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they intended concerning theft; and after to have ascertained and secured property, as also the executive part

of the law, so as a person should not need to part with one property to secure and keep another, as now it is; perfons being forced to lose the property of their cow to keep the property of their horse, or one parcel of land to preserve and keep another. This body of law, when modelized, was to have been reported to the house, to be considered of and passed by them as they should fee cause; a work of itself great, and of high esteem with many far the good fruit and benefit which would arise from it; by which means the huge volumes of the law would come to be reduced into the bigness of a pocket-book, as it is proportionably in New England; a thing of so great worth and benefit as England is not yet worthy of, nor likely in a short time to be so blessed as to enjoy. And that was the true end and endeavour of those members who laboured in that committee; although it was most falsely and wickedly reported, that their endeavours tended to destroy the whole laws, and pulling them up by the roots.

“ The house fet apart Friday in very week to debate on the important business above mentioned.”

We have made these quotations to remove an error which is generally prevalent at present among persons of little information, viz.--that the science of politics is a new science invented by the Rousseaus, the Briffots, the Condorcets, of a neighbouring nation, and never adverted to by our ancestors, even when they undertook the hazardous operation of effecting a change in their own form of government. Mr. Hume himself admits, that in these times, " every man had framed the model of a republic;" but, because these models were framed by religious men, he basely infinuates that they could not be rational,

Perhaps one of the foundest and best-informed politicians of the republican party was sir Henry Vane ; but his life was too active to admit of his engaging deeply in speculative disquisitions; and the writings of his which


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temain to posterity, are chiefly speeches or pamphlets composed upon particular occalions; but even these contain matter from which there are few statesmen who may not derive information. The following short character of this great man, by Mrs. Macaulay, is written with a degree of spirit and energy which few historians can equal.

Among the foremost rank of these heroic characters stands fir Henry Vane, whose honesty was too pure to be corrupted by the rigour of persecution, or the emoluments of office, and the enjoyment of power; whose judgment was too found to be depraved by that high enthuliasm in religion into which a fine imagination is so apt to deviate, when, in contemplating divine subjects, it ranges beyond the bounds of human knowledge and experience ; whose resolution was so philosophical, as, in the sufferance of his martyrdom, to conquer the almost irresistible influence of natural timidity, and whose abilities were so eminent, as, when reduced to the state of a prisoner, to give terror to a powerful government.”

Mr. Hume has affected to speak with disrespect of the political writings of Milton ; and we suspect, in this infiance, as in many others, he hastily condemns what he has never read. From our own knowledge we can affirm, that, in many passages of his controversial writings, the spirit and fancy of the author of Paradise Lost may be discovered ; and the whole of them are written with acuteness and energy. His Discourse on the Liberty of the Press is a very fine composition. There is somewhat of the pedantry of the age in his style ; and his periods, like thofe of Clarendon, are frequently too long. His arguments, however, are folid and well arranged; and there is the same richness and copiousness in bis diction in prose, that is so eminently conspicuous in his poetical compositions. It is not true, moreover, as Mr. Ilume inlinuates, that Milton was but little regarded during the prevalence of his own party; on the contrary, the circumstance related by Whitlocke, and to which he refers, is calculated to evince the particular respect in which


he was held. The state paper which was to be translated into Latin, required particular accuracy; and though Milton, on account of his blindness, had retired from public business, it could be trutted in no other hands but his; and the negotiation with Sweden was actually delayed to afford him time to perform his task.

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After the names of Vane and of Milton, it may appear an anti-climax to mention that of colonel John Lilburn; yet this eventful period scarcely offers to our ob servation a character more extraordinary, or a writer more voluminous. To run through his history, from the unjuft and cruel sentence which was inflicted on him by the star-chamber, to his breach with the usurper Cromwell, would be to detail the history of the times at large; for there was fcarcely an event of any importance in which he was not concerned. To enumerate the pamphlets which he published, would now be impoflible; suffice it to say, that they were mostly written on the spur of the occalion; and though no writer was ever more in favour with the populace, they are now defervedly, we believe, configned to oblivion. He difobliged all parties; and, after a life of persecution, embraced the quaker persuafion; in which he died, affording a proof that good principles can reduce to a peaceable disposition the most unquiet spirit, and that real piety can insure more of real happiness, than the full indulgence of the boldest projects of ambition. Mrs. Macaulay seems to contider Lilburn as a man who, in all his conduct, was actuated by honest motives.

Of the political writers on the opposite side, the first place is undoubtedly due to Dr. John Gauden, afterwards bishop of Exeter. His first appearance in public was on the side of the parliament. He took the folemn league and covenant, conformed to the ordinances for the difuse of the liturgy, and was appointed one of the assembly of divines:—but here he stopped ;-for when the parliament and army, or rather the latter, proceeded to the trial of the king, he publihed “The Religious and Loyal Pro


testation of John Gauden, D. D.” against that proceeding; and, after the king's death, he wrote a moit daring piece, which he called “ A Just Invective against those of the Army and their Abettors who murdered king Charles the First;" but to the credit of the doctor's prudence at least, this was not published till after the restoration. During the king's imprisonment, however, he committed to the press the celebrated pamphlet entitled “ Etxuv Bao1uxn, or The Portraiture of his Sacred Majesty in his Solitude and Sufferings ;" which, however, did not appear till after the execution of the ill-fated Charles.

The only argument that Mr. Hume has advanced for his favourite opinion that it was written by the king, is, that the style more resembles the known productions of that monarch, than the highly figurative and inflated style of Gauden. Against this presumption we have the affertion of Dr. Gauden himself

, and the clainis to preferment which he founded on being the author of this piece. We have a certificate prefixed to the latter editions of Mil. ton's Eixcvoxhaoins, under the hand of lord Anglesey, in which that noble lord positively afferts, that, upon thewing to king Charles the Second and the duke of York a MS. of the work wherein were some alterations in the late king's hand, they folemnly assured him that “ it was none of the said king's compiling, but made by Dr. Gauden, bishop of Exeter;” and this testimony was afterwards confirmed to bifhop Burnet by the duke of York himself. Added to these positive tettimonies, we have the negative proof that no evidence ever was found that could positively affert it to be the king's writing; and yet it is not easy to imagine that he could have been so employed without the privity of some person or other. And the silence of lord Clarendon, who certainly would not have omitted to insist on a circumstance fo much te the credit of his master, is a strong prefumption in Dr. Gauden's favour. With respect to the supposed analogy to the ityle of the king, every man who is accustomed to compolition must know that it is not in potb.e for a writer of a luxuriant fancy to chasten and curb his ima


gination, and occasionally to adopt a style less ornamented than usual. Nothing indeed is more certain than that the most vigorous genius can seldom produce highly figurative compolition without a considerable effort.

Though Dr. Gauden lived quietly and enjoyed his preferments under the commonwealth and the usurpation, yet he still occasionally employed his pen in favour of the sights of the church; and, in 1659, published 'Ispx Aexpux, a work which bears no flight resemblance to the Euwwo Βασιλικη.

The reputation of the author of Erxw Beoinoxn is at least equalled by that of the author of the no less celebrated pamphlet entitled “ Killing no Murder;" the design of which was to prove, that to aflatlinate a public offender, who by his successful crimes had set himself above the reach of law and justice, was not finful but meritorious; and the effect which it wrought upon the mind of Cromwell himself, was not less extraordinary than that which it had upon the public at large. Not only the usurper's apprehenfions were excited, but even his remorse, by the strong picture which it exhibited of his crimes; and from ihe time of its publication he fell into a state of defpondency, which ended only with his life. The public voice has long given the credit of this pamphlet to colonel Titus; but, according to lord Clarendon, colonel Sexby, one of the levelling party, who had formerly been an intimate of Cromwell, afierted that he was the author; and it is a remarkable fact, that Sexby foon after died in the Tower, as is supposed, by poison. If, indeed, we consider the abject and jlavifli principles which were held by most of the cavalier party at this period, we shall not easily conceive how such fervid sentiments of liberty as the pamphlet contains, mould proceed from any of the partizans of Charies. The picture which the author draws of the torpor and venality in which the people of England were sunk at this period, is striking; and we believe it juft. -" Can any man,” says this spirited writer, “ with patience think upon what we have professed, when


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