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finall quantities, as rye-grass, tre. &c. on land where common wheels
foil, clover, and meadow fox-tail cannot be admitted.
(a 'opecurus pratensis) which thrive Every meadow in this improv.
with great luxuriancy; chicory (cy ed spot can be watered with much
corium intybus) has been sown, and ease, by means of the river close to
grows, but does not thrive well, the embankment, and which will
most probably from the falt. be employed for that purpose, when

“ It is surprifing to see the ef. pasture is introduced throughout
fects of frequent plonghing, &c. the whole.
on this kind of foii, which, though Marsh lands in general will ad-
at first only a congeries of roots and mit of the greatest improvement, by
light substances, has, in a year or the following mode of treatment:
two, by such practice, afiumed an Firit-By a mechanical arrange-
earthlike appearance; and, with the ment and change of its dif-
addition of clay, lime, small quan- ferent parts, as by frequent
tities of manure, particularly of a- ploughing, harrowing, ' and
nimal oil, and frequent heavy roll-
ing, is likely to become, froin the Secondly-By the addition of
most useless spot, the most produc- heavy substances, as marle,
tive land for pasture, to which only clay, gravel, &c.
it should be applied. In order to Thirdly-By such fabstances as
consolidate the soil more perfectly, act chemically, and bring the
so that the earthy particles may em- inert vegetable matter into ac-
brace the roots of the grasses, and tion, as lime, chalk, alkaline
retain their proper moiiture, on falts, &c.
which the luxuriancy of such foils Fourthly-By munures, particu-
in a great measure depends, the fur- larly those which contain a
face is to be frequenily compresed, large quantity of animal oil or
by means of a rolling-cart, which mucilage, as putrid fil, sea-
may be burdened according to wrack, itable dung, &c.; for
the state of the land, and is a marsh land in general seldom
most useful machine to carry ma- contains any animal subttance,
nure on low-lands during wet sea- which, in great measure, is
Tons.

the grand constituent part of a « This machine confifts of three rich foil. circular pieces of strong elm, two Fifthly--By compression, with feet diameter, and each eighteen rolling-carts, cattle, &c. inches long, through which a strong Sixthly-By watering. iron axis is paffed, so as to protrude The fandy and croft foils adjoin. a few inches on each end beyond ing to the marth have been cultithe rollers; after all, allowing an vated, and produced this summer inch between each piece, for the very excellent crops of potatoes, conveniency of turning round. On turneps, barley, oats, buck-wheat, the projecting part of the axis, a and tares." fixed frame-work is placed to fup- " Thirty-fix acres, at 221.65.2 d. port the cart, which may be loaded per acre, is 7951. 135. 60.--the ato any degree, and employed sim. mount of all the expences to make ply as a roller, or to carry manure, the marsh pasture land.”

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LETTERS

Letters from Mr. Joạn Ball, of Williton, giving an Account of his Method of preparing Orium from Poppies grown in Engl

GLAND.

“BY

[From the fame Work.] My lords and gentlemen, that are taken up may be tranf

Y your fecretary, Mr. More, planted; but I do not suppose the

I received your resolutions transplanted ones will answer, hav. respecting your purchasing from ing but one spill-root, and will me the mode of iny preparing the require frequent waterings): keep Tample of opium which I took the them free from weeds, they will liberty of sending to you for your grow well, and produce from four particular inspection, and at the to ten heads, shewing large and same time to beg the favour of your different coloured flowers, which, having a suflicient trial of its pro- when the leaves die away and drop perties, which I find you have been off, the pods then being in a green so obliging as to have done ; and state, is the proper time for exlikewife have granted to me the tracting the opium, by making four fifty guineas as a purchase of my or five Imall longitudinal incisions method of preparing opium; for with a sharp-pointed knife, about which

you have my sincere thanks; one inch long, on one side only of and I'am exceedingly pleased to the bead or pod, just through the find, that it was thought worthy the scarf-skin, taking care not to cut to notice of so honourable and re- the feeds : immediately on the inspectable a society; and am fatis- cision being made, a milky fluid fied there can be no other mode of will iffue out, which is the opium, preparing or collecting the true and and, being of a glutinous nature or genuine opiuni, than what follows. substance, will adhere to the bot

“ Nothing can be more simple, tom of the incision; but some are or attended with less expence, than fo luxuriant, that it will drop from the making or extracting the pure the pod on the leaves underneath. and genuine opium from the large The next day, if the weather Mould poppies, commonly called or known be fine, and a good deal of funshine, by the name of garden poppies; the the opium will be found a greyifh fieds of which I would advise to substance, and some almost turning be fown the latter end of February, black : it is then to be scraped off and again about the second week in the pods, and, if any, from the March, in beds three feet and an leaves, with the edge of a knife, or half wide, well prepared with good an instrument for that purpose, rotten dung, and often turned or into pans or pots; and in a day or ploughed, in order to mix it well two it will be of a proper consiland have it fine, either in finalltence to make into a mass, and to drills, three in each bed, in the be potted. manner fallads are fown, and, " As soon as you have taken when about two inches high, tó away all the opium from one fide thin them one foot apart ; or other of the pod, then make incisions on wise, to sow them in beds in the the opposite side, and proceed in broad-cast way, and thin them to the same manner. The reason of the same distance (if the weather my not making the incisions all Mould prove wet at that time, those around at the first, is, that you can

" I am,

Williton,

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not lo conveniently take away the grains. What must then be the opium; but every person, upon produce? Opium is now twenty: trial, will be the best judge. Chil. iwo shillings the pound. dren may with ease be foon taught to make the incisions, and take off « My lords and gentlemen, the opium; so that the expence will 'Your most obliged and most be found exceedingly trifling.

devoted humble servant, * The small white reeds in that

“Joan Ball." state will be found very sweet and pleasant, and may be eat without June 24 1795. the least danger; and it is the custom in the east to carry a plate

"SIR, of them to the table, after dinner, HAVE this day fent you, by

:1 with other fruits.

the coach from Bridgewater, " I intend this year to keep apart the opiuin which I promised you ; a small quantity of opium from each and take this opportunity of in coloured poppy, to find out if any forming you refpecting the poppies: One more than another produces If you recollect, I was fearful that the greatest quantity, or of the the transplanted ones would not greatest strength; and thall save answer, and am now convinced, feeds of each, to low separately the having a large quantity of poppies next spring.

which had sown themselves: when “ I'am of opinion, that nun,bers of a proper size, I transplanted of inclosures taken from hills in a about four thousand in beds, but south aspect, with a very little ex- not one single plant came to per, pence, may be brought into a pro- fection; therefore, thall never per ftate for the growth of poppies. transplant any more ; and, not have

“ I Nould think that an instru. ing laved any feeds the last year, ment may be made of a concave owing to my not being at home at form, with four or five pointed the proper time, I could not fow lancés, about the twelfth or four- any. The bed where the poppies teenth part of an inch, to make the had sown themselves was five hun. incisions at once; and likewise dred and seventy-fix feet fquare, something of the rake-kind, so that from which I collected about four the three drills which I have di- ounces of opium, notwithstanding rected to be made in each bed, may the plants were very thick; and, be performed at the same time. to thew you the advantage of giving

By á calculation which I have them sufficient room, from some made, supposing one poppy, grow• few plants which were detached, ing in one square foot of earth, I took from Afteen to thirty-four and producing only one grain of grains : these had sowo thenifelves opiuin, more than fifty pounds will on ground that had been well ma, be collected from off one statute nured with rotten dung, which acre of land; but, upon recollect- points out the utiliiy of good culing that one poppy produces from tivation : the semi-double, and three, four, co ten heads, and in each those of a dark colour, produced from fix to ten incisions are made ; the most opium. The pods should and I am politive, from many of be about the fize of a walnut, be them (I mean one incision) the last fore you make the inçilion the year, I took away two or three dried poppy-heads which I had 1996.

from 66 SIR,

from the druggist in London, are opium, which I have absolutely full three times as big as what mine collected myself this year from one are, consequently must produce a poppy; I should suppose it more much greater quantity of opium. than thirty grains : twenty-eight “I am, fir,

heads grew on that poppy: it was “ Your most humble servant, of the semi-double kind. I fall

“ John BALL.” likewise send you some of the heads Williton,

from which I extracted the opium, August 22, 1795.

being far preferable to the single, Mr. MORE.

as appears from the produce of each.

“ I remain, Sir, RECEIVED the favour of « Your very humble servant, "I your letter dated the roth in.

" JOHN BALL." ftant, by which I find you have Williton, extracted some opium from fingle Sept. 12, 1795. poppies; if you will please to ad- Mr. More. vert to my letter of initructions for such purpose, I said I had collected N.B. These letters are followed by my opium from double or semi- certificates, from eminent medi. double poppies, which accidentally cal gentlemen, establishing the grew in my garden; by which I

claims of the English opium to find the produce to be more than equal strength with the foreign, double what you collected from the and to fuperior flavour and pusingle: as a proof, I will do myfelf rity. the pleasure of sending you fome

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On the Means of making Bread from Rice alone. [Inserted in the fifth Volume of the REPERTORY of Arts and MANU

FACTURES, and taken from the JOURNAL des Sciences, des LeT.
TRES, et des Arts.]
HE art of making bread dry, like sand or afhes), by treating

from rice, though much it in the manner in which wheatspoken of, seems to be very little flour is treated. The manner of known. In Chomel's dictionary using rice flour described in the it is said that bread may be made of second book, is but an uncertain rice, but there is no account of the remedy in case of want; for, if we means by which it is to be done. have no rye, we cannot, according The book called La Maison Ruftique to that book, make use of rice-flour goes rather farther; for, it informs for making bread, because an equal us that this kind of bread is made quantity of rye-fiour is said to be by mixing together the flour of rye necessary for that purpose ; and and that of rice. The first of these consequently, in countries where no books therefore may be considered rye is grown, it would be impoffible as saying nothing, since it is abfo: to make bread of rice, however lutely impoffible to make bread of great the want of bread might be. the four of rice (which is hard and " I therefore think it my duty to

supply

supply that information which is when kneaded, must have such a wanting in the two books above proportion of four as to render it mentioned, by describing a method pretty firin), becomes so foft and by which excellent bread may be liquid, that it seems impoffible it made from rice alone, which me. should be formed into bread : it is thod I learned from the natives of now to be treated as follows. America.

When the dough is rising, the « The first thing to be done to oven must be heated; and, when it the rice is, to reduce it into flour;, is of a proper degree of heat, we this may be done by grinding it in must take a few-pan of tin, or a mill, or, if we have not a mill, it copper tinned, to which is fixed a may be done in the following man- handle of sufficient length to reach ner. Let a certain quantity of water to the end of the oven. A little be heated in a faucepan or caldron; water must be put into this stew. when the water is near boiling, let pan, which must then be filled with the rice we mean to reduce into the fermented paste, and covered flour be thrown into it: the vessel with cabbage or any other large is then to be taken off the fire, and leaves, or with a sheet of paper. the rice left to soak till the next When this is done, the stew-pan is morning. It will then be found at to be put into the oven, and pushed the bottom of the water, which is forward to the part where it is into be poured off, and the rice put tended the bread Thall be baked ; it to drain upon a table placed in an must then be quickly turned upside inclined position. When it is dry, down. The heat of the oven acts it must be beat to powder, and upon the pafte in such a way as to passed through the finest fieve that prevent its spreading, and keeps it can be procured.

in the form the stew-pan has given “ When we have brought the rice it. into four, we must take as much “ In this manner pure rice-bread of it as may be thought necessary, may be made; it comes out of the and put it into the kneading-trough oven of a fine yellow colour, like in which bread is generally made. pastry which has yolk of eggs over At the same time we must heat it. It is as agreeable to the taste as some water in a saucepan or other to the fight; and may be made use vessel, and, having thrown into it of, like wheat-bread, to put into some handfuls of rice, we must let broth, &c. I must however obo them boil together for some time: ferve, that it loses its goodness very the quantity of rice must be such much as it becomes itale. as to render the water very thick " It may be here remarked, that and glutinous. When this gluti. the manner in which Indian corn nous matter is a little cooled, it is used in France, for making bread, must be poured upon the rice flour, can only produce and does in fact and the whole must be well produce) very bad dough, and of kneaded together, adding thereto a course very bad bread. To emlittle falt, and a proper quantity of ploy it advantageously, it should be leaven. We are then to cover the treated like rice, and it may then be dough with warm cloths, and to, used, not only for making bread, let it stand that it may rise. During but also for pastry." the fermentation, this paste (which,

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