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continuance of the friendship of cordially and promptly conclude the Indians, and to preserve peace for their evacuation; and the Unit: along the extent of our interior ed States took posleflion of the pria. frontier, have been digested and cipal of them, comprebending adopted. In the framing of these, Oswego, Niagara, Detroit, Michacare has been taken to guard, on limakinac and Fort Miami, where the one hand, our advanced settle. such repairs and additions have ments from the predatory incur- been ordered to be made as appear fions of those unruly individuals ed indispensable. who cannot be restrained by their The commissioners appointed on tribes; and on the other hand, to the part of the United States and of protect the rights secured to the In. Great Britain, to determine which dians by treaty; to draw them is the'river St. Croix mentioned in nearer to the civilized state, and in the treaty of peace of 1783, agreed spire them with correct concep- in the choice of Egbert Benfon; tions of the power, as well as justice erg. of New York for the third of the government.
commissioner. The whole met at The meeting of the deputies St. Andrew's, Pasaminquodday Bay, from the Creek nation at Colerain in the beginning of O&tober, and in the state of Georgia, which had directed furveys to be made of the for a principal object the purchase rivers in dispute; but deeming it of a parcel of their land by that impracticable to have these surveys ftate, broke up without its being completed before the next year, accomplished; the nation having, they adjourned to meet at Boston, previoufly to their departure, in- in August 1797, for the final decistructed them against making any fion of the question. Sale : the occasion, however, has Other commisfioners appointed been improved, to confirm, by a on the part of the United States, new treaty with the Creeks, their agreeably to the 7th article of the pre-existing engagements with the treaty, with Great Britain, relative United States, and to obtain their to captures and condemnation of consent to the establishment of vessels and other property, met the trading houses and military posts commissioners of his Britannic mawithin their boundary, by means of jefty in London, in Auguft laft, which their friendship and the ge- when John Trumbull, efq. was neral peace may be more effectually cboren by lot for the fifth comsecured.
millioner. la October following The period during the late fef- the board were to proceed to bujfion, at which the appropriation neis. As yet there has been no was passed for carrying into effect communication of commisioners the treaty of amity, commerce, and on the part of Great Britain to navigation between the United unite with those who have been States and his Britannic majesty, appointed on the part of the Unitrieceffarily procrastinated the recep- ed States, for carrying into effect tion of the pofts ftipulated to be the fixth article of the treaty. delivered, beyond the date aligned The treaty with Spaio required for that event. As soon, however, that the conimiftioners for running as the governor-general of Canada the boundary line, between the tercould be addrelled with propriety ritory of the United States and his on the fubje&t, arrangements were catholic niajesty's provinces of East
ånd Weft Florida, should meet at crowned with success; but under the Natches, before the expiration great, though inevitable disadvanof fix months after the exchange tages, in the pecuniary transactions, of the ratifications, which was ef- occafioned by that war; which will fected at Aranjuez, on the 25th of render a further provision necessary. April; and the troops of his catholic The actual liberation of all our majesty, occupying any posts with citizens who were prisoners in Alin the limits of the United States, giers, while it gratifies every feelwere within the same period to be ing heart, is itself an earnest of a withdrawn. The coinmissioner of satisfactory termination of the whole the United States, therefore, com- negotiation. menced his journey from the Measures are in operation for efNatches in September, and troo's feating treaties with the regencies were ordered to occupy the posts of Tunis and Tripoli. from which the Spanisli garrisons To an active external commerce phould be withdrawn. Informa- the protection of a naval force is tion has been recentiy received of indispensable. This is manifest the appointment of a commissioner with regard to wars in which a on the part of his catholic majesty ftare .is itfelf a party ; but belides for running the boundary line, but this, it is our own experience, that none of any appointment for the the most sincere neutrality is not a adjustment of the claims of our sufficient guard against the deprecitizens, whose vessels were cap-dations of nations at war. To recured by the armed vessels of cure respe it to a neutral flag, reSpain.
quires a naval force, organized, and In pursuance of the a& of con- ready to vindicate it from insult grefs, passed in the lait feffion, for or aggression. This may even prethe protection and relief of Ameri- yent the necessity of going to war, can seamen, agents were appoint. by discouraging belligerent powers éd, one to refide in Great Britain, from committing such violations of and the other in the West Indies, the rights of the rientral party as The effects of the agency in the may, first or last, have no other West Indies are not yet fully ascer- option. From the best informatained; but those which have been tion I have been able to obtain, it communicated afford grounds to would seem as if our trade to the believe the measure will be bene. Mediterranean, withont a protecting ficial. The agent destined to reside force, will always be insecure, and in Great Britain declining to ac- our citizen's expored to the calamicept the appointment, the business ties from which numbers of them has consequently devolved on the have but just been relieved. These minister of the United States in considerations invite the United London; and will command his States to look to the means, and to attention, until a new agent shall set about the gradual creation of a be appointed.
navy. The increasing progress of After many delays and disap- their navigation promises them, at pointments, arising out of the Eue no diftant period, the requisite supropean war, the tiwal arrangements ply of seainen; and their means, in for fulfilling the engagements made other respects, favour the under. to the dey and regency of Algiers taking. It is an encouragement, will, in aid present appearance, be likewise, that their particular ftua:
tion will give weight and influence be extended in proportion to the to a moderate naval force in their exigencies of the government, and hands. Will it not then be advi. even perhaps be made to yield fable to begin, without delay, to à surplus, for the supply of our ciprovide and lay up the materials tizens at large ; so as to mitigate for the building and equipping of the privateers from the interrupThips of war ; and to proceed in tion of their trade. If adopted, the the work by degrees, in proportion plan ought to exclude all those as our resources shall render it branches, which are already, or praticable, without inconveni. likely soon to be established in the ence; so that a future war of Eu. country, in order that there may rope may not find our commerce be no danger of interference with in the same unprotected state in pursuits of individual industry. which it was found by the pre- It will not be doubted that, with fent?
reference either to individual or Congress have repeatedly, and national welfare, agriculture is of not without success, directed their primary importance. In proporattention to the encouragement of tion as nations advance in popula. manufactures. The object is of too tion, and other circumstances of much consequence not to ensure a maturity, this truth becomes more continuation of their efforts, in apparent, and renders the cultivaevery way which will appear eli- tion of the soil more and more an gible. As a general rule, manu- object of public patronage. Insti. factures on a public account are tutions for promoting it grow up, inexpedient; but where the state supported by the public purse ; of things in a country leaves little and to whát object can it be dedicathope that certain branches of ma- ed with greater propriety? Among nufacture will, for a great length the means which have been emof time, nbtain ; when these are of ployed to this end, none have been a nature effential to the furnishing attended with greater success than and equipping of the public force the establishment of boards, comin the time of war, are not efta- pofed of proper characters, charged blishments for procuring them on with collecting and diffusing intor. the public account, to the extent of mation, and enabled by premiums, the ordinary demand for the public ser- and small pecuniary aids, to enwice, recompierded by strong con- courage and affift a spirit of discofiderations of national policy, as very and improvement. an exception to the general rule?
I have heretofore proposed to Ought our country to remain in the consideration of congress the such cases dependent on foreign expediency of establishing a natifupply, precarious, because liable onai university, and also a military to be interrupted. If the neceffary academy. The desirableness of articles should in this mode coit both these institutions bas fo conmore in time of peace, will not the stantly increased with every new security and independence thence view I have taken of the subject
, arising form an ample compensa. that I cannot omit the opportunity tion: Establidhments of this sort, of once for all recalling your alcommenfùrate only with the calls tention to them. * of the public service in the time of The assembly to which I address peace, will, in tiine of war, easily myself is too enlightened not to be
fully sensible how much a fourish- merce by its authority, and which ing state of the arts and sciences are, in other respects, far from contributes to national prosperity agreeable. and reputation. True it is that It has been my constant, fincere, our country, much to its honour, and earneft will, in conformity contains seminaries of learning, with that of our nation, to mainhighly respectable and useful; but tain cordial harmony and a per. the funds upon which they reft, fectly friendly understanding with are too narrow to command the that republic. This will remains ablest professors in the different de- unabated; and I shall persevere in partments of liberal knowledge, the endeavour to fulfil it, to the for the institution contemplated, utmost extent of what thall be conthough they would be excellent fiftent with a just and indispensable auxiliaries.
regard to the rights and honour of Among the motives to such an our country; nor will I easily cease institution, the assimilation of the to cherif the expectation, that a principles, opinions, and manners spirit of juftice, candour, and of our countrymen, by the com- friendship, on the part of the remon education of a portion of our public, will eventually ensure fucyouth from every quarter, well de. ceis. serves attention. The more homo. In pursuing this course, howgeneous our citizens can be made ever, I cannot forget what is due in these particulars, the greater will to the character of our governa be our prospect of permanentment and nation; or to a full and union; and a primary object of entire confidence in the good fenfe, such a national institution Thould patriotism, felt-respect, and forti, be the education of our youth in tude of my countrymen. the science of government. In a
GEORGE WASHINGTON. republic, what species of knowledge can be equally important; and what duty more presling on its Address of the Senate, presented by legislature than to patronize a plan their Prefident, John Adams, to the for communicating it to those who President of the United States, in are to be the future guardians of Answer to the above Speech, Dec. the liberties of the country?
While, in our external relations, some serious inconveniences and We thank you, fir, for your embarrassinents have been over- faitliful and detailed exposure of come, and others leđened, it is with the existing situation of our counmuch pain and deep regret I men- try; and we sincerely join in sen. tion, that circumstances of a very timents of gratitude to an overunwelcome nature have lately oc- ruling Providence for the distina curred. Our trade has suffered, guished share of public prosperity and is suffering, extensive injuries and private ha;'piness, which the in the West Indies, trom the cruis- people of the United States so
peers and agents of the French re. culiarly enjoy. public; and communications have We observe with pleasure, that iseen received from its minister the delivery of the military posts dere, which indicate the danger of lately occupied by the British forces further disturbance of our com- within the territory of the United
States, was made with cordiality out the extensive departments of
prosperity, as well political as coni.
deficient in gratitude and justice, The necessity of accelerating the did we not attribute a great portion establishment of certain useful ma- of these advantages to the virtue, nufactures by the intervention of firmness, and talents of your ad. legislative aid and protection, and ministration, which have been conthe encouragement due to agricul spicuously displayed in the moft ture by the creation of boards trying times, and on the most cri(composed of intelligent individu, tical occasions. It is, therefore, als) to patronize this primary pur- with the fincerest regret, that we fuit of society, are subjects which now receive an official
' notifica. will readily engage our most serious tion of your intentions to retire attention.
from the public employments of A national university may be your country. converted to the most useful pur. When we review the various poses. The science of legislation scenes of your public life, so long being fo effentially dependent on and so successfully devoted to the the endowments of the mind, the moft arduous fervices, civil and public interest must receive effec- military, as well during the strugtual aid from the general diffusion gles of the American revolution, of knowledge; and the United as the convulsive periods of a re. States will allume a more digni cent date, we cannot look forward fied station among the nations of to your retirement without out the earth, by the Successful cultiva. warmest affections and most anxi. tion of the highest branches of ii- ous regards accompanying you, terature.
and without mingling with our fel. We sincerely lament, that while low.citizens at large the fincerest the conduct of the United States wilhes for your personal happiness has been uniformly impressed with that sendibility and attachment can the character of cquity, inodera express. tion, and love of peace, in the The most effectual confolation maintenance of all their foreign re- that can offer for the loss we are lation fiips, our trade should be so about to sustain, arises from the harafle.] by the cruisers and agents animating reflection, that the in. of the republic of France, through duepce of your example will ex.