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drawn from the distance of time for war, which had been attributed between his majesty's speech and to ministers. With respect to the the subsequent declaration to par- abrupt close of the negotiation, and liament, relative to a want of fin. the open communication of the recerity in the message delivered to sult, the terms proposed by the the French minister at Balle, neither enemy cut dort all further treaty, the message nor declaration profess- and the communication of the reed any intention in the British go- sult would have at least the importvernment to be the first in making ant consequence of dividing the pacific proposals. Neither could any opinions of France, and uniting argument of this nature be drawn those of England. from our not having acted in con- Mr. Fox, in reply, asked whether cert with the allies respecting the the infamous partition of Poland proposals for negotiation. A ready was, in any refpe&t, to be compared intercourse could not at that time with the circumstances of Turkey, be held with them: but this step at the moment spoken of: the was not taken without previous Turks, after unprovoked aggref. communication. Asto no acknow- fion, were humbled by the power ledgment being made of the repub of the empress; and he had, he said, lic, that was a circumstance which then reprobated the idea of the arthe French did not think necessary, rogant interference of this country, since the directory had answered to prevent her from obtaining a just the note withont adverting to it. indemnification. The principle adThey must, indeed, have been avanced, that, no matter før ihe inware that the proposal to treat imjustice, since the balance of power plied a recognition. Denmark had remains the same, was, he said, not recognized it till the present terrible. The effect of the motion year. To have proposed terms to was not; he contended, humiliating the enemy before the assurance of for the country, but for minifters. rheir willingness to treat, would, He thought, that if the minister he thought, have been absurd. As would reason from effed to cause, to not having empowered the mi. he would find that the French fia nister at Balle to negotiate, was it nances were not deranged to the de. ever known that the person em- gree fuppofed, or that they were ployed to found the disposition of a now re-established. The defence belligerent party was considered which had been set up of the finas a proper minister for discussing cerity of ministers, was,' he conall the relative interests, and con- tended, the best defence of the cluding a treaty ? Mr. Pitt strongly conduct of the French. Was it to infifted upon several other topics, be expected that any regard would to prove the fincerity of ministers be paid to a man who had no quin the negotiation. So far from the thority from the allies with whom enemy rising in their demands on we were connected, no authority to account of their belief of the infin- make specific proposals ? or would cerity of ministers, Mr. Pitt obser- the correspondence with Mr. Wickved, that if they really believed this, ham, which was of a private na their policy would have lain in ture, or any private communications, making just and moderate demands, have been published, had the desire whicb, if rejected; would prove that of pacification been sincere ? Ho want af candour, and that appetite ftill confidered the recognition of

the

tae French republic as of the last their titles of magnific, doge, &c. &c. importance, and much more neces- they had been on better terms with fary as a preliminary of peace than those statęs. They had therefore the conditional recognition of Ame: felt from his conduct, that the mizica during the lait war. Since the nister had no serious inclination for French had bestowed upon the vari- peace. On a division for the moous republics of Genoa, Venice, &c. tion, the ayes were 42, noes 216,

CHAP. VII.

Finances. Mr. Grey's Motion on that Subjet. Mr. Pili's second Budget.

Debates on the new Tax Bills. Discusion on the Finances in the House of . Peers, by Lords Moira, Grenville, &c. The Earl of Lauderdale's Speech and Morion on the Same Subject. Discusion on Game Laws. The Slave Trade. Bill for rendering permanent the Westminster Police Efta, blijf ment. Bill introduced for the Relief of the Quakers. Curates' A&. Bill for Relief of infolveni Debtor's thrown out. Colonel Cawthorne expelled the House. Diffolution of the Parliament. Its Character.

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state of the national finances was the most rigid economy was necefyery amply discussed; and several fary to us. In order to secure the peralarming facts were brought before manency of peace, a very large naval the eye of the public. Melancholy force would be necessary, not only experience has since given a fanc- as France would probably attend Lion to fome observations which with great diligence to the imwere at first efteemed as the unsub- provement of her marine, but as ftantial visions of speculative men; Rusia, ever active, ambitious, and there is, however, much reason to increasing, had incessant views of fear that the subject has not even aggrandisement. On taking the estiyet been sufficiently investigated, mate of the three preceding years of and that from this small but black the war, we had added 77 millions and portentous cloud in the politi- to the capital of our funded debt; cal atmosphere, a storm will rise, to provide for the interest of which, which eventually may overwhelm taxes, in addition to those already in ruins the constitution and the laid on, must be imposed to the empire of Britain.

amount of 2,600,000l. This debt, As early as the 19th of February, compared with the service performMr. Grey moved in the house of ed while it was accumulating, was commons for papers relative to so enormous as to demand the feru. the finances ; and, on the ioth of pulous investigation of the house, March, brought forward a motion The present war, either in extent on the subje&t. He observed that or importance, was far from equal it was of the utmost importance to to that under king William.--Our the house to know the real situation religion and constitution were then of the country; whether we contin at itake; our all was then equally sued to prosecute the present ruin. in peril; and our exertions to pre, ous war, or looked forwards to serve it equally varied and extenthat moft desirable event, a speedy five. “Let us,” he said, “ compare

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the present expences with what was improve the mode of payment; and
then expended, and with the ex: recommends to their attention the
pences of the American war; and it navy and the ordnance, the dif-
will appear that the presentexpences count upon navy bills having prov-
exceed those to a degree that will ed them a ruinous expedient. This
alionith the house, though the pro- bad been confirmed in 1783,
fusion prevailing at that time is when the minister had asked for a
well known.” He proceeded to loan of four mill.ons eight kundred
shew that we were in that war thorfand pounds; and taid he had
matched with nearly all Europe, made ample provision for an ex-
besides the vast and distant conti- tensive scale of expence.
nent of America. There we had At the beginning of this war the
an army of 40,000 men, whilft minister had pledged himself, as far
we fupported a vigorous war in the as he was able, to keep down the
East and West Indies, and at Giextraordinaries of the navy, and
braltar braved the ué ted forces of to prevent the accumulation of un-
France and Spain. Yet in fix years 'funded debt, as it had been suffer.
of that war, conducted as it was ed to accumulate in preceding wars.
with acknowledged prodigality and By the accounts on the table, the
lavislı profusion, we had incurred navy debt was hated at 10,788,cool.
only a debt of sixty-three millions. to this must be added other sums,
He might, he said, be told, that a and it would appear that the excess
war like the present called for great of expenditure beyond the votes
expences; and this he allowed : but would amount

13,700,ocol. such expences called for a com- With all this, Mr. Grey contendparison between the service and ed, that the British trade had been

amount of the debt, with those of more subject to depredation in the former wars. In the last three present contest than in any other ;

years there had been (speaking in and that, with respect to the army, round numbers to avoid confusion) we were not in a better fituation. incurred a debt for the navy of The extraordinary expence for this fifteen millions two hundred thousand branch of service, above the ettipounds; for the army, seventeen mil- mate, exceeded 9,000,oool. and Tion: fix hundred thousand pounds; for the vote of credit was more than the ordnance, tiuo millions fix hun- double that of any former period : dred thousand pounds. These sums the whole fum expended under this were all voted upon estimate; the head, not specifically voted for that real expence was much greater. purpose, amounted, he said, in reaIn addition to this, enormous fums lity, to upwards of 14,000,000l

. of money had been expended with over which parliament had no conout the consent of parliament. The troul ; for the items had not been first article to which he called the previously submitted to it. This fyrattention of the house was the navy. tem, he observed, had been strong. In 1982, the speech from the ly reprobated under lord North, throne, for u hich the present mi- and that in a committee of which nister, as he then held his present the present minister was a member. fituition, must be considered as He was ready to admit that the inresponhble, flated the desire, that an creased expences of wars would be in eltablishment Mould be made with proportion to the increafe on other respect to future debt, which shall expences; but no advance had taken 7

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place which could justify the differ-' the king's speech to be altered, and ence of expeuditure between this condemned by the minister, by his and former wars. In the war of king repeated promises that he never William, which lasted nine years, would yield to such a system ; yec the amount was 1,200,000l. "In this system, so reproached and conqueen Ann's war, which lasted ele- demned, was increased every year ven years, it was 2,000,00ol. 10- by that very ininister. The total gether they did nor amount to one of fums expended without-thre conbalf of the extraordinaries of the sent of parliament, he stated at present year. Yet even in Wils 31,280,000l. and with the furns liam's time, a jealous house of com- voted by parliament amounted to mons had investigated public ex- 66,800,000l. funded in the three pences. And what was our com- and four per cents, and spent in fort under this expence? not three years in the present war of even a single vietory. Nor was discoirfiture, defeat, and disgrace. it true that there was vast differ. Besides the unconstitutional mode ence in the necessary expences: of obtaining money without the many then were precisely the consent of parliament, already mensame as now, and many now tioned, there were other unconsti. were added which were unnecef- tutional practices on the part of the fary. The extraordinaries and the executive government: a principal votes of credit in the years 1778, one was the erection of barracks. 1779, and 1780, did not amount to It was alarming enough to raise within 3,200,000l. of the present. money for any purpose without the Let us compare too the services consent of parliament; but when performed in the American war that practice was growing into a and now. We had then an army babit, and made use of to invade the of 40,000 men acting offensively: rights and privileges of the people, we acted vigorously in the West it was not only a breach of duty in Indies: our success at Gibraltar a minister to incur such éxpence, was brilliant. What were the vic- but a still greater breach of duty in tories of our armies last year? We that house to suffer it. Since 1790, had a continental army which came 1,100,000l. had been expended for home without achieving any thing. barracks. This was, however, not We had an army at Ine Dieu and the whole; and 'he had consequentQuiberon : in the West Indies had ly asked for the expence intended we an army even to act upon the to be incurred, and a something defensive? In the ordnance, we to that effect had been laid before are told, there had been a great the house; and he wished to know reform and reduction of expence : whether a greater insult could be for this service 2,608,000l. was vot- offered to it than that of calling ed on estimate ; and from the ac- upon them for 227,8501. more to counts, the extraordinaries amount- be advanced on this account? AFed to 2,964,00ol. To this defici: ter recapitulating what bad been ency every observation made upon advanced on a former occasion rethe army and navy would apply specting barracks, Mr. Grey obwith equal propriety. This mode ferved, that the opinions of our of increasing public expenditure best writers were clearly against was unconstitutional, condemned their erection, and that they were by parliament, recommended in with propriety termed by judge

Black

Blackstone “inland fortresses.” - bank, and outstanding. Monet With respe& both to national co- advanced to government by the pomy and national liberty, they bank might undoubtedly, he said, were in the highest degree repre. receive a parliamentary fan&ion: hensible. The conduct of govern. but it was a mode of raising money, ment in the transport service was which had from time to time been severely censured by Mr. Grey. limited by the juft and conftituComptrollers, he stated, had been tional jealousy of parliament. When appointed, to go through a part of parliament recognized the establishthe fatigue of office; a new board ment of the bank, they did so was instituted for this purpose, in upon public principles, and purely which he had been informed there for the sake of public utility. Na were five commissioners, at 1oool. maxim was better understood in per annum each. The debt of the the house, than “ that no advance navy, on account of the transport shall be made to government by the service, he stated at 2,444,cool. bank in anticipation of the reveThis, in lord North's admini- nue." This prevented the minister stration, had been thought an extra- from having a command of money vagant estimate for building 70 without the consent of parliament, thips of the line. Yet our trade, and provided that a sufficiency notwithstanding these enormous should always remain in the bank charges, had been ill protected; to answer those commercial dealand when complaints had been ings for the sake of which it was nade, they were ient from office to instituted, Thele falutary provioffice, till those whocomplained dif- fons had never been so much in. covered they could have no redress. fringed as by the present minister; Admiral Christian was deprived of and his practice had been greatly the means of failing in the begin- distrelling to the commercial part ning of October, for want of rea. of the country. He seriously bediness in the ordnance transportsi lieved this to be the cause of the He applied to the secretary at war inability of the bank to affist as usual - he was referred to the transport- the çonimercial credit.' December office-and then to another departs the zist, 1792, they were in advance ment. The minister, he observed, to government 11,643,000l. and had on a former night unwarily were in advance also upon two, admitted that the vote of credit of votes of credit. The sums stated this year was to be considered as had been advanced on bills of ex. applicable, in common with other change from the treasury, authovotes for specific purposes, to the rized by a late act of parliament, current service of the year. This, This practice had been provided he contended, was a misapplication again ft by the act of Will.and Mary; and violation of a vote of credit, but when a bill upon a vote of credit which was intended to supply un- a few sessions ago passed through the foreseen services. There was still, house, a clause was somehow or however, a more forcible objection other furreptitiously introduced, to to the conduct of ministers in rail. do away the salutary effects of ing money. It arose out of that act. This was, he contend. the contents of papers, which ed, an unconstitutional mode of ftated the amount of sums ad. raising money, and noticed, that vanced from time to time by the last year a loan of unusual magni

tude.

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