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free from that raw and acrid sort of every one to follow the example of taste, to which the oil produced that opulent nobleman, especially fron the other mill is but too sub. when it is known that the neighject. In hort, its numerous oppo- bouring mountains of Calabria nents can reproach it with nothing abound in stone as proper for the but being of more expensive con- purpose as lava, &c. As soon as Iruction; for their other objections, the olives are sufficiently crushed, that it yields much less oil, and that the pulp is put into a cylindrical their forefathers always made use sort of stráw baskets, called fischi. of, and were satisfied with the oli, placed one upon another, under common one, can have but little a press, that is worked by four or weight with reasonable people. five men. When the oil is done And with respect to the expence, it running, warm water is thrown is indeed certain that the duke of upon the baskets, which undergo a Martina expended a large fum in second pressure. The oil is rethe construction of his mills at Ca- ceived either in wooden or earthen Salerotto, for which he caused the vessels, out of which it is poured lava to be transported by sea from into a deep brick cistern, where it the fout of mount Vesuvius to Ta- is usually well preserved.' ranto; but it is not necessary for

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ANTIQUITIES

CONJECTURE on the Use of the ANCIENT TERRASSED Works in the

North of ENGLAND, by John FERRIAR, M. D. [From the MEMOIRS of the LITERARY and PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF

MANCHESTER, Vol. IV. Part II.]

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N the northern counties of this hardly be doubted; but in what

kingdom, the sides of age, or with what particular view in many places divided by regular they were formed, has never yet terraces, evidently artificial. Such been determined. works are firit observable in West- “ Mr. Wallis, in his Antiquities moreland and Cumberland ; in of Northumberland, supposes them Northumberland they are very nu. to have been stations for parading merous. It is uncertain whether the militia ; but it is improbable, they exist in Scotland, for the silence that in rude times, fo much exer of antiquarians, who are generally tion should have been employed, bad judges of earthen works, af- in places not easily accessible, for a fords no proof to the contrary. purpose, to which a level surface Probably, the famous parallel roads was much better adapted. On the of Glenco, described in the appen- contrary, their position, on comdix to Mr. Pennant's Tour, are ter manding situations, secured by preraces of this kind, as they abound cipices, or difficult eminences on in the avenues of hilly and difficult both flanks, or covered by advancountries. The extent of these ced works of the same kind, but of works is very different; in some smaller size, points them out as places, there are not more than lines of defence.

I believe they three or four rows of terraces, ca. are chiefly to be traced on the most pable altogether of containing an accessible parts of a high country, hundred men; but in others, the or rising from the brink of a river, terraces mounț almost to the sum- to defend the passage. By what mits of lofty hills, and would lodge people they were raised, it is very a considerable body of troops. At difficult to conjecture. They difthe battle of Humbledon, the Scot- fer in every particular from the tish army is said to have been posted • British works, described by Cæsar, on one of these works, which is and are probably of more recent the most extensive I remember to date, for they indicate the access of have observed.

the invaders to the interior, and “That such terraces were in- stronger part of the country. And tended for military purposes, can no traces of the British dry walls

appear

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appear in them, although stone is spread out towards the valley, we plentiful on the very ground where meet with a considerable Roman they are formed. They resemble, ftation, occupying nearly the whole in some places, the Danish field. breadth of the país, froin the steep works, but their great extent, and bank of the rivulet, to the foot of position with respect to the sea and the declivity. It appears to have low country, for they chiefly point been fortified with care, for it is to the east and south, render it im- surrounded by a lofty double ramprobable that they are of Danish part, and two ditches. In the botorigin. I was once inclined to tom, where the banks of the rivuthink, that they were constructed let are level, appear the traces of to oppose the progress of that peo. Caitle How, which I suspect to be ple, because conliderable terraces founded on the site of a Roman are visible, on the floping eminen- caftellum, designed to protect the ces of some fields, near Bambrough watering parties. It is in full view castle, in Northumberland, which, of the station. Thus we are preamong a great variety of intrench- sented with the appearance of two ments, contain some beautiful se- hostile garrisons, evidently invading micircular redoubts, with triple and invaded. At present, all is ramparts. But, in a short ramble folitariness and filence: to the lakes, in spring 1791, the view of Orton Scarr, between Ken- Stat circum alta quies, curvoque innixus dal and Appleby, and of the neighbouring country, induced me to

Desertas fofas, et caftra minantia caftris

Rufticus invertit, tacira forinidine lujirans believe, that if this kind of defence

Horrorémque loci, et funeftos frugibus agros, were employed against the Danes,

Addison. Pax Gulielm, it had been, however, of earlier origin.

On the opposite bank of the ri. “ Orton Scarr (or rock), of vulet, lower than castle How, ap. which I have given a very imper- pears to have been another castelfect sketch from memory, lies on lum. At the entrance of the dethe north-eaft, directly opposite the file, from the south, a few flight lower opening of the pass of Bre, traces of terraces are seen, and the derdale, at the extremity of a nar. remains of a square entrenchment, row valley, watered by a small with a shallow ditch, are discoriver. The front of the precipice vered, adjoining, in the flat coún. is occupied by three rows of ter- try. In temporary encampments, races, resembling two round bar- the Romans commonly used a tions, connected by a curtin. On ditch, from three to five feet deep. the more level part of the hill, un. These filent monuments impressa der the beacon, some lines appear connected story on the mind of the to have been drawn, but I had not observer, and perhaps afford some leisure to trace them. Near the materials for recovering a loft chaproad, somewhat in the rear of the ter in history., Happily, the anti' terraces, two small cairns are vie quarian vision I am about to refible. The pass of Brederdale, cite, obliges us to erase nothing which the traveller descends, in already recorded. going northwards, is a steep and “ It seems, from the imperfect winding defile, commanded by pre- account of Tacitus, that Agricola ipitous hills. Where it begins to was the first Roman commander who penetrated into that part of the remains in this neighbourhood, it country, in which these antiquities plainly appears that the hilly counare situated. Cerealis had reduced try was formerly well peopled, and the Brigantes of Yorkshire, but the considered as an important district. inhabitants of Cheshire and Lan- No part of it was neglected. Even cashire were unsubdued, and the the dreary pass of Borrodale repeople of Westmoreland had pro- ceived a Roman garrison. And bably secured themselves in their while the religious horror of the rocks and defiles. The incidents adjoining mountains favoured the of Agricola's first campaign are mysterious impoftures of the Druonly hinted at by Tacitus, and most ids, the beauty and convenience of of our antiquarians have contented the vales and lakes must have early themselves with supposing, that he attracted numerous inhabitants. The entered Yorkshire by the way of changes in the seat of population, Isurium, or Aldborough. But the in this island, have been so great, first operation of that general was that in judging of the importance to recover the ille of Mona, or An- or remoteness of any northern part glesey, immediately before his troops of the country, in former times, we went into winter quarters, and it is may almoft venture to reverse its probable, from the expreilions of present condition. To this retreat, Tacitus, that in the following spring some of the Britons might bring an he proceeded northwards, along the imperfect knowledge of the Roman coasts of Cheshire and Lancashire: art of war, and the invention of loca caftris ipfe capere, æftuaria ac terrassed ramparts might then be Sylvas ipse pretentare- -nulla ante substituted for the walls of loose Britanniæ nova parsillacefita trans- stones, which the first defenders of “ ierit.The word æftuaria can this country opposed to the efforts only refer to the inlets of the wef- of the legions. Whether Agricola, tern coast: the æftuaries of the after subduing the Sittuntii of LanMersey and Ribble, and the bay of cathire, sailed up the bay of More. Morecamb, the moricambe æftuarium camb, or whether he proceeded of the Romans. Mr. Whitaker, in along the coast, fixing a station at his learned history of Manchester, Lancaster, I Thall not undertake to has therefore conjectured, with enquire. It is certain, that in the great probability, that in 79, after route from the bay of Morecamb to overcoming the Cornavii, Agricola Kendal, various traces of ancient invaded Lancashire. The appear- entrenchments are visible ; but ances I have described, induce me Dr. Stukeley, by a stroke of his to add to his conjecture, that the lively pen, has turned those scarce - carppaign was probably closed by discernible mounds into splendid an invasion of Westmoreland and cities. Apart from this fancy of Cumberland, and that in its course, multiplying Palmyras in the desart, Orton Scarr was attacked and taken. Dr. Stukeley was a most acute antiThe strong country, with whichquarian, and an excellent judge of the pass of Brederdale communi- field-works in particular. it is cates, might have been the refuge therefore dangerous to question his of part of the Brigantes, who had authority on this point. escaped from the attack made by “ Suppoling, then, Agricola 10 Cerealis on the low country. From have advanced, in his first camthe number of British and Roman paign, by the pass of Brederdale,

let

let us try how far the series of the assault. The success of this field-works described, will aslift us action would open the way to Carin recovering a fragment of his life, and to the sea.

Other terhistory. The flight terrace-work, races appear on a rising ground at the entrance of the defile from near Penrith, facing towards Kef. Kendal, Thews that some attempt wick, the road from which passes was made to resist the invading through them. And on the side of army there. The Romans had a hill, fronting the river Eimont, therefore encamped, as the square near Brougham castle, a consideentrenchment indicates, hard by rable terrassed work is very diftin. the pafs, till the enemy retreated, guishable. But no probable conor were dislodged. When the in- jecture can be formed, respecting vaders reached the bottom of the the other incidents of this camdefile, their camp would probably paign. Perhaps I have ventured be strongly entrenched, as the poit futriciently far already, of Orton Scarr, commanding all

“ No remains of 'parapets are the interjacent country, would then seen on any of these works, which appear very formidable. Whether have come under my observation, the castella were then thrown up, although the ramparts seem to reto protect the watering and recon- tain their original height. If paranoitering parties, or whether these pets were ever added to them, they were subsequent works, for the se- would be liable to sudden decay, curity of the station, it is impossible by the action of winds and rains, to determine.

The former con- in situations so greatly exposed. jecture is not improbable. To At Orton Scarr, from the breadth pass the valley, then perhaps mar- of the platform of each rampart, thy, or covered with thickets, un- it might be supposed that room der the eye of a vigilant enemy, was given for tents, or huts. But expecting an attack, was an ope at Humbledon, and in other places, ration that might require a delay of the breadth is only fufficient for a some days, and after all, it was im- single file of soldiers. If this con. possible to attack the post in front. struction was an attempt to imitate The lines, therefore, must have the Roman method of fortification, been turned, at the accessible part the ramparts might, like those of of the hill, near the situation of the the Romans, have been defended present high road, and perhaps the by projecting wooden towers, or cairns point out the very place of palisades."

PARTICULARS of the Expence of the Royal HOUSEHOLD in the

Reigns of Henry VII. HENRY VIII. QUEEN ELIZABETH, &c. [From the Twelfth Volume of ARCHÆOLOGIA, published by the Society

of Antiquaries of London.] F we compare the expences of in the cost of provifions, the result

the royal household in former will probably be, that the expence times with those of later dates, and of his present majesty's household observe the alteration of the value is not more than it was in the time of money, and the progressive rise of queen Elizabeth, and is much

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