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Hanover, and the kings of Great lieved in the night from a violent Britain, are lineally descended. Af- fit of the cholic, by the local apter the decease of Cunegonda, who plication of a pillow, on which the muit have departed this life in the saint had formerly reposed his head. flower of her age, the marquis of 5. A wealthy marquis of the Este solicited a second alliance be- eleventh century must have comyond the Alps: but his delicacy no manded a proud hereditary rank in longer insisted on the choice of a civil society. In the judgment of virgin ; the widower was

the pope, the emperor, and the tented with a widow; and he ex- public, Albert-Azo was distincused the ambitious stain which guished among the princes, and the "might adhere to his bride by a di- first princes, of the kingdom of vorce from her first husband. Her Italy. His double alliance in Gername was Garsenda, the daughter, many and France may prove how and at length the heiress

, of the much he was known and esteemed counts of Main. She became the among foreign nations; and he mother of two sons, Hugo and strengthened his political imporFulk, and the younger of these is tance by a domestic union with the the acknowledged parent of the conquerors of Apulia and Sicily. dukes of Ferrara and Modena. I thall not repeat the story of The same liberal fortune which had the Norman adventurers, nor shall crowned the offspring of the first, I again delineate the character seemed to attend the children of and exploits of Robert Guiscard, the second nuptials of the marquis which, to the readers of the HirAzo: but their fortune was hollow tory of the Decline and Fall of and fallacious, and after the loss of the Roman Empire, are sufficiently their Gallic inheritance, the sons of familiar. But as duke Robert had Garsenda reluctantly acquiesced in four daughters, the choice of his some fragments of their Italian pa- other three sons-in-law may serve trimony. Matilda, the third wife as a test, a touchstone, of the com. of Azó, was another widow of parative weight and value of the noble birth, since she was his own house of Efte. Michael, emperor cousin in the fourth degree; but of the Greeks, was the first name this consanguinity provoked the in the christian world. Raymond, stern and impartial justice of Gre- count of Barcelona, was the indegory VII. His friend was fum. pendent fovereign of a warlike moned to appear before a synod at people; and the meanest of the Rome: the inflexible priest pro- three, a French baron, of military nounced a sentence of divorce, and renown), was the cousin of the whatsoever idea may be formed of kings of France and Jerusalem, the the marquis's vigour, at the age of brother-in-law of the king of Naseventy-eight, he might submit, varre and Arragon. Such were without much effort, to the canons three of the fons, by alliance, of of the church. Besides his three the Norman conqueror, who had fons, Azo had a daughter named previously rejected a proposal for Adelais, who was educated in the the eldest son of the emperor Henry family of the countess Matilda. IV.: the marriage of a fourth But the damfel is only mentioned to daughter will be most accurately attest the miraculous virtue of An- represented in the words of the felm bishop of Lucca; she was re- Apulian poet: “While the hero


besided within the walls of the an addition from his own treaTrojan city, he received the visit 'sures : a feet was prepared, and

of a certain noble Lombard mar- • both the father and son were transquis, accompanied by many no ported with great honour to their 'bles of his country. Azo was his native shores. This evidence of

name. The object of his journey a contemporary poet, or rather was to request that the duke's historian, who had no temptation daughter might be granted as a to fatter the princes of Efte,

wife to Hugo, his illustrious son. would alone be sufficient to estaThe duke convened an assembly blish the nobility and splendour of

of his chiefs, and with their con- their family, the family of Brunf'sent and advice, the daughter of wick, beyond the distant term of * Robert was delivered to the fon seven hundred years. If the mar

of Azo. The nuptial rites were quis Azo were the first of his race • solemnized in due form, and the whose name and memory had been festival was celebrated with gifts preserved, we might acquiesce in and banquets. After the con- our ignorance, with a just per* summation of the marriage, the fuafion of the dignity and power of duke solicited his counts and his unknown ancestors. Of these 6 powerful vassals to bestow a free illustrious ancestors, the zeal and gift, which might grace the joyful diligence of Leibnitz and Muratori departure of the bride and bride. have discovered four probable, and

groom, and he enforced his de- four certain degrees. After the exmand, by reminding them that no amination of their proofs, a scrư 'subsidy whatsoever had been given pulous critic may suspect, that in to her after, the Greek empress. deriving the marquistes of Efte from • The demand of a tribute was en- those of Tuscany, the ascent of tertained with a murmur of sur- reason has been aided by the

prise and discontent; but all op-wings of imagination ;' but he position was fruitless, and they must confess, that fince the beginpresented their fovereign with ning of the tenth century, the se

mules and horses, and various ries of generations flows in a clear offerings. He bestowed them on and unbroken stream." the huiband of his daughter, with

PARTICULARS of the EARLIER Years of Mr. Gibson's Life, and of

the Course of STUDies which laid the Foundation of his subsequent Celebrity.


[From the First Volume of the fame Publication.] Was born at Putney, in the or a peasant; nor can I reflect withof April

, O. S. in the year one ture, which cast my birth'in a free thousand seven hundred and thirty- and civilized country, in an age of seven ; the firft child of the mar science and philosophy, in a family riage of Edward Gibbon, efq. and of honourable rank, and decently of Judith Porten. My lot might endowed with the gifts of fortune. have been that of a Nave, a savage, From my birth I have enjoyed the




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right of primogeniture; but I was scarcely sufficient; and my mo, succeeded by five brothers and one

ther's attention was somewhat disister, all of whom were snatched a- verted by her frequent pregnancies, way iri their infancy. My five bro. by an exclusive passion for her husthers, whose names may be found band, and by the dissipation of the in the parish register of Putney, I world, in which his taste and aushall not pretend to lament: but thority obliged her to mingle. But fro

o my childhood to the present the maternal office was supplied by hour I have deeply and sincerely my aunt, Mrs. Catharine Porten; regretted my fister, whose life was at whose name I feel a tear of grafomewhat prolonged, whom I re- titude trickling down my cheek. A member to have seen an amiable life of celibacy transferred her vainfant. The relation of a brother cant affection to her fister's first and a sister, especially if they do child: my weakness excited her not marry, appears to me of a very pity; her attachment was fortified singular nature. It is a familiar by labour and success: and if there and tender friendship with a female, be any, as I trust there are fome, much about our own age; an af- wlio rejoice that I live, to that dear fection perhaps softened by the few and excellent woman they must cret influence of sex, but pure hold themselves indebted. Many from any mixture of sensual desire, anxious and solitary days did the the fole ípecies of Platonic love that consume in the patient trial of can be indulged with truth, and every mode of relief and amuse. without danger.”

ment. Many wakeful nights did 66 The death of a new born child the fit by iny bed-lide in trembling before that of its parents may seem expectation that each hour would an unnatural, but it is strictly a be my last. Of the various and probable, event : fince of any given frequent disorders of my childhood number the greater part are extin- my own recollection is dark; nor guished before their vinth year, do I wish to expatiate on la dir. before they possess the faculties of gufting a topic. Suffice it to say, the mind or body. Without ac- that while every practitioner, from cusing the profuse wasle or imper- Sloane and Ward to the chevalier fect workinanthip of nature, I Taylor, was successively fummonShall only observe, that this unfa. ed to torture or relieve me, the vourable chance was multiplied a- care of my mind was too frequentgainst my infant existence. So ly neglected for that of my health: fceble was my conftitution, so pre- compatsion always suggested an excarious my life, that, in the baptiím cufe for the indulgence of the of each of my brothers, ny father's master, or the idleness of the pupil ; prudence fuccellively repeated my and the chain of my education was christian naine of Edward, that, in broken, as often as I was recalled case of the departure of the eldest from the fchool of learning to the fon, this patronymic appellation bed of fickness. mighi be stili perpetuated in the fa- 6 As soon as the use of speech mily,

had prepared my infant reason for

the admision of knowledge, I was - Uno ovuljo non defcit alter,

taught the arts of reading, writing, To preserve and to rear fo frail a and arithmetic. So remote is the bring, the most tcuder asiduity was date, so vague is the memory of

their origin in myself, that, were came crowding into my mind, not the error corrected by analogy, which drove me into a deep me. I should be tempted to conceive « lancholy, and ever and anon them as innate. In my childhood • forced tears from my eyes.' Dir. I was praised for the readiness, tress at last forced him to leave the with which I could multiply and country. His learning and virtue divide, by memory alone, two, introduced him to my father; and furns of several figures: such praise at Putney he might have found at encouraged my growing talent; least a temporary shelter, had not an and had I persevered in this line of act of indiscretion again driven application, I might have acquired himn into the world. One day some fame in mathematical studies. reading prayers in the parish church,

“ After this previous institution he moit unluckily forgot the name at home, or at a day-school at Put- of king George: his patron, a loyal ney, I was delivered at the age of subject, dismissed him with some seven into the hands of Mr. John reluctance, and a decent re vard; Kirkby, who exercised about eigh- and how the poor man ended his teen months the office of my do- days I have never been able to meftic tutor.

His own words, learn." which I shall here transcribe, in- • In my ninth year (January spire in his favour a sentiment of 1746), in a lucid interval of conpity and esteem. During my a- parative health, my father adopted

bode in my native county of the convenient and customary node • Cumberland, in quality of an of English education; and I was • indigent curate, I used now-and- fent to Kingston upon Thames, to

then in a summer, when the plea- a school of about seventy boys, • santyess of the season invited, to which was kept by Dr. Wooddeľon • take a solitary walk to the sea- and his assistants. Every time I 'fhore, which lies about two miles have since passed over Putney Com* from the town where I lived. mon, I have always noticed the spot ! Here I would amuse myself, one where my mother, as we drove

while in viewing at large the along in the coach, admonithed me agreeable prospect which fur- that I was now going into the world, ! rounded me, and another while and must learn to think and act for

(confining my fight to nearer ob- myself. The expression may apjects) in admiring the vast variety pear ludicrous; yet there is not, in

of beautiful shells, thrown upon the course of life, a more remark• the beach ; some of the choiceft able change than the removal of a

of which I always picked up, to child from the luxury and freedivert my little ones upon my dom of a wealthy house, to the frureturn.

One time among the gal diet and ftri&t subordination of rest, taking such a journey in my a school; from the tenderness of head, I sat down upon the declis parents, and the obsequiousness of

vity of the beach with my face to servants, to the rude familiarity of • the sea, which was now come up his equals, the insolent tyranny within a few yards of my feet; of his seniors, and the rod, perhaps,

when immediately the sad thoughts of a cruel and capricious peda* of the wretched condition of my gogue. Such hardtiips may steel ' family, and the unfuccessfulness the mind and body against the inju' of all endeavours to amend it, ries of fortune; but my timid re

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serve was astonished by the crowdfulness; but his plan of happiness and tumult of the school; the want was for ever destroyed : and after of strength and activity disqualified the loss of his companion he was me for the sports of the play-tield; left alone in a world, of which the nor have I forgotten how often in business and pleasures were to him the year fortv-lix I was reviled and irksome or insipid. After some unbuffetted for the sins of my tory an- successful trials he renounced the ceitors. By the cominon methods tumult of London and the hospitaof discipline, at the expence of lity of Putney, and buried himself many tears and some blood, I pur in the rural or rather rustic folichared the knowledge of the Latin tude of Buriton; froin which, dursyntax : and not long since I was ing several years, he seldom emergpoffeffed of the dirty volumes of ed. Phaedrus and Cornelius Nepos, 6 As far back as I can remem. which I painfully construed and ber, the house, near Putney-bridge darkly understood.”

and church-yard, of my maternal “ My studies were too frequently grandfather appears in the light of interrupted by fickness; and af. my proper and native home. It ter a real or nominal residence at was there that I was allowed to Kingston-School of near two years, spend the greatest part of my time, I was finally recalled (December in sickness or in health, during my 1747) by my mother's death, which school vacations and my parents' was occafioned, in her thirty-eighth residence in London, and finally year, by the consequences of her after my mother's death. Three laft labour. I was too young to months after that event, in the feel the importance of my lofs; spring of 1749, the commercial ruin and the image of her person and of her father, Mr. James Porten, conversation is faintly imprinted was accomplished and declared, in my memory. The affectionate He suddenly abfconded: but as his heart of my aunt, Catherine Porten, effects were not fold, nor the house bewailed a sister and a friend ; but evacuated, till the Christmas followmy poor sather was inconsolable, ing, I enjoyed during the whole and the transport of grief seemed year the society of my aunt, withto threaten his life or his reason. out much consciousness of her im. I can never forget the scene of our pending fate. I feel a melancholy first interview, fome weeks after the pleasure in repeating my obligafatal event; the awful silence, the tions to that excellent woman, Mrs. room hung with black, the mid-day Catherine Porten, the true mother rapers, his fighs and tears; his of my mind and health. Her napraises of my mother, a faint in tural good sense was improved by heaven; his folemn adjuration that the perusal of the best books in the I would cherish her memory and English language ; and if her reaimitate her virtues; and the fervor fon was fonietimes clouded by prewith which he kissed and blessed me judice, her sentiments were never as the fole surviving pledge of their disguised by hypocrisy or affe&taloves. The storm of pallion in- tion. Her indulgent tenderness, the fenfibly subsided into calmer me- frankness of her temper, and my lancholy. At a convivial meeting innate rising curiosity, soon removof his friends, Mr. Gibbon might ed all distance between us: like affect or enjoy a gleam of cheer. friends of an equal age, we freely


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