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confider their merits and defects, be light and airy for tune, paffionand how far they deserve their con- ate for air, and both pallionate and tinued approbation.

sublime for subject; but in every * Any works of a fashionable cafe (except particular applicacompoter, especially if'exhibited by tions) must appeal to the heart. performers we are in the habit of The accent and emphasis must be applauding, will take a present expressed, and whatever effect the hold on our attention, to the ex- reading of the words is to produce, clusion of works of superior merit must be encreased by the music. not possessing the same advantages; " There are but few examples but when they have had their day, of Handel's poffeffing tune in the they set to rise no more. On popular sense. He feldom is withthe contrary, those compofitions out air in its most refined applicawhich depend on their own intrin- tion, and most commonly has an fic merit, may make their way exuberance of subject for greater slowly, or perhaps, by being cut off purposes. His harmony is in gefrom a pollibility of taking the first neral well-chosen and full; his exstep, may never get forward at all; preffion sometimes faulty, but freyet, if once they are presented to quently juft; and his facility great ihe public, and their effect felt and from so much practice, linking now understood, they are always heard and then to carelessness. with new pleasure, and claim an In consequence of this geneequal immortality with poetry and ral character, we find no fongs of painting. Let us consider what are his in the style of Carey's tunes and the essentials of good music, and the real English ballad. Moit of how far Handel's compofitions pof- his oratorio and opera songs have sess them,

air in them, some very fine. His “The first essential (and without choruses are as yet unrivalled, and which all others are of no conse- those form the broad base on which quence) is what in popular music his fame is built. is called tune; in more refined, is “ They poilefs subject and condenominated air; and in the fupe- trivance, frequently expreslion, and rior class of compofition, fubject. most cominonly facility, altogether Music having this property alone, producing a superior effect to any is entitled to a long existence, and other chorutles yet known to the possesses it. The next essential is public. Their great number and harmony, the strongest ally by variety snew his invention, that which air can be allifted, but which strong criterion of genius. It will receives from air inore consequence be found to hold true as a general than it communicates. To these remark, that where the words are must be added expression, giving a mofi fublime, the composition has grace to the former; and facility, most subject and expression; and which has the effect of immediate this ought to be considered by those emanation, and, as the term im- who hold words of no consequence: ports, seems to accomplife with if they have no other than exalting cafe what from its apparent difli- the fancy of the composer (which culty should be rather fought for effect they certainly produce), we

should for the sake of music, inde“ If words are to be connected pendently confidered, make choice with music, they ought like that to of works of imagination. go

• Besides

than found.

“ Besides the advantages of su. sure, and always considered as an perior genius and knowledge, Han- entertainment of a superior kind. del pofTefled another, without which “ After this unequivocal and his genius and knowledge might heart-felt praise, I may venture to have remained for ever unknown. point out what appear to be defects He had an opportunity of present in this great musician. ing his works to the public per- " The first thing that an en. formed by the best band of the lightened modern composer would tinies, and of repeating his pieces notice, is an inattention to the until they were understood, and fort of the different inftruments

, their fuperior merit felt. By thefe more particularly apparent in the means they were impressed upon parts for trumpets and other windthe mind, and at last became so con- instruments, which in general lie genial to our feelings, as almost to aukward and unkindly. At the exclude the poffibility of other mu- time we acknowiedge this, we should sic being performed-but I have remark, that in those days such touched on this subject elsewhere. niceties did not exist, for they are

“ Handel's music, then, having roine of the real improvements of the great essentials of genius, skill, modern music. Handel's concertos and facility, and being at first per- and choruffes, without the least al. formed often enough to have its teration of harmony or melody in intention comprehended, and its the subject (as every real musician merit felt and acknowledged, it well knows) might be improved in necessarily keeps poffeffion of the this point, and produce a very fupublic favour, and its annual per. perior and increased effect." formance is expected with plea

QUALITIES neceffary for STUDENTS in PAINTING, with Rules and

and Reasons of the Art which demand their first Attention.


[From the Third Volume of the Works of ANTHONY RAPHAEL

INCE painting is a liberal art, give up all pretensions to eloquence,

it must necessarily have a me. and Mall endeavour to explain my. thod; and if it has a method, it self as fimply as possible, in order must consequently have sure and to be understood by all classes of certain rules. I therefore think it people. will be useful for me to set forth " The first quality a boy ought here, what reflections every young to have who is destined by his su. man ought to make before he be- periors to follow painting (I say gins this profession, and the path he superiors, because this profeffion ought to follow after he has under- must be commenced before we have taken it, that he may always ad. a will of our own), is penetration, vance the more in his career; and attention, and patience; and we at the same time, I thail say how must not suffer ourselves to be the master ought to conduct him- dazzled by that vivacity, nor by íelf in order to teach his art. There. that fire which is commouly taken fore, according to my euítomn, I for genius, but is not it in 'cality:


his parents.

on the contrary, that vivacity often evil, since no one has a precise prevents children from reflecting obligation to inftruet pupils. upon things, and consequently " It is true, that the world is full from making improvementsin paints of ingratitude, and that a skilful ing. We must therefore mind not painter, in giving his pupil a good to be deceived in taking for a ge- education, runs the risk of bringnius for painting that inclination to ing up a viper in his own bosom: be painters, which is seen in many but other men's vices are not an children. The fortunes made by excuse for ours; nor

can that some painters induce many parents painter ever exculpate himself, who to bring their children up to this in bringing up a youth is the cause profeflion, who, after having ftu- of his repenting all his life having died it for a long time, quit it with undertaken this profession. Those the same levity with which they profeffors, who by powerful reundertook it.

commendation, and without inte. “ In order to fhun these incon- rest, see themselves compelled to veniencies, a master who is both receive pupils, if they do not teach skilful and honest, should, before he them with requisite care and applitakes a boy, examine well him and cation, are nevertheless excusables

In the boy he ought for it is certain that it costs more to expe&t only penetration, pa- time and more trouble to finish a tience, a love for work, and parti- good pupil, than the largest picture cularly an exact light. The father in the world. Therefore, it seems ought to be perfectly disinterested, to me very unjust for patrons to and have a strong inclination to pretend, that an artist Mould lose afford his son every necessary help; his time in teaching the art to those and he must not do as many who who bring him no profit or interest call themselves friends, in having in doing it. This unreasonable paid for a youth a master for a practice generally prevails in Italy, Thort time.

which by degrees ruins painting, “ If the boy is found to be pof- and the youths who are brought up sessed of all the requisite qualifica- to it, in spite of the fine geniuses tions, the master must on his side which are to be found. But I shall begin by divesting himself as much quit this subject, which draws me as he can of his self-love, and teach from my object, and proceed to the him all he knows, all he has learnt, rules and reasons of the art, which and what has not been taught him I proposed to myself to explain, and by any one; and, above all, he must therefore shall employ a kind of never be apprehensive of teaching dialogue, by questions and ans him too much; and if unfortu- swers. nately he should be infected with “ Q. How can one know if a this foible, I would advise him ne. child has the necessary dispositions ver to be a master, for it would not for painting? be acting as an honest man, wil. " A. If he has more sense than fully to bring up people to be vivacity, one may conceive good wretched; nor do I see a greater hopes. misfortune for a man than to have i Q. What age thould the bewasted his youth to become a bad ginner be of? painter : and as that depends on “ A. The more tender, the more the master be can easily avoid this proper to begin, for from four


years he may learn something; and there is no object, whose outlines, then it will be easier for him to ac- and form, are not composed of quire a precision of light, as his or- figures, and simple or compound gans will not have contracted any geometrical lines. Therefore, if particular habit.

the child knows how to make these * Q. And if he began later, could figures by the eye, he will know he ever be a good painter? how to draw accurately any thing,

“ A. Undoubtedly; but it would and will easily conceive all the procost him much more trouble: for portions. he mult necessarily have employed “ Q. Will it not be better to the preceding time in something, make him draw the human figure, which must take up fome part of which, if composed of geometrical his memory, and prevent hin from figures, will teach at once what by learning painting with the fame fa- the other means is learnt at twice? cility.

« A. This advice is very perni" Q. Nevertheless, have there cious; because the beauty of the not been eminent painters, who outlines of the human figure dehave begun their studies at an ad- pends on expressing rightly all the vanced age?

imperceptible lines and broken 66 A. Yes. But the greatest forms, which form a whole of geomen have all learned painting metrical figures intermixed and confrom their inost tender infancy. fused with each other; so that it is Raphael was son to a painter, impossible for a child to conceive who perhaps made him begin paint them with clearners and precision, ing as soon as reason appeared and still more difficult for the main him. Titian began when a ster to judge by them of the exactchild. Michael Angelo handled ness of light of his pupil; whereas the marble at twelve. Correggio in a fimple triangle, for instance, having lived only forty years, left it is easy to know the defects and so great a number of excellent faults committed by the eye or the works that they could not have hand. been done in haste, and he must " R. What is the fault of the neceffarily have begun to work very eye? early. It is however true, that - A. There are people who see some good painters have begun things longer than broad, and o. later ; but if they fucceeded on ac- thers the contrary. Some at a cercount of their extraordinary abili. tain distance judge all objects to be ties, how much more would they greater than they are, and others not have excelled if they had begun lets; and therefore I think it proat an carlier age!

per that children fiould draw geo" Q. Wlet is the first thing a metrical figures, because in the master ought to teach his pupil? plainest objects errors are most

“ A. As it is not easy to discover easily detected: therefore the mafoon the genius and character of fter may, for instance, in a triangle, children, it is necessary to make know in a moment, by means of them begin by drawing scometrical the rule and compasses, the want of figures, but without rule or com- exactness in the eye of his pupil. palles, that they may accustom their • Q. The reason would be good light to exactness, which is the fun- if it were not contradicted by prac. damental basis of design; fince tice; tince neither Raphael, the


Caraccis, Domenichino, nor, fi- low fear we ought to undertake nally, any great painter has ever what others have done, I therebeen known to take this method, fore propose to aspire to the most in order to perform the excellent perfect ; and if when Raphael works which they have made. learnt correctness from his masters,

" A. This is partly true, but they had at the same time taught stands in need of some explanation. him to avoid their dry taste, and to Leonardo da Vinci, who has left draw nature by geometrical figures, us several rules of proportion of he would not have been obliged the human body, decides, that geo- afterwards to change his manner. metry is necessary to painters. Ra- If Caracci and Domenichino had phael's masters taught him to draw learnt painting, according to the with an extraordinary precision; method which I propose, we should therefore he could not help hav- not have seen in their outlines so ing at first a very servile and dry many false lines corrected, and in tafte, which he could only quit those of the latter particularly, that when he saw the ancient paintings, cold and timid taste which we sec and the works of Michael Angelo, in them. which he imitated because he had “ Q. But this geometrical study formed to himfelf the most exact might sometimes be prejudicial to eye that is possible to be had. A elegance and ease. genius so pure and correct has “ A. Quite the contrary. Elenot appeared in the world for more gance consists in the great variety than two centuries and an half; of curved lines and angles, and it therefore it would be presumption is geometry alone that can give to suppose that any child what the facility of performing, these ever, who is brought up to paint things with a sure hand, and with ing, should be endowed with so the qualities required. But I do rare a talent : so that it is necessary not pretend that this study alone to examine the gifts which nature of geometrical figures can form has imparted to him. The Ca. great painters. I say that correcta raccis followed the rules of propor- ness being the most difficult part tion, which they found settled; to be found in them, and that de. and I finally admire in them feve- pending on exactness of sight, it ral things more than extreme cor- can be acquired in no manner fo rectness.

easy as by the study of geometry. “ Q. How? Was not Hannibal To this is added, that a child by extremely correct ?

drawing for a month geometrical “ A. Correctness is taken in figures with accuracy, will learn different senses; and in one of these more exactness than another who he was correct, and owed it not so has been drawing in an academy much to the exactness of his eye, as for a year; and the firít in lix to the practice acquired by draw- months time will know how to lay ing much. Doinenichino drew fo a figure well, and will have a good often the group of Laocoon, that foundation for proceeding in the he knew it by heart. Neverthe- other parts of the art. less none of the painters, that are

66 R. What must be done after mentioned, have equalled the pu- having

drawn the said geometrical rity and precision of the antique: figures ? and as without being accused of a

"A. Outlines from good drawings 1796.


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