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SKETCH of the History of Sugar in the EARLY TIMES, and through

the middle Ages; by William FALCONER, M. D. F. R. S. &c. [From the Memoirs of the LITERARY and PhiloSOPHICAL SOCIETY

of MANCHESTER, Vol. IV. Part II.) "TH

He use of sugar is probably appearance of salt; and, like that; of high, though not remote is brittle when chewed.

It is antiquity, as no mention of it is beneficial to the bowels and sto. made, as far as I can find, in the sa- mach, if taken dissolved in water; cred writings of the old testament. and is also useful in diseases of the The conquests of Alexander seen bladder and kidneys. Being to have opened the discovery of it • sprinkled on the eye, it removes to the western parts of the world. thofe fubftances that obscure the

“ Nearchus, his admiral, found right. The above is the firit acthe sugar cane in the East Indies, count I have seen of the medicinal as appears from his account of it, virtues of sugar. quoted by Strabo. It is not, how- “Galen appears to have been well ever, clear, from what he says, that acquainted with sugat, which he any art was ufed in bringing the describes, nearly as Diofcorides had juice of the cane to the consistence done, as a kind of honey, called of sugar.

facchar, that came from India and Theophrastus, who lived not Arabia Felix, and concreted in long after, seems to have had some reeds. He describes it as less sweet knowledge of sugar, at least of the than honey, but of similar qualities, cane from which it is prepared. as detergent, deficcative, and di In enumerating the different kinds gerent. He remarks a difference, of honey, he mentions one that is however, in that sugar is not, like found in reeds, which must have honey, injurious to the stomach, or been meant of some of those kinds productive of thirst. which produce fugar.

“ If the third book of Galen, “ Eratosthenes, also, is quoted Upon medicines that may be easily by Strabo, as speaking of the roots "procured,' be genuine, we have of large reeds found in India, which reason to think sugar could not be were tweet to the taste both when a scarce article, as it is there reraw and when boiled.

peatedly prescribed. “ The next author, in point of “ Lucan alludes to sugar, in his time, that makes mention of sugar, third book, where he speaks of the is Varro, who, in a fragment quoted sweet juices expressed from reeds, by Ifidorus, evidently alludes to which were drank by the people this substance. He describes it as of India. a fluid, pressed out from reeds of a “ Seneca, the philosopher, like: large size, which was sweeter than wise speaks of an oily sweet juice honey.

in reeds, which probably was su" Diofcorides, speaking of the gar. different kinds of honey, says, that “ Pliny was better acquainted "there is a kind of it, in a concrete with this substance, which he calls • state, called accharon, which is by the name of saccaron ; and says, • found in reeds in India and Arabia that it was brought from Arabia • Felix. This, he adds, has the and India, but the best from the


latter country. He describes it as brittle, and poffefling a detergent a kind of honey, obtained from and purgative power like to horeeds, of a white colour, resembling ney; and which, being boiled in gum, and brittle when pressed by the same manner as honey, is renthe teeth, and found in pieces of the 'dered less purgative, without imsize of a hazel nut. It was used in pairing its nutritive quality.' medicine only.

“ Paulus Ægineta speaks of su“Salmafius, in his Plinianæ Exer- gar as growing, in his time, in Eucitationes, says, that Pliny relates, rope, and also as brought from upon the authority of Juba the Arabia Felix; the latter of which historian, ,that some reeds grew in he seems to think less sweet than the fortunate iflands which in the fugar produced in Europe, and creased to the fize of trees, and neither injurious to the stomach yielded a liquor that was sweet and nor caufing thirst, as the European agreeable to the palate. This plant sugar was apt to do. he concludes to be the sugar cane; Achmet, a writer, who, accorbut I think the passage in Pliny ding to some, lived about the year scarcely i mplies fo much. Hither. 830, speaks familiarly of sugar as to we have had no account of any common in his time. artificial preparation of lugar, by

“ Avicenna, the Arab physician, boiling or otherwise; but there is speaks of sugar as being a produce a passage in Statius, that seems, if of reeds; but it appears he meant the reading be genuine, to allude the sugar called tabaxir or tabarto the boiling of sugar, and is zet, as he calls it by that name. thought to refer immediately there- “ It does not appear, that any of to by Stephens in his Thesaurus. the above mentioned writers knew

“ Arrian, in his Periplus of the of the method of preparing sugar, Red Sea, speaks of the honey from by boiling down the juice of the reeds, called facchar (Enxxse), as reeds to a consistence. It is also one of the articles of trade between thought, the sugar they had was not Ariace and Barygaza, two places of procured from the sugar cane in use the hither India, and some of the at present, but from another of a ports on the red sea.

larger size, called tabarzet by Avi" Aelian, in his natural history, cenna, which is the arundo arbor speaks of a kind of honey, which of Caspar Bauhin, the faccar mambu was pressed from reeds, that grew of later writers, and the arundo bamamong the Prafii, a people that bos of Linnæus. This yields a lived near the Ganges.

sweet milky juice, and oftentimes a . Tertullian also speaks of sugar, hard crystallized matter, exactly re, in his book De judicio Dei, as a kind sembling sugar, both in taste and of honey procured from canes. appearance. “ Alexander Aphrodisæus ap

« The historians of the Crusades pears to have been acquainted with make the next mention of sugar of sugar, which was, in his time, re- any that have fallen under my obgarded as an Indian production. fervation.

that what the Indians “ The author of the Historia

was a concretion of Hierosolymitana says, that the Cru. honey, in reeds, resembling grains faders found in Syria certain reeds of salt

, of a white colour, and called cannameles, of which it was 1796.

1 reported

He says,

called sugar,


reported a kind of wild honey was • full of honey, by which he under made; but does not say that he saw • stands a sweet juice, which, by any so manufactured.

the pressure of a screw engine, “ Albertus Agnensis relates, that and concreted by fire, becomes about the same period, the Cru-' sugar.' This is the first account • saders found sweet honeyed reeds, I have met with of the employ. • in great quantity, in the meadows ment of heat or fire in the making

abeut Tripoli, in Syria, which of sugar. o reeds were called zucra. These “ About the same period, Wilthe people (the Crusaders' army) lermus Tyrensis fpeaks of sugar as fucked, and were much pleased made in the neighbourhood of with the sweet taste of them, with Tyre, and sent froin thence to the • which they could scarcely be fa- fartheit parts of the world. * tisfied. This plant (the author

6 Marinus Sanutus mentions, * tells us) is cultivated with great that in the countries subject to the • labour of the husbandmen every sultan, fugar was produced in large year. At the time of harvest, quantity, and that it likewise was they bruise it when ripe in mor- made in Cyprus, Rhodes, Amorea, "tars; and set by the strained juice Marta, Sicily, and other places be* in vessels, tiil it is concreted in longing to the Christians. • form of snow, or of white falt. “ Hugo Falcandus, an author * This, when scraped, they mix who wrote about the time of the • with bread, or rub it with water, emperor Frederic Barbarossa, speaks * and take it as portage; and it is of sugar being in his time produced • to them more wholefome and in great quantity in Sicily. It ap* pleasing than the honey of bees. pears to have been used in two • The people who were engaged in Itates; one, wherein the juice was

the sieges of Albaria Marra and boiled down to the consistence of • Archas, and suffered dreadful honey, and another where it was hungerwere much refreshed boiled farther, so as to form a solid • hereby.'

body of sugar. “The same author, in the account • The foregoing are all the paf. of the reign of Baldwin, mentions fages that have occurred to my : eleven cameis, laden with sugar, reading on this subject. They are being taken by the Crusaders, fo but few and inconfiderable, but that it muft have been made in may fave trouble to others, who considerable quantity.

are willing to make a deeper en “ Jacobus de Vitriaco mentions, quiry into the history of this fub that · in Syria reeds grow that are stance."


CONCLUDING Essay on the Science of ORCHARDING:


By TномАЗ

[From the Fourteenth Volume of the TRANSACTIONS of the Society

instituted at LONDON, for the Encouragement of Arts, MANUFACTUREs, and COMMERCE.]

" IN

N this year's paper I desire to be induced to grow, by a suitable

introduce to the society fome manure and proper management. valuable additions to the fcience of “ The baneful effects of canker orcharding :

may be nearly banilhed from the “ Firit - the removing trees of more delicate fruit trees, and the the age of twenty years or upwards, oozing of gum in great measure to supply any deficiencies ; by prevented in the different species which means the rows in the plan- of the cherry, and other stone fruits. tations will be fully kept up, and “ In the first paper I did my felf the Orchard remain perfect, with the honour of presenting to the trees of the same age and fort as fociety, I represented that pruning 'those which have decayed or died. • is an important article, with re

“ Secondly-the engrafting of gard to the health of trees, and new bark upon trees that have been their bearing; and, if judicioufly injured by cattle, carts, &c. and done, they will come into bearing 'thus trees kept in a perfect state, sooner, and continue in vigour which otherwise would have died, for nearly double their common or foon gone to decay. But I will cage.'--(See N.A.Register for 1793, previously to impress on the minds p. (170).) That attentive care of the society, that, in the whole which chooses the proper foil ; exten Gve orchards throughout the places the trees at due distances, ackingdom, most of the standard cording to thuir natural growth; fruit-trees may be prevented be- keeps the branches free and open, coming rotten, hollow, or much that the sun may pass over the decayed, until, by great length of ground; all being perfectly pruned time, a dryness, want of energy, or and regularly cleaned, so that the by their own weight, they fall into tree may become healthy, round actual diffolution, and as it is al- and large, and carefully apply the lowed, that large trees yield the manure and culture most proper for most productive crops, either indi- fertilizing the lands appropriated to vidually, or per acre, attention orcharding: when these advantages Thould be given to run the trees to shall be really united, it may rean size; for at present there is no com- sonably be expected that the fruits petent idea to what extent trees may must be larger, finer coloured, freer


from which

from specks, and of a richer qua- wishing to have large limbs wanlity; whence such fruits must have tonly taken from trees, the rule is, a pre-eminence in the markets; or, keep the branches out of the reach if originally intended to be thrown of cattle, then let them follow into the mill, the cider will be their natural growth.' (N. A. Remore in quantity, stronger, and gifter for 1794, p. [147]). This higher favoured; proofs of which would soon be verified, if a few may easily be brought. As I ap- proprietors and cottagers considered prehend the orchards and standard the nature of this business, and fruit-gardens of this country may began pruning their own trees from soon be estimated at some hundred the first planting, by way of examthousand acres, and should expect ple. When the cottager comes to from the improvements attempted prune his master's trees, then will to be introduced, that in ten years each concur in opinion, for it de. time each acre, on an average, will pends more upon the mind than increase by the improved culture, upon the hand; and yet there is no to more than one Jound per acre mystery—the master speaking, the in value per annum, I hope it will cottager comprehends his directions, not be thought arrogant in me to and thus the work would go on say, that I look upon myself as properly. In Mr. Boulding's cère being the actual means of benefiting tificate (N. A. R. for 1793, p. my country to the amount of more [173), awe were sometimes in than three hundred thousand pounds doubt whether a particular branch a-year.

should be taken off or not; the « And if orchardists will consider 5 rule established was, consider, this position to be founded in truth, will that branch be in the way it will be an incitement to their three years hence? if it will, the exertions. The premiums offered • sooner it is off the better.' by the society to promote the pro. “ I have taken much pains to per planting and culture of orchards, correct prejudice and establish a, it is expected will spread emulation rational culture, and have no doubt among the planters, and (aided by but it will become general; yet, I the extensive improvements of in- must confess, I fould like to see land navigation, by which fruit and it fully established in my own time. cider may be conveyed from one The whole system is grounded on extremity of the kingdom to the the regular operations of nature in other), the culture of orchards may the productions of vegetation : the be regarded as a national concern. advantages are fully explained in

6 When pruping Mall be fully the respective papers; and, for the understood, and generally pra&tifed, mere labourer, there is a thart abthe benefits resulting therefrom will stract and instructions in Vol. XIII. appear to be much more the effect (N. A. R. for 1795, p. [177].) I of judgment than the result of actual have reconsidered every thought, labour; for I have often mentioned, and find them all concenter in the among my friends, my expectation, single word HEALTH. when the trees are properly brought “ My chief inducement in wriinto orter, the whole system will ting on the art of pruning, was to be little other than penknife-pru- rescue so valuable a branch of ning, except what may arise from agriculture from neglect, or from accident or neglect. So far from the more destructive manner in

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