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that I became acquainted with them It forms that part of Africa which, too late for the trial, and at a pe- in a direction from east to west, exriod whes numberless misfortunes tends from Caffraria to the country had compelled me, for a time at of the Greater Nimiquas. With least, to renounce the idea.” regard to its breadth, from south to

"The Houzouanas, being known north, I am ignorant of its extent; only by their incursions and plun- but I believe it to be very considerdering, are in the colonies often able; not only because an imconfounded with the Bofhmen, and mense territory is necessary to so distinguished by the fame appella- wandering a people, but also betion. Sometimes, however, from cause I have reason to think the intheir tawny colour, they are called dividuals of this nation to be very Chinese Hottentots; and, by means numerous. of this double denomination, ille " What particularly inspired informed travellers may easily be me with a predilection in their led into an error, of which the con- favour, was their open and smiling sequence muft be, that their narra- countenance. Such is the habitual tives will be replete with absurdity state of their features, that the and falsehoods.

gloomy and dubious' impression of “ Their real name, and the only unealiness and miftrul is never one which they give themselves, is perceptible on them. The Houthat of Houzouana ; and they have zouana, it is true, has violent palnothing in common with the Bolhi. fions, and, when he is under their men, who are not a distinct peo- influence, they are depicted on his ple, but a mere collection of fugi- countenance in a forcible and striktives and free-booters. The Hou- ing inanner: but the storm is of zouanas form no alliances but a- Hiort duration; he soon comes to mong themselves. Being almost himself, and his face instantly. realways at war with the surrounding sumes the expression of his frank, nations, they never mix with them; unsuspecting, and loyal mind. and, If they consent at any time to “ Among all the other African admit a stranger into their hordes, nations, almost without exception, it is only after a long acquaintance, I found an imbecile Aupidity, which a sort of apprenticeship, 'during made them enraptured with every which he has given proofs of his thing I carried with me for my use. fidelity, and established his courage. The Houzouanas contemplated The Hottentot whom I found there the with those emotions of cu. had submitted to this trial, and riofity which every production of from the manner in which he had industry would naturally excite in acquitted himself was held in the a people destitute of arts; bue this highest estimation.

curiosity was neither stupid adini“ Though the Houzouanas are ration nor the childish delire of lawanderers in their country, and vages in general. spend the greater part of the year « Nothing filled them with real in emigrations and distant excur- astonishment but my fire-arms. fions, they inhabit an immense di. During the whole tinie they were fria, of which, indeed, they are with me, these were the subjects of almost the sole inhabitants, and their attention and discourse. But from which, in my opinion, no it is to be observed, I had endeanation would be able to expel them. voured to inspire them with the

greatest greatest terror by displaying their tion of traversing the deserts, would effects. I never suffered them to perhaps have penetrated as far as touch my fufees, and I was parti. these people; perhaps would have cularly careful not to show thein supplied them with powder and the mode of using them. When fire-arms, and certainly would have once they had imbibed the desire of instilled into them the desire of pofseiling them, perhaps it would procuring them; and who can tell not be long before they would con. to what this defire would have led! trive means of procuring them; 6 Yet these formidable people and then how dangerous would be inspired me with more love and these inountaineers to the planta-' esteem than any other tribe in A. tions, and even to the Cape itself; frica. With them I would have since, secure from attack in their undertaken without fear to traverse mountains, and indefatigable in the whole of that quarter of the their expeditions, their nocturnal globe, had my good fortune per. and unexpected attacks render them mitted me to know them sooner : already irreliftible enemies ! Often and if ever circumstances allow me have I rejoiced that the nation was to resume the project, which it has one of the poorest of Africa; and been fo painful to me to relinquith, that, being deftitute of every thing, they are the only ones that shall be it had nothing to barter by way of my companions in the enterprise, trade. But for this, such of the and to them alone will I dired my colonists who follow the occupa- steps without delay."

CLASSICAL

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CRITICAL REMARKS on the HISTORICAL CHARACTERS of SHAKS

PEARE, intended to elucidate the Causes why they are so peculiarly

impressive. (From a Volume of Essays, by a SOCIETY of GÉNTLEMEN at Exeter.] THER dramatic poets deal "Whercin the noble youth did dress them

( sclves. in generals, Shakspeare in

6. He had no legs that pradifed not his gait: individuals. Other poets treat of

6. And, fpeaking thick, which nature made his kings, queens, and heroes, in the

blemijh, abftrati, he particularizes them. « Became the accents of the valiant.' Theirs are merely kings, queens,

Hen. 4th, 2d part, A. 2, S. 6, and heroes, all of the fame nature, Who, after reading these lines, can tures, and inveterate likenesles' to

entertain a doubt, but that the galeach other. But his are Henrys lant Percy had a 'twang of that and Richards, Margarets and Ca- north-country burr,' for which tharines, Warwicks and Hotspurs have derived his hereditary title, is

the county, from whence he was to all men and women, discriminated from each other, and ipfiuite- remarkable to this present day.

« Such little traits bring the pere ly diversified. This discrimination is commonly effected by exhibiting fonages immediately before our fome marking feature, peculiar a eyes; nor would it be an easy matnecdote, or minute circumstance, ter to persuade us, that the repreappropriate to the character repre

sentations were untrue. By similar sented, in appearance casually in

means Homer impresses on our troduced, but which, if I may be minds the idea of his heroes' realiallowed the expression, identifies ty.. They are not, like a modern and realizes it. When Edward regiment, clothed in the fame uni. tells the famous Warwick that he form; nor appear to be of one fa. would

mily, like Virgil's Gyas and Clo

anthus; whom he characterises, Wind his hand about his coal-black with great frugality of diction, by hair'Hen. 6, 3d part, A. 5. S. I.

one and the same epithet; but they the fable locks of the proud setter

are kept distinct by their appeara • up and puller down of kings,' remarkable for height of stature,

ance, habit, and manners. One is present themselves immediately to our view. 'Tis faid of Hotspur,

another for the breadth of his

shoulders; one for the elegance, that

another for the rusticity of his ap- by his light • Dil all the chivalry of England move

parel; one adopts a peculiar atti"To do.brave acts: he was indeed the tude in haranguing a public audiglass,

ence, another strikes us with the

6

F3

grace grace or deformity of his person. Richard. "What, not an oath! nay, thes The colour of the hair, the device

• the world goes hard

• When Clifford cannot fpare his friends an of a thield, or beauty of the crest,

• oath and a hundred other minutiæ, mark "I know by that he's dead.' and diversify his characters.

Hen. 6th, 3d part, A.2. $ 9. “ He resembles our bard like- “ If we suppose such representawise in giving, occasionally, some tions are merely drawn from images, little characteristic trait or anecdote, formed in his creative mind, still generally communicated in familiar they live to us; and, through his conversation, not always indeed happy mode of introduction, we be. effential to the story, but which, come as well acquainted with them from that very circumstance, is as with our own cotemporaries. I am, often more interesting. When Dio. however, inclined to suspect, that mede starts aside from the natural Shakspeare, where he does not foltenor of his discourse to boalt of low the beaten path of history, his horse's pedigree or of his own; drew his characters and incidents or when Nestor as unfeasonably ex- from traditionary stories and family patiates on his former exploits, we, anecdotes ;- sometimes, probably, at once, become acquainted with from preceding dramas in which them. In such kind of manners- they were preserved, and other painting conversation (particularly short-lived publications that have striking in the latter part of the long since perished in the tide of Odyssey) we lose fight of the poet. time. It seems to be the genuine effufion “ The reflexion thrown out by of nature, and its inartificial ap- Surrey to cardinal Wolsey, from pearance strengthens the decep- its being so circumstantial in point tion.

of time and defcription of perfor, “ Shak speare never studied Ho- appears to have been founded on mer, but was as deeply read as the fome well-known story in ShakGrecian bard in the page of nature, speare's time. In the familiar and confidential

"I'll startle you' (exclaims the internperate conversation occasionally held by

peer,] his characters, we catch their minds, "Worse than the sacring hell, when the brown as if by surprize, in an undress; we detect their peculiar habits, and

Lay kiliing in your arms, lord Cardinal.' feel, like confidants in an intrigue,

Hen. 8th, A, 3d, S.5. à satisfaction in having those fe. It may be noticed, however, that cret traits communicated to us. Wolsey was particularly odious to

6 Who, for instance, can doubt the nobility; and his cotemporary that the proud nothern lord Clif- Skelton, the fashionable fatyrist of . ford of Cumberland,' exercised the day, remarks of him, in a his baronial privilege of swearing, rhyme, to which Devonshire-men uncontrouled, to an eminent de only can do justice in the pronungree, when we read Warwick's ciation, that and Richard's scoffing addresses to

• He regardeth lords him as he lay expiring on the field • No more than pottherdes.' of battle?

And the story possibly was invent. Wirtuck. "They mock thee, Clifford, ed, by means of those powerful *fwear as thou was wonti'

enemies. Yet it must not .be dit.

guised

( wench

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guised that this lord Cardinal' was his daughter was 'as like him as notorious for his incontinency: cherry is to cherry,' (A. j. S. 1.) and the laureat, in numbers no less appears to me no ideal personage. sublime than those already cited, & Mr. Walpole has ingeniously and we may fufpect equally true, observed, that Leorites and Herironically observes, that

mione,' in The Winter's Tale,'

were the typical representatives of "To kepe his fierhe chafte • In Lent for a reparte,

Henry 8th and Anne Bullen; and • He cateth capons ftewed,

the character of Paulina feems to * Fefant and partridge mewed,

be that of this identical old lady, · Hendes, chickens and pigges.' placed in a more conspicuous and He concludes his invectives with advantageous point of view. The

same officious zeal to serve her this affecting expoftulation:

mittress, and the same kind of gar"Spareth neither maide nc wyfe- rulous intrepidity towards an iraIs this a pople's lyfe?'

scible monarch, is apparent in both We cannot but smile at this wretch- characters.—The child,' says Paued doggrel of Skelton; yet there is lina, is yours,' little doubt, but that it was pre. And, might we lay th’old proverb to your ferred by our illustrious defender

charge, of the faith, and his obfequious

• So like you 'tis the worse. Behold, my

lords, courtiers, to the genuine humour

• Altho' the print be little, the whole matter and characteristic rhymes of Chau- • And copy of the father: eye, nose, lip, cer.

• And trick of his frown.' I once thought, likewise, that

A. 2, S. 5. the inore creditable anecdote of • The conjecture which I am Cranmer, given by Hen. 8th, was again going to hazard, may appear, merely a traditionary story. like this, too fanciful. That Shak

speare, however, often covertly al'The common voice, I see, is verified Of thec, which says thus, Do my lord of actions in the days of queen Eliza

luded to different persons and trans· Canterbury * But one phrewd turn, and he's your friend beth, and of her father, has been for ever."

clearly shewn by his commentators

in various instances : but the fol. tributed in Strype's Memorials, B. lowing passage in All's well that 3, C. xxx.) not to the king, but to fervation, or imposed on mine.

ends well,' has eluded their ob. Dr. Hethe, archbishop of York. “ We have often reason to lupo fented a ring to Helen,

The king says, that he had prepose, that many incidents, now unknown, are alluded to, and some 'And bade her, if her fortune ever food real characters thadowed under fic- • Necesitated to help, that by this soken

I would relieve her.' titious names, not only in Shak

A. 5, S.4. fpeare's comedies, but also in his historic dramas. The old lady,' 6. It appears to me, that the rofor example, in that last quoted, mantic story of queen Elizabeth's and which may not be improperly having delivered a ring to Ellex, Stiled an anonymous designation, with a promise to affift him in any the friend of Anne Bullen, who distress on his producing it, gave tells the curbulent monarchi, that birth to this incident. Its reality

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