cycle of 30 years, and 11 times of 355 days. The average length of this year is therefore 354}days, which differs only thirty-three seconds from the truth; a degree of exactness that only could have been attained by a long series of observations. But as no allowance is made for the excess of 11 days in the length of a tropical year over the time of 12 revolutions of the Moon, it is obvious that in about 33 years, the above months will correspond to every season and every part of the Gregorian year.
HEIGHT OF THE GREATEST OR SPRING TIDES IN 1844.
Puris ed., and (2858] Bowd. ed.)
Height of Moon. the tide, Moon.
the tide. d. h.
d. h. Full Moon, Jan. 5, 1 A. 0.84 New Moon, July 15, 9 M. 0.81 New 19, 1 A. 0.94 | Full
29, 10 M. 0.97 Full Feb. 4, M. 0.97 New Aug. 13, 10 A. 0.93 New 18, 4 M. 0.95 Full
27, 8 A. 0.97 Full March 4, 4 A. 1.08 New Sept. 12, 8 A. 104 New
18, 7 A.
26, 8 A. 0.93 Full April 3, 2 M. 1.11 New
11, 6 A. 1.08 New
26, 0 M. 0.84 Full May 2, 10 A. 1.05 New Nov. 10, 5 M. 1.05 New 17, 4 M. 0.75 Full
24, 7 A. 0.77 Full 31, 6 A. 0.98 New
Dec. 9, 3 A. 1.01 New June 15, 7 A. 0.74 Full
24, 2 A. 0.77 Full
30, 1 M. 0.96
The unit of altitude at any place, is the height at that place of that tide which arrives about a day and a half after the time of New or Full Moon, when the Sun and Moon at the moment of conjunction or opposition are at their mean distance from the Earth, and in the plane of the celestial equator.
This unit of altitude, which must be derived from observation for each place, multiplied by the quantities in the above table, gives the height of the spring tides at that place during the present year.
By the above table it appears, that the highest tides of 1844 will be those of March 5, April 4, May 3, September 13, October 12, and No. vember 11.
The actual rise of the tide, however, depends so much upon the strength and direction of the wind, that it not unfrequently happens that a tide, which would, independently of these, have been small, is higher than another, otherwise much greater. But when a tide, which arrives when the Sun and Moon are in a favorable position for producing a great elevation, is still further increased by a very strong wind, the rise of the water will be uncommonly great, sufficient perhaps to cause damage.
The formula, from which these tides were computed, is, however, strictly true only for Brest and its vicinity, and must be regarded as a very uncertain approximation for the coast of the United States.
For tables exhibiting the rise of the tide, and the differences between the times of high water at many places on the American coast and at Boston, see the American Almanac for 1840, pages 7, 8, and 9.