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colon, and hence the peritoneal cavity was opened she died of peritonitis. The fifth case, likewise for syphilitic disease of the rectum, by Dr. Fenwick, recovered and is still living; and the last case in an aged man for cancer of the rectum, extending high up, also operated on by Dr. Fenwick, was greatly relieved, and lived in comparative comfort for seven months after the operation. We fully believe in the advisability of colotomy in cancer of the rectum, especially when the disease extends so high up the bowel as to preclude the chance of adopting other operative measures, although on two occasions we have removed the end of the bowel after Lisfranc. Here again, in speaking of excision of the rectum, our author is slightly in error. At page 435, he remarks: “ In this country ten cases have been operated on—2 by Busche, 1 by Mott, 1 by Marsh, 1 by Bridden, 3 by Levis, 1 by Dr. J. R. Wood and 1 by myself.”

Chapter VII. is on diseases and injuries of the blood vessels. In the next chapter we have the ligation of arteries. Chapter IX. contains a description of surgical dressings, and in the last chapter there will be found a description of injuries and diseases of the osseous system. The illustrations throughout the work are very clear and well executed. They number 897. Many of them are familiar, as they adorn the pages of other surgical works, but in saying this we do not wish to infer that they are misplaced, as they add much to the interest and usefulness of the work. Whenever an illustration is borrowed, it is duly accredited. Some of the wood cuts are from the Surgical History of the American War of Rebellion. These the author acknowledges to have received through the kindness of the Surgeon-General of the United States Army. A large number of the illustrations are, however, from original drawings by Mr. Faber. There is a very complete index, which adds to the interest of the volume. The statistical tables are of great use, as they are conveniently arranged for reference. We think a better classification might have been adopted, as the number of good things appear pretty well mixed. Nevertheless, this must be looked upon as a valuable addition to the many excellent treatises on surgery which have within the past few years issued from the press, and we shall look forward with interest to the completion of the work in the issue of the second volume,

Practical Surgery; including Surgical Dressings, Ban

daging, Ligations and Amputations.—By J. Ewing Mears, M.D., Demonstrator of Surgery in Jefferson Medical College, &c., &c. With 227 illustrations. 8vo. pp.

279. Philadelphia : Lindsay & Blakiston, 1878. This little book is dedicated to Prof. Gross, and is intended as a manual for students, to whom it is an object to have their work presented in as concise a form as possible. We venture to say, that the book, so far as it goes, fulfils the expressed intention of the author, and that students will find it a useful work during their accademical course, and, also subsequently in their professional career.

In these days hand-books of all kinds and descriptions are rained upon us. The student finds short and more or less useful compendiums on almost every subject, and it is possible that while to the diligent these may be very useful as aids to memory and as means of fixing more extended reading in the mind, to the indolent or superficial they may prove as snares and pitfalls.

The title of the present work might, we think, be improved, and it would give a more exact idea of its contents. If the word “ comprising ” were used instead of “including," for the book consists of nothing but four parts: one upon Surgical Dressings, one upon Bandaging, one upon Ligations, and a fourth upon Amputations.

These subjects are well and concisely treated, and short as the descriptions are, they cannot be accused of obscurity.

The first part, upon Surgical Dressings, is good, and ends with a description of the Antiseptic system.of dressing wounds. The second part gives us a description of the various forms of bandages and their modes of application, and here, as well at elsewhere through the book, we recognize many familiar illustrations for which the author is careful to give his acknowledgment in the preface.

Parts III and IV, on Ligations and Amputations, respectively, are well written, and deserve careful study.

Altogether, this is a useful little book, which may be recommended without hesitation.

The Pathological Anatomy of the Ear. By HERMANN

SCHWARTZE, M.D., Professor in the University of Halle,
pp. 174, with numerous illustrations. Translated by J.
ORNE GREEN, A.M., M.D., Aural Surgeon to the Boston
City Hospital, and Clinical Instructor in Otology to the

Harvard University, Boston: Houghton, OSGOODE & Co. This valuable work is a translation from the original German of the sixth part of Klebs' well-known hand-book of Pathological Anatomy, and constitutes a valuable addition to the literature of Otology.

The difficulties in the way of a successful study of the patho logical anatomy of the ear are so great that morbid anatomists have, almost without exception, shunned a labour which promised so little return.

Since the days of Toynbee, however, there is a small but scattered fraternity of earnest workers, to whose patient investigations the writer of this work is largely indebted for the material it contains. This may be said, without in any way detracting from the merits of Professor Schwartze's own labors, for ha is acknowledged to stand among the foremost in the field. To the otologist the work is of extreme interest and value. The translation has been carefully done, and " is issued both to show what has already been accomplished in this branch of otology, and with the hope of directing still further attention to pathological anatomy, the only solid foundation for a still further advance in our knowledge of disease of the ear.”

All the morbid conditions to which the ear is liable are discussed as fully as the present state of knowledge will warrant, and the illustrations given are most interesting and instructive. There is certainly no other work on the pathology of the ear so complete and exhaustive as this one. Essentials of Chemistry, Inorganic and Organic; prepared

for the use of Students in Medicine. By R. A. WITTHANS, A.M., D.D. 12mo. pp. 257. New York: William Wood

& Co., Great Jones Street, 1879. This little work is in the form of questions and answers, by which it is expected that the student will be able to post himself in the necessary minutiæ to pass an examination. It is a compendium solely intended for this purpose, and may be found of use to the advanced student. We do not think, however, that this style of work is commendable, except for the purpose for which it is apparently intended, namely, to refresh the mind already stored with chemical facts.

Extracts from British and Foreign Journals.

Unless otherwise stated the translations are made specially for this Journal.

THE PAST AND THE PRESENT ;

OR, THE CONDITION OF THE SURGICAL WARDS BEFORE THE

INTRODUCTION OF LISTER'S ANTISEPTIC METHOD

CONTRASTED WITH THEIR PRESENT STATE.

BY PROF. DR. VON NUSSBAUM OF MUNICH.

Translated from the German by F. BULLER, M.D., M.R.C.S., Eng. Up to the year 1875, I employed Lister's method occasionally. More often the ordinary plan of treatment, or the open treatment of wounds. In addition to this I often experimented with chlorine water, but from 1875 on, all my patients were “ Listered.” Fresh wounds were “Listered” immediately. Wounds which were suppurating and septic on admission, were cleansed with an 8 per cent. solution of chlor. of zinc, and then Listered. In this way a thorough and most satisfactory transformation has taken place, and my clinique once of evil, is now of good report.

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THE PRESENT.

No pyæmia.

No Hospital gangrene.

No erysipelas.

Injuries of the head scrupulously treated by the antiseptic plan, after the head has been shaved and cleaned with ether, the wound dis. infected with an 8 per cent. solution of chloride of zinc and drainage tubes inserted in the deeper parts, heal as a rule by first intention, so that treatment in hospital is much abridged. This holds good even in cases of injury to the brain.

Cases often recover without fever, in which during the first two or three days brain substance escapes through the drainage tube and the bone is mueh depressed.

THE PAST.

with a wound of bone became a victim of pyæmia, even flesh wounds were not exempt from the same evil.

Of seventeen amputations there were eleven deaths from pyæmia. Despite the open treatment of wounds, or the treatment by continned warm water baths, or by ferrum candens hospital gangrene, with its terrible results, had become so common that at least 80 per cent. of all wounds and ulcers were affected by it.

Nearly every wound took on erysipelatous action.

Of the numerous head wounds, most of which were of medico-legal interest, the large majority perished from pyæmia if there had been any bone injury. Some recovered after several attacks of erysipelas with severe fever, convalescence being thereby delayed for many weeks, and a further period of several months ensued, during which the patients thus prostrated were unfit to resume their employment.

During seventeen years no case of injury to the brain recovered.

In wounds of the neck, the stitches all cut through during the period of profuse suppuration, and if the patient escaped with life the process of healing by granulation lasted many months.

Penetrating wounds of the thorax always terminated fatally, with profuse and fætid suppuration, even though at the outset they seemed to promise well.

Penetrating wounds of the abdomen, laparotomy and operations for hernia in which the peritoneum was

Now, the wounds of the neck being disinfected with chloride of zinc, stitched with catgut and suitably provided with drainage tubes it seldom happens a stitch cuts through. The suppuration is rarely profuse and the healing process is speedily accomplished.

Penetrating wounds of the thorax often heal rapidly without any elevation of temperature.

Penetrating wounds of the abdomen, in which proper drainage can be secured, now heal without any untoward symptoms. We perform laparotomy without any fear of an un favorable result.

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