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raglio) till about fix in the morning, makes a purse, and runs away. Exwhen he again repairs to his piazza ceptions, however, take place in walk, where his pipe and coffee are every circumstance of life; and I waiting for him; and where, with have known many planters in Suthe rising fun, he begins his round rinam as good men as I ever would of diflipation, like a petty monarch, desire to be acquainted with, which as capricious as he is despotic and I have already mentioned. despiseable.

“ As for the ladies, they indulge «Such absolute power, indeed, themselves just as much, by giving cannot fail to be peculiarly delights way to their unbounded passions, kul to a man, who, in all probabi- and especially to the most relentless lity, was in his own country, Eu- barbarity. But while I can bear rope, anothing.

witness to the exalted virtues of " But, in this colony, this is too such a woman as Mrs. Elizabeth frequently the case, where planta. Danforth, now Mrs. Godfrey, and sions are sold upon credit, and left a few more whose characters thine (by the absent proprietor) to the with treble lustre, I fhall draw a appraisers, who, by selling cheap, veil over all the imperfections, too have generally an underitanding common to their fex in this cliwith the buyer.

mate. Before I drop this fubject, “ These are the planters who are however, I must atteft, that hofpithe peft of the colony; such as the tality is in no country practised kne gentleman just described, who, with greater cordiality, or with less while he lives at the above rate, ceremony, a stranger being every pays nobody, under pretence of where at home, and finding his bad

crops, mortality amongft the table and his bed at whatever estate daves, &c. but, like an upstart rafa necessity or choice may occasion çal

, massacres the negroes by double him to visit. This is the more to labour, ruins and pillages the estate be regarded, as no inos are to be of all its productions, which he clan, met with in the neighbourhood of destinely fells for ready money, any of the Surinam rivers.”

DESCRIPTION of the PERSONS, DISPOSITIONS, and Customs, of the NORTHERN Indians, in the vicinity of the BRITISH SETTLEMENTS

in HUDSON'S BAY. (From Mr. HEARNE's Journey from Prince of Wales's Fort, to


S to the perfons of the Nor. habit the west coast of Hudson's

thern Indians, they are in bay. general above the middle Gize; “ Their complexion is somewhat well-proportioned, strong, and ro- of the copper cast, inclining rather bult, but not corpulent. They do toward a dingy brown; and their not possess that activity of body, hair, like all the other tribes in and liveliness of difpofition, which India, is black, strong, and straight. are so commonly met with among few of the men have any beard ; the other tribes of Indians who in. this seldora makes its appearance


till they are arrived at middle-age, They are for ever pleading poverty, and then is by no means equal in even among themselves; and when quantity to what is observed on the they visit the factory, there is not faces of the generality of Europe. one of them who has not a thousand ans; the little they have, however, wants. is exceedingly strong and bristly. “ When any real distressed ob. Sonie of them rake but little pains jects present themselves at the to eradicate their beards, though it Company's factory, they are always is considered as very unbecoming; relieved with victuals, clothes, meand those who do, have no other dicines, and every other necessary, method than that lof pulling it out gratis; and, in return, they instruất by the roots between their fingers every one of their countrymen how and the edge of a blunt knife. to behave, in order to obtain the Neither sex have any hair under fame charity. Thus it is very comtheir arm pits, and very little on mon to see both men and women any other part of the body, parti. come to the fort half naked, when cularly the women ; but on the either the severe cold in winter, place where nature plants the hair, or the extreme troublesomeness of I never knew them attempt to era- the flies in summer, make it neces. dicate it.

sary for every part to be covered. “ Their features arë peculiar, and on those occasions, they are fel. different from any other tribe in dom at a loss for a plausible story, those parts; for they have very which they relate as the occasion low foreheads, small eyes, high of their distress; (whether real or cheek-bones, Roman noses, full pretended,) and never fail to intercheeks, and in general long broad lard their history with plenty of chins. Though few of either sex fighs, groans, and tears, sometimes are exempt from this national set of affe&ting to be lame, and even blind, features, yet nature seems to be in order to excite pity. Indeed, I more striết in her observance of know of no people who have more it among the females, as they sel- command of their pailions on such dom vary so much as the men. occasions; and in this respect the Their skins are soft, smooth, and women exceed the men, as I can polished; and when they are dressed affirm with truth I have seen some in clean clothing, they are as free of them with one side of the face from an offensive (nell as any of bathed in tears, while the other has the human race.

exhibited a significant smile. False “ Every tribe of Northern In- pretences for obtaining charity are dians, as well as the copper and so common among those people

, dog-ribbed Indians, have three or and so often detected, that the gofour parallel black strokes marked vernor is frequently obliged to turn on each cheek; which is performed a deaf ear to many who apply for by entering an awl or needle under relief; for if he did not; he might the skin, and, on drawing it out give away the whole of the comagain, immediately rubbing pow. pany's goods, and by degrees all dered charccal into the wound. the northern tribe would inake a

“ Their dispositions are in gene- trade of begging, instead of bringral morose and covetous, and they ing furrs, to purchase what they feem to be entirely unacquainted want. It may truly be said, that Even with the name of gratitude, they poffefs a considerable degree

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of deceit, and are very complete but few even of them who have adepts in the art of flattery, which fenfe enough to fet a proper value they never spare, as long as they, on the favours and indulgences find that it conduces to their inte. which are granted to them while ! reit, but not a moment longer. they remain at the company's facThey take care always to seem at- tories, or elsewhere within their tached to a new governor, and territories. Experience has conflatter his pride, by telling him thai vinced me, that by keeping a northey look up to him as the father of thern Indian at a distance, he may their tribe, on whom they can be made serviceable both to him safely place their dependance; and self and the company; but by they never fail to depreciate the giving him the leait indelgence at generosity of his predecessor, how. the factory, he will grow indolent, ever extensive that might have inactive, and troubleiome, and only been, however humane or dilintes contrive methods to tax che

generefted his conduct; and if aspersing rosity of an European. the old, and flattering the new go- « The greatest part of these peovernor, has not the desired effe& in ple never fail to detrand Europeans a reasonable time, they represent whenever it is in their power, and him as the worst of characters, and take every method to over-reach tell him to his face that he is one them in the way of trate. They of the most crucl of men ; that he will disguise their persons and has no feeling for the distresses of change their names, in order to detheir tribe, and that many have pe- fraud them of their lawful debts, rithed for want of proper assistance which they are sometimes permit(which, if it be true, is only owing ted to contract at the company's to want of humanity among them- factory; and all debts that are outfelves), and then they boast of standing at the succession of a new having received ten times the fa- governor are entirely loit, as they vours and presents from his prede- always declare, and bring plenty of ceffor. It is remarkable that those witnesses to prove, that they were are most lavish in their praises, who paid long before, but that their have never either deferved or re- names had been forgotten to be ceived any favours from him. In ftruck out of the book. time, however, this language also “ Notwithftanding all these bad ceases, and they are perfectly re- qualities, they are the milde it tribe conciled to the man whom they of Indians that trade at any of the would willingly have made a fool, company's settlements; anid as the and say, he is no child, and not greaieft part of their are never • to be deceived by them.'

heated with liquor, are always in “ They differ so much from the their fenfes, and never proceed to rest of mankind, that harsh uncour- riot, or any violence beyond bad teous usage seems to agree better language. with the generality of them, parti- • The men are in general very cularly the lower chfs, than mild jealous of their wives, and I make treatment; for if the least respect no doubt but the fame fpirit reigns be shewn them, it makes them into- among the wonea; but they are lerably infolent; and though some kept lo much in awe of their huf. of their leaders may be exempt bands, that the liberty of thinking from this imputation, yet there are is the greatest privilege they eniny. 1996.



The presence of a northern Indian such uncommon restraint and con man strikes a peculiar awe into his finement sit light and easy even on wives, as he always assumes the children, whole tender ages seem fame authority over them that the better adapted to innocent and master of a family in Europe usu- chearful ainusement, than to be ally does over his domestic servants. cooped up by the side of old women,

“ Their marriages are not at- and constantly employed in fcra: tended with any ceremony; all ping, lkins, mending moes, and matches are inade by the parents, learning other domestic duties, neor next of kin. On those occasions cessary in the care of a family. the women seem to have no choice, “ Notwithstanding those uncombut implicitly obey the will of their mon reftraints on the young girls, parents, who always endeavour to the conduct of their parents is by inarry their daughters to those that no means uniform or coniiftent seem most likely io be capable of with this plan; as they fet no bounds maintaining them, let their age, to their conversation, but talk beperfon, or difpofition, be ever to fore them, and even to them, on despicable.

the most indelicate subjects. As :

" The girls are always betrothed their ears are accustomed to such when chiidren, but never to those language from their earlieit youth, of equal age, which is doubtless this has by no means the same sound policy with people in their effect on them it would have on situation, where the existence of a girls born and educated in a civifamily depends entirely on the abi- lized country, where every care is lities and inquitry of a single man. taken to prevent their morals from Children, as they juftly observe, are being contaminated by obscene so liable to alter in their manners conversation. The southern Inand difpofition, that it is impothible dians are still less delicate in conto judge from the actions of early versation, in the presence of their youth what abilities they may por- children. fefs when they arrive at puberty. “ The women among the nor: For this reason the girls are often thern Indians are in general more so disproportionably matched for backward than the southern Indian age, that it is very common to see women'; and though it is well men of thirty-five or forty years known that neither tribe lose any old have young girls of no inore time, those early connections are than ten or twelve, and sometimes seldom productive of children for much younger. From the early foine vears. age of eight or nine years, they Divorces are pretty common are prohibited by custom from among the northern Indians; some. joining in the most innocent a- times for incontinency, but more musements with children of the frequently for want of what they opposite sex; fo that, when fitting deem neceffary accomplishments, in their tents, or even when tra- or for bad behaviour. This cerevelling, they are watched and guard: mony, in either cale, consists of ed with such an unreinitting atten- neither more nor less than a good tion, as cannot be exceeded by the drubbing, and turning the woman inoit rigid discipline of an English out of doors; telling her to go to boarding school. Custom, howe her paramour, or relations, accoreyer, and constant example, make ding to the nature of her crime.

* Pro:

“ Providence is very kind in leave their husbands and tent for causing these people to be less pro. four or five days at a time, and relific than the inhabitants of civi- peat the farce twice or thrice in a lized nations; it is very uncom- month, while the poor inen have mon to see one woman have more never suspected the deceit, or if than five or fix children; and these they have, delicacy on their part are always born at such a distance has not permitted them to enquire from one another, that the youngest into the matter. I have known is generally two or three years old Matonabbee's handsome wife, who before another is brought into the eloped from him in May one thouworld. Their easy births, and the fand seven hundred and seventyceremonies which take place on one, live thun-nardy, as they call those occasions, have already been it, (that is alone) for several weeks mentioned; I shall therefore only together, under this pretence; but observe here, that they make no as a proof he had some fufpicion, use of cradles, like the southern she was always carefully watched, Indians, but only tie a lump of to prevent her from giving her moss between their legs; and al- company to any other man. The ways carry their children at their southern Indians are also very debacks, next the skin, till they are licate in this point; for though they able to walk. Though their me- do not force their wives to build thod of treating young children iş a separate tent, they never lie under in this respect the most uncouth and the same clothes during this period, awkward I ever saw, there are few It is, however, equally true, that among them that can be called de- the young girls, when those sympformed, and not one in fifty who is toms make their first appearance, not bow-legged.

generally go a little distance from “ There are certain periods, at the other tents for four or five days, which they never permit the wo- and at their return wear a kind of men to abide in the same tent with veil or curtain, made of beads, for their hubands. At such times, some time after, as a mark of mothey are obliged to make a small desty; as they are then considered hovel for themselves at some di- marriageable, and of course are Itance from the other tents. As called women, though some at this is an universal custom among those periods are not more than all the tribes, it is also a piece of thirteen, while others at the age of policy with the women, upon any fifteen or sixteen have been reckondifference with their husbands, to ed as children, though apparently make that an excuse for a tempo- arrived at nearly their full growth. rary feparation; when, without any 66 On those occasions a remarkceremony, they creep out (as is able piece of superstition prevails their usual custom on those occa- among them; women in this situ fions) under the eves of that side of ation are never permitted to walk the tent at which they happen to be on the ice of rivers or lakes, or fitting; for at those times they are near the part where the men are not permitted to go in or out hunting beaver, or where a fishingthrough the door. This custom is net is tet, for fear of averting their so generally prevalent among the success. They are also prohibited women, that I have frequently at those times from partaking of the known some of the fulky dames head of any animal, and even from


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