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rying such treaties into effect; and the treaty was Egned, in the im. to determine and act thereon, as pressment of American seamen, and in their judgment may be most the seizure of American vessels laconducive to the public good. den with provisions, contrary to

Resolved, that it is necessary to the clearest right of neutral nations ; the propriety of any application whether this be viewed as the confrom this house to the executive struction meant to be given to any for information desired by them, article in the treaty, or as contraand which may relate to any con- ry to, and an infraction of the true ftitutional functions of the house, meaning and spirit thereof, the that the purpose for which such infor- house cannot but confider it as inmation may be wanted, or to which cumbent on them to forbear, under the same is intended to be applied, such circumstances, taking at preshould be stated in the application. sent any active measures on the

Resolved, that it is expedient to subject : therefore, pass the laws necessary for carry- Resolved, that, under the cir. ing into effect the treaty lately con- cumstances aforesaid, and with such cluded with certain Indians north. information as the house possesses, west of the Ohio.

it is not expedient at this time to Resolved, that it is expedient to concur is palling the laws necessapass the laws necessary for carrying 'ry for carrying the said treaty into into effect the treaty lately con effect *. cluded with the dey and regency of Algiers.

The house taking into considera- Address of George Washington, Pretion the treaty of amity, com

fident, to the Citizens of the United merce, and navigation, between

States, on his intended Refignation. the United States and Great Britain, communicated by the prefi- Friends and fellow citizens, dent in his message of the firlt day The period for a new elec of March last, are of opinion, that tion of a citizen to administer the it is in many respects highly inju.. executive government of the Unitrious to the interests of the United ed States, being not far distant, States; yet, were they possessed of and the time actually arrived when any information that could justify your thoughts must be employed the great facrifices contained in the in designating the person who is treaty, their fincere desire to cherish to be clothed with that important harmony and amicable intercourse trust, it appears to me proper, e. with all nations, and their earnest specially as it may conduce to a with to co-operate in hastening a more distinct expression of the final adjustment of the differen. public voice, that I should now apces fublisting between the United prise you of the resolution I have States and Great Britain, might formed, to decline being confi. have induced them to wave their dered among the number of those objections to the treaty; but when out of whom a choice is to be they contemplate the conduct of made. Great Britain, in persevering, fince I beg you, at the same time, to ** The treaty with Creat Britain, however, was finally ratified by the house of repretentatives, on the 30th of April, 1790.



do me the justice to be assured, The impressions with which I that this resolution has not been first undertook the arduous trust taken without a ftri&t regard to were explained on the proper ocall the confiderations appertaining casion. In the discharge of this to the relation which binds a duti- trust, I will only say that I have, ful citizen to his country; and that, with good intentions, contributed, in withdrawing the tender of ser- towards the organization and advice, which filence, in my fitua- ministration of the government, the tion, might imply, I am influenced beft exertions of which a very falby no diminution of zeal for your lible judgment was capable. Not future intereft; no deficiency of unconscious in the outset, of the grateful respect for your past kind. inferiority of my qualifications, exness; but am supported by a full perience in my own eyes, perhaps, conviction that the step is compa- still more in the eyes of others, has tible with both.

strengthened the motives to diffiThe acceptance of, and conti- dence of myself; and every day the nuance hitherto in the office to increasing weight of years admowhich your suffrages have twice nisjes me more and more that the called me, have been a uniform made of retirement is as necessary sacrifice of inclination to the opi. to me as it will be welcome. Sa nion of duty, and to a deference tisfied, that if any circumstances for what appeared to be your de have given peculiar value to my fire. I constantly hoped that it services, they were temporary; I would have been much earlier in have the consolation to believe, my power, consistently with mo- that while choice and prudence tives which I was not at liberty to invite me to quit the political scene, disregard, to return to that retire. patriotism does not forbid it. ment from which I had been re- In looking forward tothe moment luctantly drawn. The strength of which is intended to terminate the my inclination to do this, previous career of my public life, my feelings to the last election, had even led do not permit me to suspend the to the preparation of an address to deep acknowledgment of that debt declare it to you; but mature re- of gratitude which I owe to my beRection on the then perplexed and loved country, for the many hocritical posture of our affairs with nours it has conferred upon me: foreign nations, and the unanimous still more for the stedfast confidence advice of perfons entitled to my with which it has supported me; confidence, impelled me to abandon and for the opportunities I have the idea.

thence enjoyed, of manifesting my I rejoice that the state of your inviolable attachment, by services concerns, external as well as in- faithful and persevering, though in ternal, no longer renders the pur- usefulness unequal to iny zeal. If fuit of inclination incompatible benefits have resulted to our counwith the sentiment of duty or pro- try from these services, let it always priety; and am persuaded, what. be remembered to your praise, and ever partiality may be retained for as an instructive example in our anmy services, that, in the presentnals, that, under circumftances in circumstances of our country, you which the passions, agitated in evewill not disapprove my determina- ry direction, were liable to mislead, tion to retire.

amidst appearances sometimes dua bious, vicissitudes of fortune often encouragement to it, your indul. discouraging, in situations in which, gent reception of my sentiments not unfrequently, want of success on a former and not diflimilar oc has countenanced the spirit of cri- cafion. ticism; the constancy of your fup- Interwoven as is the love of liber. port was the essential prop of the ty with every ligament of your heart, efforts, and a guarantee of the no recommendation of mine is neplans by which they were effected. cessary to fortify or confirm the Profoundly penetrated with this attachment. idea, I shall carry it with nie to The unity of government, which ny grave, as a strong incitement to constitutes you one people, is also unceasing vows that heaven may now dear to you. It is juftdy fo; continue to you the choicest to for it is a main pillar in the edifice kens of its beneficence, that your of your real independence, the supunion and brotherly affection may port of your tranquillity at home, be perpetual ; that the free consti. your peace abroad; of your fafety, tution, which is the work of your of your prosperity, of that very hands, may be sacredly maintained; liberty which you so highly prize. that its administration in every But, as it is easy to foresee, that department may be stamped with from different causes, and from difwisdom and virtue; that, in fine, ferent quarters, much pains will be • the happiness of the people of these taken, many artifices employed, to states, under the aufpices of liberty, weaken in your minds the conmay be made complete, by so care- viction of this truth; as this is the ful'a preservation and so prudent point in your political fortress a use of this blefling, as will ac. against which the batteries of inquire to them the glory of recom- ternal and external enemies will be mending it to the applause, the af- most constantly and actively though fection, and adoption of every na- covertly and insidioutly) directed, tion which is yet a stranger to it. it is of infinite moment that you

Here, perhaps, I ought to stop. should properly estimate the imBut solicitude for your welfare, mense value of your national union which cannot end but with my to your collective and individual life, and the apprehension of dan happiness; that you should cherish ger, natural to that folicitude, urge a cordial, habitual, and immoveme, on an occasion like the present, able attachment to it; accustoming to offer to your solemn contempla- yourselves to think and speak of it tion, and to recommend to your as of the palladium of your politifrequent review, fome sentiments, cal safety and prosperity; watching which are the result of much re- for its preservation with jealous flection, of no inconsiderable ob- anxiety; discountenancing what. servation, and which appear to me ever may suggest even a suspicion all-important to the permanency of that it can in any event be aban. your felicity as a people. These doned; and indignantly frowning will be offered to you with the more upon the first dawning of every freedom, as you can only see in attempt to alienate any portion of them the disinterested warnings of our country from the rest, or to a parting friend, who can possibly enfeeble thé facred ties which now have no personal motive to bias his link together its various parts. counsel." Nor can I forget, as an For this you have every induce



Inent of sympathy and interest. ritime strength, to which itself is Citizens, by birth or choice, of a unequally adapted. The east, in a common country, that country has like intercourse with the west, ala right to concentrate your affec- ready finds, and, in the progressive tions. The name of American, improvement of interior commu. which belongs to you in your na. 'nication bỳ land and water, will tional capacity, must always exalt more and more find a valuable vent the just pride of patriotism more for the commodities which it brings than any appellation derived from from abroad, or manufactures at local discriminations. With slight home. The welt derives from the shades of difference, you have the east supplies requisite to its growth same religion, manners, habits, and and coinfort; and what is perhaps political principles. You have, in of Itill greater consequence, it nuust a common cause, fought and tri- of necellity owe the secure enjoyumphed together; the indepen- ment of indispensable outlets for dence and liberty you poffefs, are its own productions to the weight, the work of joint councils and influence, and the future maritime joint efforts, of common dangers, strength of the Atlantic fide of the Tufferings, and successes.

Union, directed by an indissoluble But these confiderations, how. community of interest as one na. ever powerfully they address them- tion. Any other tenure by which : selves to your sensibility, are great. the west can hold this essential adly outweighed by those which ap- vantage, whether derived from its ply more immediately to your in- own separate strength, or from an Cerest. Here every portion of our apostate and unnatural connection country finds the most command. with any foreign power; must be ing motives for carefully guarding intrinsically precarious. and preserving the union of the While, then, every part of our whole.

country thus feels an immediate The north, in an unrestrained and particular interest in union, all intercourse with the south, pro- the parts combined cannot fail to tected by the equal laws of a com- find, in the united mass of means mon government, finds, in the pro- and efforts, greater strength, greater ductions of the latter, great addi- resource, proportionably greater (etional resources of maritime and curity from external danger, a less commercial enterprise, and preci- frequent interruption of their peace ous materials of manufacturing in- by foreign nations; and, what is of duftry. The south, in the same inestimable value, they nuit derive intercourse, benefiting by the agen- from union, an exeinption from cy of the north, fees its agriculture those broils and wars between grow and its commerce expand; themselves which so frequently furning partly into its own chan- afflict neighbouring countries, not nels the reamen of the north, it tied together by the lanie govern finds its particular navigation invi. ment, which their own rivalships gorated ; and while it contributes, alone would be sufficient to pro. in different ways, to nourish and duce, but which opposite foreign increase the general mass of the alliances, attachments and intrigues, national navigation, it looks for- would stimulate and imbitter. Hence ward to the prote&tion of a ma. likewise, they will avoid the necer 1796.


fity of tbofe overgrown establish- to misrepresent the opinions and ments, which, under any form of aims of other districts. You can. government, are inauspicious to li- not thield yourselves too much berty, and which are to be regard- againft the "jealoufies and heart. ed as particularly hostile to repub- burnings which fpring from these lican liberty: in this fenfe it is, that mifreprefentations; they tend to your union ought to be consic render alien to each other those dered as a main prop of your liber. who ought to be bound together ty, and that the love of the one by fraternal affection. The inhaought to endear to you the prefer. bitants of our western country have vation of the other.

lately had a useful lesson on this These confiderations speak a per- head; they have seen, in the nesuasive language to every reflecting gotiation by the executive, and in and virtuous mind, and exhibit the unanimous ratification by the thé continuance of the union as senate, of the treaty with Spain, a primary object of patriotic defire, and in the universal' fatisfaction si Is there a doubt whether a con- the event throughout the United mon government can embrace lo States, a decifive proof how uslarge a sphere? Let experience founded were the fufpicions profolve it. To listen to mere fpecu- pagated among them, of a policy lations in such a case, were crimi- in the general government, and in nal. We are authorised to hope the Atlantic states, unfriendly to that a proper organization of the their interests in regard to the whole, with the auxiliary agency Mississippi: they have been wit

of governments for the respective neles to the formation of two : subdivisions, will afford a happy treaties, that with Great Britain,

issue to the experiment. 'Tis well and that with Spain, which secure worth a fair and full experiment. to them every thing they could de. With such powerful and obvious fire, in respect to our foreign reinotives to union, affe&ting all parts lations, towards confirming their of our country, while experience prosperity. Will it not be theis Ihall not have demonstrated its im- wisdom to rely for the preservation practicability, there will always be of these advantages on the union reason to distrust the patriotism by which they were procured? of those who in any quarter may Will they not henceforth be deaf endeavour to weaken its bands. to thofe advisers, if such there

In contemplating the causes are, who would fever them from which may disturb our union, it their brethren, and conneêt then occurs as matter of serious concern, with aliens? that any ground should have been To the efficacy and permanency furnished for characterizing parties of your union, a government for by geographical discriminations, the whole is indispensable. No northern and southern, Atlantic alliances, however Itriet, between and western; whence designing men the parties, can be an adequate submay endeavour to excite a belief that ftitute; they mult inevitably er there is a real difference of local in- perience the infractions and interterests and views. One of the ex- ruptions which all alliances in all pedients of party to acquire influ- times have experienced. Sensible ence within particular districts, is, of this momentous trath, you have


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