Gambar halaman
PDF
ePub

than the female. The colour is search of provision for its young whitish, with spots like stars, of a It feeds upon all kinds of mice Teddill yellow, inclining to a yel- moles, martins, ferrets, hares, bad. low gold colour. The hair is short gers, otters, and even fheep and and soft, the head large, and like a goats; neither are tame and wild tyger's, with longith upright ears, fow! safe from its attacks. It terminated by a tutt of coarse, hard, watches for its prey, either upon and upright bristles. The eyes are the ground, or between the branlarge, and the teeth, claws, and ches of a tree, and usually seizes it whiskers, are long and Marp. Had at the very first spring, even though I been fortunate enough to procure it be on full speed; and from its a dead one, I could give a much ambuscade amongst the branches, more complete description; but I it successfully darts upon birds that could not succeed in my endea- are upon the wing. When it has vours. The actions of this animal killed such a large animal as a wild exactly resemble those of a cat, boar, or a roe-buck, it first fucks like which it fits, runs, springs, the blood out of the arteries, which eats, purrs, and Deeps; although all seems to be its favourite food; after these actions are in proportion to which it devours the soft parts of its fuperior fize. It is eafily tamed; the head, neck, shoulders, and legs, and the baron Tomasetti assured together with the entrails, and me that it ran about the house like leaves the remainder. When it a cat, was much attached to them, fails in procuring a live animal, it and was in no wise inconvenient, contents itself with vegetables, or except from its extraordinary curi- gratifies itself with all kinds of ofity. Not a corner in the house, fruit. Its favourite place of abode nor a moveable therein, remained is amongst thick and extenfive unvisited; and a female loft its life forests, and in folitary districts, by jumping down the hole in the where it makes its retreat in hollow privy, 'I was surprised to find that trees, or in holes and clefts in the the domestic cat had an insuperable rocks. It pairs only once a year, aversion to this animal; and I was at the beginning of spring; and assured, that the moment a lynx was contrary to the custom of cats, brought into the house, all the cats which celebrate their nuptials with disappeared, and were seen no more hideous cries, it remains perfectly during that animal's abode there. filent. The ferrale goes two The lynx bears the privation of its months, and then brings forth two freedom only so long as it is al- young ones, which are generally of lowed to wander about the house; different sexes. She suckles them all those which the baron sent to during two months; and the young the royal menagerie having soon ones require two years to grow, died of excess of fat, which was the and be fit for pairing. It has been case with that I saw there, and observed here, that the lynx genewhich also appeared extremely me- rally attains the age of twenty years. lancholy. The lynx of Abruzzo Sociability appertains not to its is unquestionably the most swift, qualities, and more than one couple subtle, and audacious beast of prey are rarely found in a district. Like in Italy. It only wanders about in all creatures upon earth, this also the night, and never is seen in the has its enemies, and is pursued by day, unless when in heat, or in men, dogs, wolves, and large

snakes.

snakes. Flight is its first object; lies down by it, goes away, and rebut when it is deprived of the turns several times, until it appears means of escape, and is attacked to have lost all hope of its being and wounded, it defends itself only alleep. The lynx furnishes against every defcription of enemy, man with a very warm and useful with such fury and dexterity, that skin; and some profit arises from it is seldom overcome but by num- its fat and gall. bers of beasts, or the

superiority of 6 From what has been said, I human fagacity. The lynx not think that the lynx of Abruzzo only feeds occasionally upon the may be classed under the species bodies of dead men, but even at- which Schreber calls the lynx-cat. tacks children, and devours them. It is indeed smaller, and has very This animal is feldom to be taken distinct spots; but that which I alive, except whilst very young, saw at Naples did not surpass our's when it is frequently found playing in brilliant colours, and differs from upon the grass near the trees, or it in nothing but in its production straying about the country in quest of only two young ones. Ælian's of its mother. It is sometimes account of the lynx corresponds taken in traps, but is generally mot. so exactly with the one above de. The attachment sublisting between scribed, that I am inclined to supa couple is remarkable : for when pose him not unacquainted with one lies dead upon the ground, and that species. As Pliny speaks of no the hunters have retired to a certain lynxes in Italy, it may be presumed distance, the other approaches its that in his time none existed comrade, looks at it, goes round it, there."

Of the CULTIVATION of the Olive Tree, and the Process of making

Oil in the NEIGHBOURHOOD of GALLIPOLI.

"TH

[From the same Work.) HE olive-tree is here pro- and March, the branch of a bear.

pagated, either by grafting, ing tree, from four to seven palms by Nips, or by runners from the long, and from two to three inches master roots, which in some places thick, is flipped off, and put into a are called Barbatelle.

hole which had been dug some time “They graft upon the wild olive- before. The earth is then heaped tree, which abounds upon the up around the branch, within a foot pastures, where old and half de- of the top, in order that it may recayed trunks give reason to suppose main perfectly freflı ; and in ten that olive plantations formerly ex. years it becomes a profitable tree. ifted. This operation is performed “. The third method, here called between the end of March and the Mazarelare, consists in planting beginning of May; in three years very small shoots, at a proper difruit is produced, and this is the stance, in ground previously prequickeft method of producing it. pared. They are carefully watered

“ The second mode is here called during suinmer, and tranfplanted Culmonare. Between November the third year; but it is only at the

end

end of 13 or 14 years, that any real liarola, and Cellina; from whose profit can be derived from such fruit he extracted a diffimilar oil, trees.

although he at the same time allows “ I am much surprised that there the difference to be in considerable. should be no nursery for olive-trees The former corresponds with that in a district where that tree is ho- which the ancients termed Salennoured with more attention than tina; and its fruit is by far the best in any other part of the kingdom. in quality; as well as the most comThe prince of Francavilla had in. mon in the province; but the tree deed establithed a nursery, but after that bears it is subject to the blight, his death it was suffered to go to or Brusca. This olive is comdecay, notwithstanding he, as well monly nine lines long, fix lines as the whole country, derived the thick, fomewhat curved, of 2 greatest benefit therefrom.

brownish hue, and black when it is In the propagation of the perfe&tly ripe: it weighs between olive-tree, less attention is paid to 30 and 40 grains, including the the quality of the olive than oughtstone, which is almost smooth, and to be thewn to that article ; for weighs about fix or eight grains. here, as amongst other kinds of « The other fort, called Cellina, fruit-trees, we shall find several va is, after the above, the molt comrieties, especially if we are governed mon; but it has many different by their different appellations. But appellations, as Uliva di Nardo, besides that, almost every town has Caseirolo, Misciana, and others; its own peculiar term for one and and Columella is said to mention it the same fort; botanizers declaré by the name of Oleaftellum. This that the varieties are very triling, olive is commonly eight lines long, although the nature of the climate, fix broad, and has a very light stone. and the mode of cultivation, assu- At first it appears as if covered with redly occasion some sort of di- a filvery sort of crape, but becomes Itinétion. It is certain, however, quite black when it is ripe; it yields that the woods and uncultivated less than the foregoing, and the oil places produce a tree called by the sooner turns rancid. The tree peasantry Termete and Olivastro, which bears this olive, is now very which entirely corresponds with generally cultivated, it being less the Olea Europæa, and brings subje&t to diseases, and particularly forth a great quantity of fruit, to the Brusca. which is only half the size of that to The procets of cultivating the produced by an engrafted olive- olive-tree consists, first, in stirring tree. From these wild trees, when the ground around the tree. This improved by cultivation, probably is done at the beginning of the year, spring the numberless varieties, when the earth is dug five or six which are to be found in this king- feet around the trunk of the tree, dom, and of which Dr. Presta men- to a certain depth, and some fine tions several in the quarte edition manure is put to the roots; but of his Memoria intorno ai Sessanta very judicious cultivators will not due faggi d'Oglio presentati alla Ma- allow of the manure, and fay that esià del Re di Napoli

, publisied at it is prejudicial to the quality of Naples, in 1778. Amongst then the oil. Only the trees upon the he principally distinguishies only hills and fallow grounds are treated two kinds, called at Gallipoli, Og as above; the earth around those

uport

upon the plains being fufficiently but are still too acrid to produce oil stirred in the tillage of the land. of the best quality. At that time,

“ Far more dificult is the next indeed, a certain sort of oil, called operation of pruning, which is best Oglio Onfacino, is extracted from understood by the inhabitants of them, but is only used for particuthe environs of Taranto, and efpe- lar purposes. According to Dios. cially by those of Mazafra, who are corides, Mat. Med. lib. i. cap. 27. universally employed. Trees that this oil was likewise prepared by do not shoot very fast are pruned the ancients, whid knew how to in December; and such as are give it a white colour, its natural planted in a very rich foil, undergo one being a greenith yellow. It that operation in the spring. The was by them considered as the best principal rule seems to be, to suffer oil; but they must have poffefsed a bit few centrical branches, to let method of preparing and colouring in as much air as possible to the it, which is now loft; for notwithinterior of the crown, and to form standing Dr. Presta has with infi. it more in breadth and rotundity nite attention tried every method than in height. But I doubt whe- of making it, the oil has always ther the true principles of pruning turned sharp, and been of a greenbe understood here; and indeed, ish yellow colour. The Oleum in some parts of this province, ftriétivum of the ancients was especially near Lecce, the trees, prepared from olives, which having being never pruned at all, attain a attained a middle state of maturity, very unusual height, and yield but were neither green nor black, but very little fruit.

spotted in a very particular man“ Dr. Presta tried the experi- ner. In some of the efivirois of ment of pruning and treating his Taranto, they tvait until the olives frees like espaliers, with conlider- fall to the ground, before they gaable success.

ther them ; so that the harvest laits “ The olive-trees usually blossom from the end of O&tober until the in June. In O&ober the fruit be end of March. But at Taranto itgins to ripen ; but does not reach self, where the management of this its full perfection ntil December, useful and profitable fruit is better when the Skin, the pulp, and the understood, the olives are gathered surface of the stone, becomes black. in December with the greatest care, At that period they yield the best and heaped up in cellars, until it be oil; and although in many places convenient to press them. As very the olives are seen hanging upon few individuals have an oil-pressa the trees until the beginning of and as in the baronial towns the April, it is extremely detrimental lord has generally the exclusive to the quality of the oil, if the right of poflefling one, of which bis olives are allowed to remain upon subjects are constrained to make the trees later than the close of use, they are frequently obliged to December. Before the stone is wait so long before they can extract hard, which takes place in August, their oil, that the olives neceffarily no pressure whatever can force any fall into a state of too great fermenoil out of the fruit. Although green tation, which is succeeded by puin O&tober, they are quite ripe trefaction; and this is one of the enough for the table; and in No- principal causes of the general badverrber they affume a reddish hue; nels of the oil. The duke of Mars

ting

tina has indeed constructed maga. From the centre of this hemisphere zines for olives, arched over, and rises a moveable cylinder, whose contiguous to his presses, upon one upper end is let into a cross beam, of his estates, called Casalerotto, in which also it moves around. where he has goo moggie of olive At a certain distance from the lower plantations; and the olives are well end, a very strong iron axle palles preserved therein; but such expen. through the cylinder; upon each live works can only be undertaken side of which a piece of lava, of an by very opulent proprietors. hemispherical form, is placed, so

“ The oil-mills, called trappeti, that the axle passes them far enough are of two kinds; one which has for nuts to be fixed at the ends of it, been in common use for a long in such a manner, that the two feg. period of time; and another that ments may be moved at pleasure, was found in the overwhelmed town to or from the cylinder. The con of Stabia, and has been improved vexity of these segments, which, by Lavegha. The first confits of when united, are four palms in a folid piece of limestone, or mar. diameter, exactly coincides with ble, fashioned like a mill-ftone, the concavity of the mortar, from seven palins in diameter, and two which the segments can however in thickness: this vertical sort of be withdrawn by means of the nuts. wheel is placed upright upon a In the space between the segments round flat stone, from six to seven are two iron instruments, of which palms in diameter, which has a one is inserted in either stone; the raised border, and is fixed upon a one is in the form of a fickle, and pedestal four palms high. From keep the olives under the segnients; the bottom of this stone rises a and the other scratches off the thick moveable cylinder, from which an pulp that adheres to them. A hole axle extends into the centre of the is cut through one side of the conupright stone, in such a manner, cave stone, and furnished with a that it can turn round, as in the cork, which, when the olives are nave of a wheel. An ass being har- fufficiently crushed, is drawn out, nesled to a bar, that stretches also and the motion of the machine from the cylinder across the wheel, forces out the pulp; when frela gives motion both to the cylinder olives are thrown into the mill. and the wheel, whose weight crushes The advantage of this oil-mill over the olives upon the stone beneath. the other, consists in its requiring Of the other machine, which was fewer han.ls, and in fortening the found under the ruins of Stabia, time oi grinding. For with the and has been improved and ren- conmou machine, one man is condered fit for present use by Lavegha, stantly employed in replacing un. I have given as correct a reprefen- der the mill-stone fuck olives as fall tation as a hurried drawing would out, and in taking out the pulp, perunit. It consists of a round pe- before he can put in fresh fruit. dental, four or five palms high, in Somewhat less oil is perhaps prowhich is fixed a concave hemi. duced by Lavegha's mill; but this sphere, of lava, or other very hard defect is amply remedied by the ftone, two palms deep in the mid- superior quality of the oil; for as dle, and seven and a half in dia- his mill poffefíes the peculiar admeter, including the brim, which vantage of crushing the olive withis one palm and a half broad. out grinding the stone, the oil is

1

free

« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »