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Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Population
Persons are classified as in the labor force if they are employed as civilians, unemployed, or in the Armed Forces during the reference week. The "civilian labor force" is comprised of all civilians classified as employed or unemployed. All civilians who are not classified as employed or unemployed are defined as not in the labor force. The group who are neither employed nor unemployed includes persons engaged only in own home housework, attending school, or unable to work because of long-term physical or mental illness; persons who are retired or too old to work; seasonal workers for whom the survey week fell in an off season; and the voluntarily idle. Persons doing only unpaid family work (less than 15 hours) are also classified as not in the labor force.
Married persons are persons who are currently married, including persons who remarried after having been widowed or divorced. The married category, unless otherwise stated, also includes persons reported as separated, that is, living apart because of marital discord. Persons in common-law marriages are classified as married and persons whose only marriage had been annulled as never married.
Married persons may be divided into married, spouse present; separated; and other married, spouse absent. A person is classified as married, spouse present, if the husband or wife is reported as a member of the household even though he or she may be temporarily absent on business or on vacation, visiting, in a hospital, etc., at the time of the survey or census. Persons reported as separated include those with legal separations, those living apart with intensions of obtaining a divorce, and other persons permanently or temporarily estranged from their spouses because of marital discord. The group other married, spouse absent, includes married persons employed and living for several months at a considerable distance from their homes, those whose spouses were absent in the Armed Forces, in-migrants whose spouses remained in other areas, husbands or wives of inmates of institutions, and all other married persons (except those reported as separated) whose places of residence were not the same as that of their spouses.
The population residing in standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSA's) constitutes the metropolitan population. The population living outside SMSA's constitutes the nonmetropolitan population.
Except in the New England States, a standard metropolitan statistical area is a county or group of contiguous counties that contains at least one city of 50,000 inhabitants or more, or "twin cities" with a combined population of at least 50,000. In addition to the county, or counties, containing such a city or cities, contiguous counties are included in an SMSA if, according to certain criteria, they are socially and economically integrated with the central city. In the New England States, SMSA's consist of towns and cities instead of counties. Each SMSA must include at least one central city, and the complete title of an SMSA identifies the central city or cities. The metropolitan population as enumerated in the Current Popula
Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Population (Cont'd)
Native and Foreign-Born Population
tion Survey for the years 1963 through 1971 is based on SMSA's as defined in the 1960 census and does not include any subsequent additions or changes.
The metropolitan population is further classified as central cities and outside central cities. With a few exceptions, central cities are determined according to the following criteria:
(1) The largest city in an SMSA is always a central city. (2) One or two cities may be secondary central cities if they have at least 250,000 inhabitants or if the additional city or cities each have a population of one-third or more of that of the largest city and a minimum population of 25,000.
Migrants are persons living in a different county in the United States at the beginning and end of a specified period prior to the census or survey date, based on a comparison between the place of residence of each individual at the survey or census date and place of residence at the beginning of the period. In the Current Population Survey this period has been one year and in the 1970 Census it is the five-year period. April 1, 1965 to April 1, 1970. Migrants are further classified by type of migration as intrastate and interstate migrants on the basis of a comparison of the State of residence at the end of the period with the State of residence at the beginning of the period.
The native population includes persons born in the United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an outlying area of the United States, or at sea. In some CPS tabulations native excludes the small number of persons born abroad of American parents and in other CPS tabulations and in the 1970 Census these persons are included with the native population. Persons not classified as native are classified as foreign born.
The concept of race as used by the Census Bureau does not denote clear-cut scientific definitions of biological stock. Rather, it reflects self-identification by respondents (1970 Census) or the observations of interviewers (CPS). Since the 1970 Census obtained the information on race principally through self-enumeration, the data represent essentially self-classification by people according to the race with which they identify themselves.
The following specific racial categories may be distinguished in Bureau of the Census reports: white, Negro (or black), American Indian, Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian, and Korean; or a broad category "Negro and other races" may be shown. The category white in the 1970 Census includes persons who indicated their race as white, as well as some persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories on the questionnaire but entered Mexican, Puerto Rican, or a response suggesting Caucasian stock from Europe or Asia. The category Negro includes persons who indicated their race as Negro or black, as well as some persons who did not classify themselves in one of the specific race categories on the questionnaire but who made such entries as Jamaican, West Indian, and Ethiopian. In the 1970 Census for persons
Replacement Level of Fertility
Spanish Language Population
of mixed parentage who were in doubt as to their classification, the race of the person's father was used. The category, Negro and other races, consists of persons of all races other than white.
The replacement level of fertility is the level of fertility needed for the population eventually to replace itself exactly in the absence of immigration, i.e., for the population to become stationary. It is expressed as the average number of children one thousand women would have by the end of the childbearing period. At the level of mortality rates expected in the next few decades, the replacement level in the United States, for women of all marital classes, including childless single women, is approximately 2,110. A lifetime average of about 2,300 children ever born per 1,000 wives is needed for replacement. The higher quota for wives compensates for women who never marry or whose marriages are disrupted during the childbearing period.
School enrollment refers to attendance at a regular school or college at any time between a specified reference date and the time of the census or survey. Attendance may be either during the day or at night, or full-time or part-time. Regular schools include graded public and private (denominational or nondenominational) nursery schools, kindergarten, elementary and secondary schools, colleges, universities, and professional schools. Regular schooling is that which may advance a person toward an elementary school certificate or high school diploma or a college, university, or professional degree. Education in other schools is counted as regular schooling only if the credits obtained are regarded as transferable to a school in the regular school system. Persons were included as enrolled in nursery school only if the school included instruction as an important phase of its program.
The figures based on the Current Population Survey relate to the civilian non institutional population as of October 1 and to enrollment at any time during the current school year. The 1970 Census figures relate to the total resident population as of April 1 and to school attendance at any time between February 1, 1970, and the time of the enumeration.
The Spanish language population comprises persons of Spanish mother tongue and all other persons in families in which the head of the household or wife reported Spanish as his or her mother tongue. Mother tongue is the language spoken in the person's home when he or she was a child.
A stationary population is one which has a zero growth rate, that is, one which does not increase or decrease. This may occur when the number of births equals the number of deaths and net immigration is zero. If there is some net immigration, the number of deaths would have to exceed the number of births to maintain zero population growth. One set of conditions which would result in a stationary population in the United States is no net immigration and fertility at replacement level at an early date and continuing for several decades.
Persons who are not family members (that is, are not living with any relatives) include unrelated individuals and inmates of institutions. An unrelated individual who is the head of the household is a primary individual; that is, a household head with no relatives in the household. An unrelated individual who is not the head of a household is a secondary individual, that is, a roomer, resident employee, etc., with no relatives in the household or group quarters (and not an institutional inmate).
Urban and Rural Population
The urban population comprises all persons living in urbanized areas and in places of 2,500 inhabitants or more outside urbanized areas. More specifically, the urban population consists of all persons living in (a) places of 2,500 inhabitants or more incorporated as cities, villages, boroughs (except in Alaska), and towns (except in the New England States, New York, and Wisconsin), but excluding those persons living in rural portions of extended cities; (b) unincorporated places of 2,500 inhabitants or more; and (c) other territory, incorporated or unincorporated, included in urbanized areas. The population not classified as urban constitutes the rural population.
An urbanized area consists of a central city, or cities, and the surrounding closely settled territory. The specific criteria for the delineation of an urbanized area are as follows:
(1) A central city of 50,000 inhabitants or more, or twin cities, i.e., cities with contiguous boundaries and constituting, for general social and economic purposes, a single community with a combined population of at least 50,000, and with the smaller of the twin cities having a population of at least 15,000;
(2) Surrounding closely settled territory, including the following:
(a) Incorporated places of 2,500 inhabitants or more; (b) Incorporated places with fewer than 2,500 inhabitants, provided that each has a closely settled area of 100 housing units or more; (c) Small parcels of land normally less than one square mile in area having a population density of 1,000 inhabitants or more per square mile; (d) Other similar small areas in unincorporated territory with lower population density, provided that they serve to eliminate enclaves, to close indentations in the urbanized areas of one mile or less across the open end, or to link outlying enumeration districts of qualifying density that are not more than 11⁄2 miles from the main body of the urbanized area.
The major objective of the Census Bureau in delineating urbanized areas is to provide a better separation of urban and rural population in the vicinity of the larger cities.